Alexander Bogdanov

Alexander Aleksandrovich Bogdanov, born Alexander Malinovsky, was a Russian and Soviet physician, science fiction writer, revolutionary. He was a key figure in the early history of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party established 1898, of its Bolshevik faction. Bogdanov co-founded the Bolsheviks in 1903, he was a rival within the Bolsheviks to Vladimir Lenin, until being expelled in 1909. Following the Russian Revolutions of 1917, when the Bolsheviks came to power in the collapsing Russian Empire, during the first decade of the subsequent Soviet Union in the 1920s, he was an influential opponent of the Bolshevik government and Lenin from a Marxist leftist perspective. Bogdanov received training in psychiatry, his wide scientific and medical interests ranged from the universal systems theory to the possibility of human rejuvenation through blood transfusion. He invented an original philosophy called "tectology", now regarded as a forerunner of systems theory, he was an economist, culture theorist, science fiction writer, political activist.

He was one of the Russian Machists. Aleksandr Malinovsky was born in Sokółka, Grodno Governorate, Russian Empire, into a rural teacher's family, the second of six children, he attended the Gymnasium at Tula, which he compared to prison. He was awarded a gold medal. Upon completion of the gymnasium, Bogdanov was admitted to the Natural Science Department of Moscow University. In his autobiography, Bogdanov reported that, while studying at Moscow University, he joined the Union Council of Regional Societies, he was arrested and exiled to Tula because of it; the occasion of his arrest and exile is. The head of the Moscow Okhrana used an informant to acquire the names of members of the Union Council of Regional Societies, which included Bogdanov's name. On October 30, 1894, students rowdily demonstrated against a lecture by the famous history Professor Vasily Klyuchevsky who, despite being a well-known liberal, had written a favourable eulogy for the deceased Tsar Alexander III of Russia. Punishment of a few of the students was arbitrary and unfair that the Union Council requested a fair reexamination of the issue.

That night, the Okhrana arrested all the students on the list mentioned above – including Bogdanov – who were expelled from the university and banished to their hometowns. Expelled from Moscow State University, he enrolled as an external student at the University of Kharkov from which he graduated as a physician in 1899. Bogdanov remained in Tula from 1894 to 1899, where – since his own family was living in Sokółka – he lodged with Alexander Rudnev, the father of Vladimir Bazarov, who became a close friend and collaborator in future years. Here he met and married Natalya Bogdanovna Korsak, who, as a woman, had been refused entrance to the university, she was eight years older than him and worked as a nurse for Rudnev. Malinovsky adopted the nom de plume that he used when he wrote his major theoretical works and his novels from her patronym. Alongside Bazarov and Ivan Skvortsov-Stepanov he became a tutor in a workers' study circle; this was organised in the Tula Armament Factory by Ivan Saveliev, whom Bogdanov credited with founding Social Democracy in Tula.

During this period, he wrote his Brief course of economic science, published – "subject to many modifications made for the benefit of the censor" – only in 1897. He said that this experience of student-led education gave him his first lesson in proletarian culture. In autumn 1895, he resumed his medical studies at the University of Kharkiv but still spent much time in Tula, he gained access to the works of Lenin in 1896 the latter's critique of Peter Berngardovich Struve. In 1899, he graduated as a medical doctor and published his next work, "Basic elements of the historical perspective on nature". However, because of his political views, he was arrested by the Tsar's police, spent six months in prison, was exiled to Vologda. Bogdanov dates his support for Bolshevism from autumn of 1903. Early in 1904, Martyn Liadov was sent by the Bolsheviks in Geneva to seek out supporters in Russia, he found a sympathetic group of revolutionaries in Tver. Bogdanov was sent by the Tver Committee to Geneva, where he was impressed by Lenin's One Step Forward, Two Steps Back.

Bogdanov was arrested on 3 December 1905 and held in prison until 27 May 1906. Upon release, he was exiled to Bezhetsk for three years. However, he obtained permission to spend his exile abroad, joined Lenin in Kokkola, Finland. For the next six years, Bogdanov was a major figure among the early Bolsheviks, second only to Vladimir Lenin in influence. In 1904–1906, he published three volumes of the philosophic treatise Empiriomonizm, in which he tried to merge Marxism with the philosophy of Ernst Mach, Wilhelm Ostwald, Richard Avenarius, his work affected a number of Russian Marxist theoreticians, including Nikolai Bukharin. In 1907, he helped organize the 1907 Tiflis bank robbery with both Leonid Krasin. For four years after the collapse of the Russian Revolution of 1905, Bogdanov led a group within the Bolsheviks, who demanded a recall of Social Democratic deputies from the State Duma, he vied with Lenin for the leadership of the Bolshevik faction. In 1908 he joined Bazarov, Berman, Helfond and Suvorov in a symposium Studies in the Philosophy of Marxism which espoused the views of the Russian Marxists.

By mid-1908, t

Hans Ormund Bringolf

Hans Ormund Bringolf was a Swiss adventurer and autobiographer. Bringolf was the son of Johann Bringolf, a Swiss cavalry colonel who became a businessman, his Russian wife Katherina, he took his final examinations in Neuchâtel. From 1894 to 1899, he studied successively in Heidelberg, Vienna and Berlin, until obtaining a law degree in Greifswald, his studies were interrupted several times for military exercises in the Swiss Army. His comrades gave him the nickname "Lieutenant Blessed", because he had been prematurely declared dead several times while on maneuvers. After achieving his degree, he served in the Swiss diplomatic service until 1904. At that time, he was expelled when it became known that he had forged several checks to get out of debt. To avoid imprisonment, he fled from Switzerland to the U. S. From 1906 to 1908, he was the commander of a U. S. police contingent in the Philippines. He was jailed for fraud in Lima, Peru. After returning to Heidelberg, he went about pretending to be "Baron von Tscharner" and was subsequently given a prison sentence, which he served in Mannheim.

After the start of World War I, he became an officer in the French army and, because of his recklessness on the Serbian front, received another nickname: "The Lion of Manastir". He claimed to have been awarded the Legion of Honor in 1923, but there is no record of it on the Legion's official database. Shortly thereafter, he was exposed, he settled in Hallau, where he wrote his "Lebensroman des Leutnant Bringolf Selig" and "Ein Schweizer Abenteurer in Fremden Diensten". I Have No Regrets. Wells. E. P. Dutton Kurt Bächtold, Hans Ormund Bringolf, In: Schaffhauser Beiträge zur Geschichte. Band 46, 1969, S. 61–72. R. Specht, Leutnant B. Selig, In: Schaffhauser Mappe. Bd. 69, S. 55 f. Bringolf, Hans Ormund in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland

Newport Reading Room

The Newport Reading Room, founded in 1854, is a gentlemen's club located on Bellevue Avenue in Newport, Rhode Island, USA. Its primary building features an actual book reading room; the Spouting Rock Beach Association, which owns the famed Bailey's Beach, has been reported to own the building. However this claim, according to the club's leadership, is incorrect; the Newport Reading Room was founded in 1854 by William Shepard Wetmore, a wealthy China trade merchant, several other notable Newporters, including Yankee traders and Southern planters who summered in Newport. Several of the managing stock holders were full-time Rhode Island residents while others were summer residents; the Newport Casino, a rival club nearby on Bellevue Avenue was started by a former Reading Room member, James Gordon Bennett, Jr. as described: The Newport Reading Room incident concerns Bennett and one of his polo buddies, Captain Candy, better known as "Sugar Candy." A wager was concocted whereby Sugar Candy would mount his polo pony and ride up the short flight of stairs into the exclusive club located on Bellevue Avenue.

Bennett was reprimanded, Sugar Candy shown the door for the last time. As the story goes, Bennett started the Newport Casino in response; the Reading Room has a long history of hosting charitable fundraisers, for example the New York Times reported on the club's 1912 baseball game against the U. S. Navy officers of the Atlantic Fleet to raise funds for Newport Hospital; the Reading Room was one of the centers of Newport social life with other traditional institutions such as the Redwood Library, Newport Country Club, Trinity Church, Bailey's Beach, New York Yacht Club summer clubhouse and the Newport Casino Vincent Astor George F. Baker John Nicholas Brown Elbridge T. Gerry George Noble Jones William Shepard Wetmore Claiborne Pell James Gordon Bennett, Jr. Washington Irving S. Nicholson Kane Lewis Cass Ledyard Pierre Lorillard Cornelius Vanderbilt Harold S. Vanderbilt List of American gentlemen's clubs Newport Casino Newport Country Club RI Supreme Court Case, In re Newport Reading Room et al. 21 RI 440