Dominican Order

The Order of Preachers known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Innocent III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216. Members of the order, who are referred to as Dominicans carry the letters OP after their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers. Membership in the order includes friars, active sisters, affiliated lay or secular Dominicans. Founded to preach the Gospel and to oppose heresy, the teaching activity of the order and its scholastic organisation placed the Preachers in the forefront of the intellectual life of the Middle Ages; the order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced many leading theologians and philosophers. In the year 2018 there were 5,747 Dominican friars, including 4,299 priests; the Dominican Order is headed by the Master of the Order, as of 2019, Gerard Timoner III. Mary Magdalene and Catherine of Alexandria are the co-patronesses of the Order.

A number of other names have been used to refer to its members. In England and other countries, the Dominican friars are referred to as "Black Friars" because of the black cappa or cloak they wear over their white habits. Dominicans were "Blackfriars", as opposed to "Whitefriars" or "Greyfriars", they are distinct from the "Austin friars" who wear a similar habit. In France, the Dominicans were known as "Jacobins" because their convent in Paris was attached to the Church of Saint-Jacques, now disappeared, on the way to Saint-Jacques-du-Haut-Pas, which belonged to the Italian Order of Saint James of Altopascio Sanctus Iacobus in Latin, their identification as Dominicans gave rise to the pun that they were the "Domini canes", or "Hounds of the Lord". The Dominican Order came into being in the Middle Ages at a time when men of God were no longer expected to stay behind the walls of a cloister. Instead, they travelled among the people, taking as their examples the apostles of the primitive Church.

Out of this ideal emerged two orders of mendicant friars: one, the Friars Minor, was led by Francis of Assisi. Like his contemporary, Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization, the quick growth of the Dominicans and Franciscans during their first century of existence confirms that the orders of mendicant friars met a need. Little 1983 argues the Dominicans and other mendicant orders were an adaptation to the rise of the profit economy in medieval Europe. Dominic sought to establish a new kind of order, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders like the Benedictines to bear on the religious problems of the burgeoning population of cities, but with more organizational flexibility than either monastic orders or the secular clergy; the Order of Preachers was founded in response to a perceived need for informed preaching. Dominic's new order was to be trained to preach in the vernacular languages. Dominic inspired his followers with loyalty to learning and virtue, a deep recognition of the spiritual power of worldly deprivation and the religious state, a developed governmental structure.

At the same time, Dominic inspired the members of his order to develop a "mixed" spirituality. They were both active in preaching, contemplative in study and meditation; the brethren of the Dominican Order were urban and learned, as well as contemplative and mystical in their spirituality. While these traits affected the women of the order, the nuns absorbed the latter characteristics and made those characteristics their own. In England, the Dominican nuns blended these elements with the defining characteristics of English Dominican spirituality and created a spirituality and collective personality that set them apart; as an adolescent, he had a particular love of theology and the Scriptures became the foundation of his spirituality. During his studies in Palencia, Spain, he experienced a dreadful famine, prompting Dominic to sell all of his beloved books and other equipment to help his neighbours. After he completed his studies, Bishop Martin Bazan and Prior Diego d'Achebes appointed Dominic to the cathedral chapter and he became a Canon Regular under the Rule of Saint Augustine and the Constitutions for the cathedral church of Osma.

At the age of twenty-four or twenty-five, he was ordained to the priesthood. In 1203, Dominic de Guzmán joined Diego de Acebo on an embassy to Denmark for the monarchy of Spain, to arrange the marriage between the son of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and a niece of King Valdemar II of Denmark. At that time the south of France was the stronghold of the Cathar movement; the Cathars were a heretical neo-gnostic sect. They believed that matter was evil and only the spirit was good; the Albigensian Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France. Dominic saw the need for a response that would attempt to sway members of the Albigensian movement back to mainstream Christian thought. Dominic became inspired into a reforming zeal after they encountered Albigensian Christians at Toulouse. Diego saw one of the paramount reasons for the spread of the unorthodox movement- the representative


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Chibougamau River

The Chibougamau River flows west in the Chibougamau Eeyou Istchee James Bay in the administrative region of Nord-du-Québec, Canada. From the source, the course of the river successively crosses the townships of: Roy, McKenzie, O'Balski, Scott, Mckenzie, Blainlock, McKenzie, Cuvier, Lamarck, Saussure, Ronciere, Ribourde and Gand; the surface of the Iserhoff North River is frozen from early November to mid-May, safe ice circulation is from mid-November to mid-April. The surrounding hydrographic slopes of the Chibougamau River are: North side: Maicasagi River, Caupichigau River, Comencho Lake and Opataca Lake; the head of the Chibougamau River hydrographic slope is located South of the Mistassini Lake. The Chibougamau Lake is the main source of the Chibougamau River, which flows more than 200 km to the west in complex zigzags; the mouth of Chibougamau Lake flows westward into Lac aux Dorés, located southeast of the town of Chibougamau. The mouth of "Lac aux Dorés" is located at the bottom of a bay south of the lake in Obalski Township.

Flowing south, the Chibougamau River flares out to form Merrill Lake the river waters Scott Township to the north. On its irregular course, the river crosses successively 12 lakes: Ledden, Dulieux, Scott, Gwillim, Rush, Barlow, Opémisca and Michwacho. At its mouth, the Chibougamau River converges with the Opawica River to form the Waswanipi River; this point of convergence is just upstream of the Waswanipi River bridge on road 113 connecting Chapais with Lebel-sur-Quévillon. The village of Waswanipi is located near the mouth of the two rivers on the north bank of the Chibougamau River. On its route, the river drains in particular the area of establishment Cri de Oujé-Bougoumou, located on the north shore of Lake Opémisca; this hamlet is 16.3 km North of the village of Chapais. The summit of Mount Opémisca is located 1.6 kilometres North of Opémisca Lake and 4.8 kilometres Northwest of Cri de Oujé-Bougoumou. After crossing Michwacho, the Chibougamau River branches North and West to bypass the Michwacho Mountains, Roy, "of the Solitary Sentinel" and the Pachyderm Hills.

In 1816 James Clouston of the Hudson's Bay Company drew a map of the area, which refers to the name "Capacomou River" to refer to the Chibougamau River. The toponym Chibougamau River was formalized on December 5, 1968, at the Bank of place names of the Commission de toponymie du Quebec, when it was created