Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, nonmagnetic, ductile metal, Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite, Aluminium is remarkable for the metals low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium, despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts abundance, the potential for a role for them is of continuing interest. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight, ductile. It is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite, a fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation.
The yield strength of aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel and it is easily machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a cubic structure. Aluminium has an energy of approximately 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin. Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits, the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts, particularly in the presence of dissimilar metals. In highly acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, primarily because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium
Crystal twinning occurs when two separate crystals share some of the same crystal lattice points in a symmetrical manner. The result is an intergrowth of two separate crystals in a variety of specific configurations, a twin boundary or composition surface separates the two crystals. Crystallographers classify twinned crystals by a number of twin laws and these twin laws are specific to the crystal system. The type of twinning can be a tool in mineral identification. Twinning can often be a problem in X-ray crystallography, as a crystal does not produce a simple diffraction pattern. Simple twinned crystals may be contact twins or penetration twins, contact twins share a single composition surface often appearing as mirror images across the boundary. Plagioclase, quartz and spinel often exhibit contact twinning, merohedral twinning occurs when the lattices of the contact twins superimpose in three dimensions, such as by relative rotation of one twin from the other. In penetration twins the individual crystals have the appearance of passing through each other in a symmetrical manner, staurolite and fluorite often show penetration twinning.
If several twin crystal parts are aligned by the same twin law they are referred to as multiple or repeated twins, if these multiple twins are aligned in parallel they are called polysynthetic twins. When the multiple twins are not parallel they are cyclic twins, albite and pyrite often show polysynthetic twinning. Closely spaced polysynthetic twinning is often observed as striations or fine lines on the crystal face. Rutile, aragonite and chrysoberyl often exhibit cyclic twinning, 2-normal twin, -when the twin plane and compositional plane lies noramally. 3-complex twin, -combination of parallel twinning and normal twinning on one compositional plane, there are three modes of formation of twinned crystals. Growth twins are the result of an interruption or change in the lattice during formation or growth due to a possible deformation from a larger substituting ion, deformation or gliding twins are the result of stress on the crystal after the crystal has formed. If a FCC metal like aluminum experiences extreme stresses, it will experience twinning as seen in the case of explosions, deformation twinning is a common result of regional metamorphism.
Crystals that grow adjacent to each other may be aligned to resemble twinning and this parallel growth simply reduces system energy and is not twinning. Twin boundaries occur when two crystals of the same type intergrow, so only a slight misorientation exists between them. It is a highly symmetrical interface, often with one crystal the mirror image of the other, and this is a much lower-energy interface than the grain boundaries that form when crystals of arbitrary orientation grow together
Transparency and translucency
In the field of optics, transparency is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered. On a macroscopic scale, the photons can be said to follow Snells Law, in other words, a translucent medium allows the transport of light while a transparent medium not only allows the transport of light but allows for image formation. The opposite property of translucency is opacity, transparent materials appear clear, with the overall appearance of one color, or any combination leading up to a brilliant spectrum of every color. When light encounters a material, it can interact with it in different ways. These interactions depend on the wavelength of the light and the nature of the material, photons interact with an object by some combination of reflection and transmission. Some materials, such as glass and clean water, transmit much of the light that falls on them and reflect little of it. Many liquids and aqueous solutions are highly transparent, absence of structural defects and molecular structure of most liquids are mostly responsible for excellent optical transmission.
Materials which do not transmit light are called opaque, many such substances have a chemical composition which includes what are referred to as absorption centers. Many substances are selective in their absorption of light frequencies. They absorb certain portions of the spectrum while reflecting others. The frequencies of the spectrum which are not absorbed are either reflected or transmitted for our physical observation and this is what gives rise to color. The attenuation of light of all frequencies and wavelengths is due to the mechanisms of absorption. Transparency can provide almost perfect camouflage for animals able to achieve it and this is easier in dimly-lit or turbid seawater than in good illumination. Many marine animals such as jellyfish are highly transparent, at the atomic or molecular level, physical absorption in the infrared portion of the spectrum depends on the frequencies of atomic or molecular vibrations or chemical bonds, and on selection rules. Nitrogen and oxygen are not greenhouse gases because there is no absorption because there is no molecular dipole moment.
With regard to the scattering of light, the most critical factor is the scale of any or all of these structural features relative to the wavelength of the light being scattered. Primary material considerations include, Crystalline structure, whether or not the atoms or molecules exhibit the long-range order evidenced in crystalline solids, glassy structure, scattering centers include fluctuations in density or composition. Microstructure, scattering centers include internal surfaces such as boundaries, crystallographic defects
Mohs scale of mineral hardness
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material. Created in 1812 by German geologist and mineralogist Friedrich Mohs, it is one of several definitions of hardness in materials science, while greatly facilitating the identification of minerals in the field, the Mohs scale does not show how well hard materials perform in an industrial setting. Despite its lack of precision, the Mohs scale is highly relevant for field geologists, the Mohs scale hardness of minerals can be commonly found in reference sheets. Reference materials may be expected to have a uniform Mohs hardness, the Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly. The samples of matter used by Mohs are all different minerals, Minerals are pure substances found in nature. Rocks are made up of one or more minerals, as the hardest known naturally occurring substance when the scale was designed, diamonds are at the top of the scale.
The hardness of a material is measured against the scale by finding the hardest material that the material can scratch. For example, if material is scratched by apatite but not by fluorite. Scratching a material for the purposes of the Mohs scale means creating non-elastic dislocations visible to the naked eye, materials that are lower on the Mohs scale can create microscopic, non-elastic dislocations on materials that have a higher Mohs number. The Mohs scale is an ordinal scale. For example, corundum is twice as hard as topaz, the table below shows the comparison with the absolute hardness measured by a sclerometer, with pictorial examples. On the Mohs scale, a streak plate has a hardness of 7.0, using these ordinary materials of known hardness can be a simple way to approximate the position of a mineral on the scale. The table below incorporates additional substances that may fall between levels, Comparison between Hardness and Hardness, Mohs hardness of elements is taken from G. V, samsonov in Handbook of the physicochemical properties of the elements, IFI-Plenum, New York, USA,1968.
The Hardness of Minerals and Rocks
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals and they are classified based on the structure of their silicate groups, which contain different ratios of silicon and oxygen. Nesosilicates, or orthosilicates, have the orthosilicate ion, which constitute isolated 4− tetrahedra that are connected only by interstitial cations and these exist as 3-member 6− and 6-member 12− rings, where T stands for a tetrahedrally coordinated cation. Inosilicates, or chain silicates, have interlocking chains of silicate tetrahedra with either SiO3,1,3 ratio, for single chains or Si4O11,4,11 ratio, for double chains. Nickel–Strunz classification,09. D Pyroxene group Enstatite – orthoferrosilite series Enstatite – MgSiO3 Ferrosilite – FeSiO3 Pigeonite – Ca0.251, all phyllosilicate minerals are hydrated, with either water or hydroxyl groups attached. Serpentine subgroup Antigorite – Mg3Si2O54 Chrysotile – Mg3Si2O54 Lizardite – Mg3Si2O54 Clay minerals group Halloysite – Al2Si2O54 Kaolinite – Al2Si2O54 Illite – 24O10 Montmorillonite –0 and this group comprises nearly 75% of the crust of the Earth.
Tectosilicates, with the exception of the group, are aluminosilicates. Nickel–Strunz classification,09. F and 09. G,04. A, an introduction to the rock-forming minerals. Wise, W. S. Zussman, J. Rock-forming minerals, P.982 pp. Hurlbut, Cornelius S. Danas Manual of Mineralogy. Mindat. org, Dana classification Webmineral, Danas New Silicate Classification Media related to Silicates at Wikimedia Commons
Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate minerals within the feldspar group. Rather than referring to a mineral with a specific chemical composition, plagioclase is a continuous solid solution series. This was first shown by the German mineralogist Johann Friedrich Christian Hessel in 1826, the series ranges from albite to anorthite endmembers, where sodium and calcium atoms can substitute for each other in the minerals crystal lattice structure. Plagioclase in hand samples is often identified by its polysynthetic crystal twinning or record-groove effect, plagioclase is a major constituent mineral in the Earths crust, and is consequently an important diagnostic tool in petrology for identifying the composition and evolution of igneous rocks. Plagioclase is a constituent of rock in the highlands of the Earths moon. Analysis of thermal emission spectra from the surface of Mars suggests that plagioclase is the most abundant mineral in the crust of Mars, the extinction angle is an optical characteristic and varies with the albite fraction.
There are several named plagioclase feldspars that fall between albite and anorthite in the series, the following table shows their compositions in terms of constituent anorthite and albite percentages. Anorthite was named by Gustav Rose in 1823 from the Ancient Greek meaning oblique, anorthite is a comparatively rare mineral but occurs in the basic plutonic rocks of some orogenic calc-alkaline suites. Albite is named from the Latin albus, in reference to its pure white color. It is a common and important rock-making mineral associated with the more acid rock types and in pegmatite dikes, often with rarer minerals like tourmaline. The intermediate members of the group are very similar to each other. Bytownite, named after the name for Ottawa, Canada, is a rare mineral occasionally found in more basic rocks. Labradorite is the characteristic feldspar of the basic rock types such as diorite, andesite. Labradorite frequently shows an iridescent display of colors due to light refracting within the lamellae of the crystal and it is named after Labrador, where it is a constituent of the intrusive igneous rock anorthosite which is composed almost entirely of plagioclase.
A variety of known as spectrolite is found in Finland. Andesine is a mineral of rocks such as diorite which contain a moderate amount of silica. Oligoclase is common in granite, syenite and gneiss and it is a frequent associate of orthoclase. The name oligoclase is derived from the Greek for little and fracture, sunstone is mainly oligoclase with flakes of hematite
Perthite is used to describe an intergrowth of two feldspars, a host grain of potassium-rich alkali feldspar includes exsolved lamellae or irregular intergrowths of sodic alkali feldspar. Typically the host grain is orthoclase or microcline, and the lamellae are albite, if sodic feldspar is the dominant phase, the result is an antiperthite. The intergrowth forms by exsolution due to cooling of a grain of alkali feldspar with an intermediate between K-feldspar and albite. If an alkali feldspar grain with an intermediate composition cools slowly enough, K-rich, in the presence of water, the process occurs quickly. When megascopically developed, the texture may consist of distinct pink, the intergrowths in perthite have a great variety of shapes. If cooling is slow, the alkali feldspar may exsolve to form separate grains with near-endmember albite. The largest documented crystal of perthite was found in Hugo Mine in South Dakota. The gem varieties of feldspar and moonstone are variant colored perthites
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material. Ordered structures occur from the nature of the constituent particles to form symmetric patterns that repeat along the principal directions of three-dimensional space in matter. The smallest group of particles in the material that constitutes the pattern is the unit cell of the structure. The unit cell completely defines the symmetry and structure of the crystal lattice. The repeating patterns are said to be located at the points of the Bravais lattice, the lengths of the principal axes, or edges, of the unit cell and the angles between them are the lattice constants, called lattice parameters. The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups, all possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space may be described by the 230 space groups. The crystal structure and symmetry play a role in determining many physical properties, such as cleavage, electronic band structure.
The crystal structure of a material can be described in terms of its unit cell, the unit cell is a box containing one or more atoms arranged in three dimensions. The unit cells stacked in three-dimensional space describe the arrangement of atoms of the crystal. Commonly, atomic positions are represented in terms of fractional coordinates, the atom positions within the unit cell can be calculated through application of symmetry operations to the asymmetric unit. The asymmetric unit refers to the smallest possible occupation of space within the unit cell and this does not, however imply that the entirety of the asymmetric unit must lie within the boundaries of the unit cell. Symmetric transformations of atom positions are calculated from the group of the crystal structure. Vectors and planes in a lattice are described by the three-value Miller index notation. It uses the indices ℓ, m, and n as directional parameters, which are separated by 90°, by definition, the syntax denotes a plane that intercepts the three points a1/ℓ, a2/m, and a3/n, or some multiple thereof.
That is, the Miller indices are proportional to the inverses of the intercepts of the plane with the unit cell, if one or more of the indices is zero, it means that the planes do not intersect that axis. A plane containing a coordinate axis is translated so that it no longer contains that axis before its Miller indices are determined, the Miller indices for a plane are integers with no common factors. Negative indices are indicated with horizontal bars, as in, in an orthogonal coordinate system for a cubic cell, the Miller indices of a plane are the Cartesian components of a vector normal to the plane. Likewise, the planes are geometric planes linking nodes
In mathematics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions. In three dimensions, there are 219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct, Space groups are studied in dimensions other than 3 where they are sometimes called Bieberbach groups, and are discrete cocompact groups of isometries of an oriented Euclidean space. In crystallography, space groups are called the crystallographic or Fedorov groups. A definitive source regarding 3-dimensional space groups is the International Tables for Crystallography, in 1879 Leonhard Sohncke listed the 65 space groups whose elements preserve the orientation. More accurately, he listed 66 groups, but Fedorov and Schönflies both noticed that two of them were really the same, the space groups in 3 dimensions were first enumerated by Fedorov, and shortly afterwards were independently enumerated by Schönflies. The correct list of 230 space groups was found by 1892 during correspondence between Fedorov and Schönflies, burckhardt describes the history of the discovery of the space groups in detail.
The space groups in three dimensions are made from combinations of the 32 crystallographic point groups with the 14 Bravais lattices, the combination of all these symmetry operations results in a total of 230 different space groups describing all possible crystal symmetries. The elements of the space group fixing a point of space are rotations, the identity element, the translations form a normal abelian subgroup of rank 3, called the Bravais lattice. There are 14 possible types of Bravais lattice, the quotient of the space group by the Bravais lattice is a finite group which is one of the 32 possible point groups. Translation is defined as the moves from one point to another point. A glide plane is a reflection in a plane, followed by a parallel with that plane. This is noted by a, b or c, depending on which axis the glide is along. There is the n glide, which is a glide along the half of a diagonal of a face, and the d glide, the latter is called the diamond glide plane as it features in the diamond structure.
In 17 space groups, due to the centering of the cell, the glides occur in two directions simultaneously, i. e. the same glide plane can be called b or c, a or b. For example, group Abm2 could be called Acm2, group Ccca could be called Cccb, in 1992, it was suggested to use symbol e for such planes. The symbols for five groups have been modified, A screw axis is a rotation about an axis. These are noted by a number, n, to describe the degree of rotation, the degree of translation is added as a subscript showing how far along the axis the translation is, as a portion of the parallel lattice vector. So,21 is a rotation followed by a translation of 1/2 of the lattice vector
Anorthite is the calcium endmember of plagioclase feldspar. Plagioclase is an abundant mineral in the Earths crust, the formula of pure anorthite is CaAl2Si2O8. Anorthite is the calcium-rich endmember of the solid solution series. Anorthite refers to plagioclase compositions with more than 90 molecular percent of the anorthite endmember, anorthite is a rare compositional variety of plagioclase. It occurs in igneous rock. It occurs in rocks of granulite facies, in metamorphosed carbonate rocks. Its type localities are Monte Somma and Valle di Fassa, Italy and it was first described in 1823. It is more rare in surficial rocks than it normally would be due to its high weathering potential in the Goldich dissolution series and it makes up much of the lunar highlands, the Genesis Rock is made of anorthosite, which is composed largely of anorthite. Anorthite was discovered in samples from comet Wild 2, and the mineral is an important constituent of Ca-Al-rich inclusions in rare varieties of chondritic meteorites
In crystallography, the terms crystal system, crystal family and lattice system each refer to one of several classes of space groups, point groups or crystals. Informally, two crystals are in the crystal system if they have similar symmetries, though there are many exceptions to this. Space groups and crystals are divided into seven crystal systems according to their point groups, five of the crystal systems are essentially the same as five of the lattice systems, but the hexagonal and trigonal crystal systems differ from the hexagonal and rhombohedral lattice systems. The six crystal families are formed by combining the hexagonal and trigonal crystal systems into one hexagonal family, a lattice system is a class of lattices with the same set of lattice point groups, which are subgroups of the arithmetic crystal classes. The 14 Bravais lattices are grouped into seven lattice systems, monoclinic, tetragonal, hexagonal, in a crystal system, a set of point groups and their corresponding space groups are assigned to a lattice system.
Of the 32 point groups that exist in three dimensions, most are assigned to only one system, in which case both the crystal and lattice systems have the same name. However, five point groups are assigned to two systems and hexagonal, because both exhibit threefold rotational symmetry. These point groups are assigned to the crystal system. In total there are seven crystal systems, monoclinic, tetragonal, hexagonal, a crystal family is determined by lattices and point groups. It is formed by combining crystal systems which have space groups assigned to a lattice system. In three dimensions, the families and systems are identical, except the hexagonal and trigonal crystal systems. In total there are six families, monoclinic, tetragonal, hexagonal. Spaces with less than three dimensions have the number of crystal systems, crystal families and lattice systems. In one-dimensional space, there is one crystal system, in 2D space, there are four crystal systems, rectangular and hexagonal. The relation between three-dimensional crystal families, crystal systems and lattice systems is shown in the table, Note.
To avoid confusion of terminology, the term trigonal lattice is not used, if the original structure and inverted structure are identical, the structure is centrosymmetric. Still, even for non-centrosymmetric case, inverted structure in some cases can be rotated to align with the original structure and this is the case of non-centrosymmetric achiral structure. If the inverted structure cannot be rotated to align with the structure, the structure is chiral