George Frideric Handel
George Frideric Handel was a German, British baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well known for his operas, oratorios and organ concertos. Handel received important training in Halle and worked as a composer in Hamburg and Italy before settling in London in 1712 and he was strongly influenced both by the great composers of the Italian Baroque and by the middle-German polyphonic choral tradition. Within fifteen years, Handel had started three commercial opera companies to supply the English nobility with Italian opera, musicologist Winton Dean writes that his operas show that Handel was not only a great composer, he was a dramatic genius of the first order. As Alexanders Feast was well received, Handel made a transition to English choral works, after his success with Messiah he never composed an Italian opera again. Almost blind, and having lived in England for nearly fifty years, he died in 1759 and his funeral was given full state honours, and he was buried in Westminster Abbey in London.
Handel was born in 1685 in Halle-on-Saal, Duchy of Magdeburg, to Georg Händel and his father,63 when George Frideric was born, was an eminent barber-surgeon who served the court of Saxe-Weissenfels and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Georg Händel was the son of a coppersmith, Valentin Händel who had emigrated from Eisleben in 1608 with his first wife Anna Belching and they were Protestants and chose reliably Protestant Saxony over Silesia, a Hapsburg possession as religious tensions mounted in the years before the Thirty Years War. Halle was a prosperous city, home of a salt-mining industry. Even the smaller churches all had able organists and fair choirs, and humanities, the Thirty Years War brought extensive destruction to Halle, and by the 1680s it was impoverished. But since the middle of the war the city was under the administration of the Duke of Saxony, the arts and music, flourished only among the higher strata, which did not describe Handels family. Handel was the child of this marriage, the first son died still born.
Two younger sisters were born after the birth of George Frideric, Dorthea Sophia, born 6 October 1687 and Johanna Christiana, born 10 January 1690. Early in his life Handel is reported to have attended the gymnasium in Halle, Mainwaring is the source for almost all information of Handels childhood, and much of that information came from J. C. Smith, Jr. Handels confidant and copyist. Whether they came from Smith or elsewhere, Mainwaring frequently relates misinformation and it is from Mainwaring that the portrait of Handels father as implacably opposed to any musical education comes. This did nothing to dampen young Handels inclination, in fact, Mainwaring tells the story of Handels secret attic spinnet, Handel found means to get a little clavichord privately conveyd to a room at the top of the house. To this room he constantly stole when the family was asleep, but Handel had to have had some experience with the keyboard to have made the impression in Weissenfels that resulted in his receiving formal musical training.
Somehow Handel made his way to the organ, where he surprised everyone with his playing. Overhearing this performance and noting the youth of the performer caused the Duke to recommend to Georg Händel that Handel be given musical instruction, Handels father engaged the organist at the Halle parish church, the young Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow, to instruct Handel
The Argead dynasty was an ancient Greek royal house. They were the founders and the dynasty of Macedon from about 700 to 310 BC. Their tradition, as described in ancient Greek historiography, traced their origins to Argos, initially the rulers of the homonymous tribe, by the time of Philip II they had expanded their reign further, to include under the rule of Macedonia all Upper Macedonian states. The mythical founder of the Argead dynasty is King Caranus, the words Argead and Argive derive from the Greek Ἀργεῖος, of or from Argos, which is first attested in Homer, where it was used as a collective designation for the Greeks. The Argead dynasty claimed descent from the Temenids of Argos, in the Peloponnese, whose ancestor was Temenus. In the excavations of the royal Palace at Aegae Manolis Andronikos discovered in the room an inscription relating to that belief. The latter asked them to leave his territory, believing in an omen that something great would happen to Perdiccas, the boys went to another part of Macedonia, near the garden of Midas, above which mount Bermio stands.
There they made their abode and gradually formed their own kingdom, the Hellanodikai, after examining his Argead claim confirmed that the Macedonians were Greeks and allowed him to participate. They added Mygdonia in their territory through the expulsion of the Edoni, the Kings of Makedon, 399–369 BC. Archived from the original on 26 April 2008
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often divided into the Archaic period, Classical period. It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine. Koine is regarded as a historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects, Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers. It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language, Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects. The main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Arcadocypriot, some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions.
There are several historical forms, homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the Iliad and Odyssey, and in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic, the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period and they have the same general outline, but differ in some of the detail. The invasion would not be Dorian unless the invaders had some relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects.
Often non-west is called East Greek, Arcadocypriot apparently descended more closely from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age. Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, and can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect, thessalian likewise had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions, generally equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, and Northern Peloponnesus Doric. The Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek and this dialect slowly replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, which is spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek, by about the 6th century AD, the Koine had slowly metamorphosized into Medieval Greek
Antiochus VI Dionysus
Antiochus VI Dionysus, king of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom, was the son of Alexander Balas and Cleopatra Thea, daughter of Ptolemy VI of Egypt. Antiochus VI did not actually rule, either already in 145 or in early 144 BC he was nominated by the general Diodotus Tryphon as heir to the throne in opposition to Demetrius II, and remained the generals tool. 142/141 BC, the king died. While some ancient authors make Diodotus Tryphon responsible for the death of the king, list of Syrian monarchs Timeline of Syrian history Schürer, E. A History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, antiochus VI entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
Little, Brown and Company
Early lists featured Little Women by Louisa May Alcott, Emily Dickinsons poetry, and Bartletts Familiar Quotations. As of 2016, Brown & Company is a division of the Hachette Book Group, Little and Company had its roots in the book selling trade. It was founded in 1837 in Boston by Charles Little and James Brown and they formed the partnership for the purpose of Publishing and Selling Books. It can trace its roots before that to 1784 to a bookshop owned by Ebenezer Batelle on Marlborough Street and they published works of Benjamin Franklin and George Washington and they were specialized in legal publishing and importing titles. Little and Company was the American publisher for Edward Gibbons the Decline, the firm was the original publisher of United States Statutes at Large beginning in 1845, under authority granted by a joint resolution of Congress. In 1874, Congress transferred the authority to publish the Statutes at Large to the Government Printing Office, in 1853, Brown began publishing the works of British poets from Chaucer to Wordsworth.
Ninety-six volumes were published in the series in five years, in 1859, John Bartlett became a partner in the firm. He held the rights to his Familiar Quotations, and Little, John Murray Brown, James Browns son, took over when Augustus Flagg retired in 1884. In the 1890s, Brown expanded into publishing, including fiction. In 1896, it published Quo Vadis, in 1898, Brown purchased a list of titles from the Roberts Brothers firm. 19th century employees included Charles Carroll Soule, John Murray Brown died in 1908 and James W. McIntyre became managing partner. When McIntyre died in 1913, Brown incorporated, in 1925, Brown entered into an agreement to publish all Atlantic Monthly books. Chips, Walter D. Edmondss Drums Along the Mohawk, William Least Heat-Moons Blue Highways, Tracy Kidders The Soul of a New Machine, salinger terminated his contract with the publishing house sometime in the 1970s, though his novel was still published by Little, Brown. Little, Brown published the photography of Ansel Adams, in 1996, Browns legal and medical publishing division was purchased by Wolters Kluwer.
In 2001, Michael Pietsch became Publisher of Little, the imprint was purchased by Time Inc. in 1968, and was made part of the Time Warner Book Group when Time merged with Warner Communications to form Time Warner in 1989. Little, Brown expanded into the UK in 1992 when TWBG bought MacDonald & Co from Maxwell Communications, taking on its Abacus and Orbit lists, feminist publisher Virago Press followed in 1996. Also in 1996, Wolters Kluwer acquired Little, Browns professional division, in 2006, the Time Warner Book Group was sold to French publisher Hachette Livre. Following this, the Little, Brown imprint is used by Hachette Livres U. S. publishing company, in 2011, Brown launched an imprint devoted to suspense publishing, Mulholland Books
The Nabataean Kingdom, named Nabatea, was a political state of the Arab Nabataeans during classical antiquity. Nabataea remained independent from the 4th century BC until it was annexed by the Roman Empire in AD106, the Nabataeans were one among several nomadic Bedouin tribes that roamed the Arabian Desert and moved with their herds to wherever they could find pasture and water. They became familiar with their area as seasons passed, and they struggled to survive during bad years when seasonal rainfall diminished, although the Nabataeans were initially embedded in Aramaic culture, theories about them having Aramean roots are rejected by modern scholars. Instead, archaeological and linguistic evidence confirm that they are a northern Arabian tribe, the precise origin of the specific tribe of Arab nomads remains uncertain. One hypothesis locates their original homeland in todays Yemen, in the southwest of the Arabian peninsula, another hypothesis argues that they came from the eastern coast of the peninsula.
The Nabataeans might have originated there and migrated west between the 6th and 4th centuries BC into northwestern Arabia and much of what is now modern-day Jordan. Nabataeans have been associated with other groups of people. A people called the Nabaiti, who were defeated by the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal, were associated by some with the Nabataeans because of the temptation to link their similar names. Another misconception is their identification with the Nebaioth of the Hebrew Bible, unlike the rest of the Arabian tribes, the Nabataeans emerged as vital players in the region during their times of prosperity. However, their influence faded, and the Nabataeans were forgotten, although the Nabataeans were literate, they left no lengthy historical texts. However, there are thousands of inscriptions still found today in places where they once lived, including graffiti. The first historical reference to the Nabataeans is by Greek historian Diodorus Siculus who lived around 30 BC and he uses a source by Hieronymus of Cardia, one of Alexander the Greats generals who had a first-hand encounter with the Nabataeans.
Diodorus relates how the Nabataeans survive in a desert and how they managed to defeat any enemies by hiding in the desert until the latter would surrender for lack of water. The Nabataeans dug cisterns that were covered and left signs known only to themselves and they never brought their attempts to a successful conclusion. - Diodorus After Alexander the Greats death in 323 BC, his empire split among his generals, during the conflict between Alexanders generals, Antigonus I conquered the Levant and this brought him to the borders of Edom, just north of Petra. This wealth distinguished the Nabataeans from other Arab tribes, Antigonus appointed one of his officers to attack the Nabataean barbarians and take their herds as booty. The three raids either came to nothing or ended up in disaster for the Greeks. In the first raid, the Greeks managed to loot tonnes of spices and silver from Petra in 312 BC, although the year is regarded as the start of Nabataean history
It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration, compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint, Greek science was advanced by the works of the mathematician Euclid and the polymath Archimedes. The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele, the Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. This resulted in the export of Greek culture and language to new realms. Equally, these new kingdoms were influenced by the cultures, adopting local practices where beneficial, necessary. Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of the Near East, Middle East and this mixture gave rise to a common Attic-based Greek dialect, known as Koine Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world.
Scholars and historians are divided as to what event signals the end of the Hellenistic era, Hellenistic is distinguished from Hellenic in that the first encompasses the entire sphere of direct ancient Greek influence, while the latter refers to Greece itself. The word originated from the German term hellenistisch, from Ancient Greek Ἑλληνιστής, from Ἑλλάς, Hellenistic is a modern word and a 19th-century concept, the idea of a Hellenistic period did not exist in Ancient Greece. Although words related in form or meaning, e. g, the major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies. Some areas of the world were more affected by Greek influences than others. The Greek population and the population did not always mix, the Greeks moved and brought their own culture. While a few fragments exist, there is no surviving historical work which dates to the hundred years following Alexanders death. The works of the major Hellenistic historians Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris of Samos, the earliest and most credible surviving source for the Hellenistic period is Polybius of Megalopolis, a statesman of the Achaean League until 168 BC when he was forced to go to Rome as a hostage.
His Histories eventually grew to a length of forty books, covering the years 220 to 167 BC, another important source, Plutarchs Parallel Lives though more preoccupied with issues of personal character and morality, outlines the history of important Hellenistic figures. Appian of Alexandria wrote a history of the Roman empire that includes information of some Hellenistic kingdoms, other sources include Justins epitome of Pompeius Trogus Historiae Philipicae and a summary of Arrians Events after Alexander, by Photios I of Constantinople. Lesser supplementary sources include Curtius Rufus, Pliny, in the field of philosophy, Diogenes Laertius Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is the main source. Ancient Greece had traditionally been a collection of fiercely independent city-states. After the Peloponnesian War, Greece had fallen under a Spartan hegemony, in which Sparta was pre-eminent but not all-powerful
The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media and who spoke the Median language. This allowed new peoples to pass through and settle, in addition Elam, the dominant power in Iran, was suffering a period of severe weakness, as was Babylonia to the west. During the reign of Sinsharishkun the Assyrian empire, which had been in a state of constant civil war since 626 BC, subject peoples, such as the Medes, Chaldeans, Scythians, Cimmerians and Arameans quietly ceased to pay tribute to Assyria. The Median kingdom was conquered in 550 BC by Cyrus the Great. However, nowadays there is doubt whether a united Median empire ever existed. There is no evidence and the story of Herodotus is not supported by sources from the Neo-Assyrian Empire nor the Neo-Babylonian Empire. A few archaeological sites and textual sources provide a documentation of the history. Apart from a few names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an Ancient Iranian Religion with a priesthood named as Magi, during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Besides Ecbatana, the other existing in Media were Laodicea. The fourth city of Media was Apamea, near Ecbatana, whose location is now unknown. According to the Histories of Herodotus, there were six Median tribes, Thus Deioces collected the Medes into a nation, now these are the tribes of which they consist, the Busae, the Paretaceni, the Struchates, the Arizanti, the Budii, and the Magi. The six Median tribes resided in Media proper, the triangular shaped area between Ecbatana and Aspadana, in modern Iran, that is the area between Tehran and Hamadan. Of the Median tribes, the Magi resided in Rhaga, modern Tehran and it was a type of sacred caste, which ministered to the spiritual needs of the Medes. The Paretaceni tribe resided in and around Aspadana, modern Isfahan, the Arizanti lived in and around Kashan, the Struchates and the Budii lived in villages in the Median triangle. The original source for different words used to call the Median people, their language, the meaning of this word is not precisely established.
The Median people are mentioned by name in many ancient texts. According to the Histories of Herodotus, The Medes were called anciently by all people Aryans, but when Medea, such is the account which they themselves give
The Histories (Polybius)
Polybius’ Histories were originally written in 40 volumes, only the first five of which are extant in their entirety. The bulk of the work is passed down to us through collections of excerpts kept in libraries in Byzantium, Polybius Histories begin in the year 264 BC and end in 146 BC. He is primarily concerned with the 53 years in which Ancient Rome became a dominant world power and this period, from 220–167 BC, saw Rome subjugate Carthage and gain control over Hellenistic Greece. Books I through V cover the affairs of important states at the time and deal extensively with the First, in Book VI he describes the Roman Constitution and outlines the powers of the consuls and People. He concludes that the success of the Roman state was based on their constitution, which combined elements of a democracy, aristocracy. Tyche, which means fate or fortune, plays an role in Polybius’ understanding of history. Tyche takes on a meaning in his work. It can mean fortune or happenstance, but tyche was personified as a goddess according to Hellenistic convention, the exploration of Tyche is the impetus for Polybius beginning his work, in that he discusses the fortunate events that led to Rome’s domination of the Mediterranean.
In Book VI Polybius digresses into an explanation of the Roman constitution, the purpose for this is involved in the Hellenistic nature of the work, particularly his audience, Greeks. Greeks at this time believed that the strength of a state is manifested in the strength of its constitution, the mixed constitution was touted as the strongest constitution as it combined the three integral types of government, monarchy and democracy. Polybius makes further distinction in the forms of government by including the nefarious counterparts to the mentioned above, oligarchy. These governments, according to Polybius cycle in a process called anacyclosis, the Romans avoided this problem through the structure of their Republic. The first English translation, made by Christopher Watson, was published in London in 1568 as The hystories of the most famous, F. W. Walbank wrote a comprehensive commentary on the Histories in three volumes, which was published in 1957. Herodotus Thucydides Xenophon Mogens Herman Hansen 1995, Sources for the Ancient Greek City-State, August, 24-271994, Videnskabernes Selskab,376 pages ISBN 87-7304-267-6 Robert Pashley, Travels in Crete,1837, J.
Murray C. Michael Hogan, Jan. 23,2008, The Modern Antiquarian Polybius, Frank W. Walbank, the Rise of the Roman Empire. English and Greek version The Histories Translation by W. R. Paton Short introduction to the life and work of Polybius Polybius and the Founding Fathers, the separation of powers