The Bolsheviks known in English as the Bolshevists, were a far-left Marxist faction founded by Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov that split from the Menshevik faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898, at its Second Party Congress in 1903. After forming their own party in 1912, the Bolsheviks took power in Russia in November 1917, overthrowing the liberal Provisional Government of Alexander Kerensky, became the only ruling party in the subsequent Soviet Russia and its successor regime, the Soviet Union, they considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia. Their beliefs and practices were referred to as Bolshevism. Lenin's political pamphlet What Is to Be Done?, which Lenin wrote in 1901 and published in 1902, helped to precipitate the split. In Germany, the book was published in 1902. One of the main points of Lenin's writing was that a revolution can only be achieved by the strong leadership of the masses by one person, or by a select few, who would dedicate their entire lives to the cause, although after the proposed revolution had overthrown the government, this strong leadership would relinquish power to allow socialism to develop.
Lenin said that if professional revolutionaries did not maintain control over the workers they would lose sight of the party's objective and adopt opposing beliefs abandon the revolution entirely. The book showed that Lenin's view of a socialist intelligentsia was not in line with Marxist theory, which created some party unrest. For example, Lenin agreed with the Marxist idea of eliminating social classes, but his vision of a future society encompassed visible distinctions between those in politics and the common worker. Most party members considered unequal treatment of workers immoral and were loyal to the idea of a classless society; this book showed that Lenin opposed another group of reformers, known as "Economists", who were for economic reform while leaving the government unchanged and who, in Lenin's view, failed to recognize the importance of uniting the working population behind the party's cause. At the 2nd Congress of the RSDLP, held in Brussels and London during August 1903, Lenin and Julius Martov disagreed over the party membership rules.
Lenin, supported by Plekhanov, wanted to limit membership to those who supported the party full time and worked in complete obedience to the elected party leadership. Martov wanted to extend membership to all those individuals "who recognises the Party Programme and supports it by material means and by regular personal assistance under the direction of one of the party’s organisations." Lenin believed his plan would develop a core group of professional revolutionaries who would devote their full time and energy towards developing the party into an organization capable of leading a successful workers' revolution against the Tsarist autocracy. The base of active and experienced members would be the recruiting ground for this professional core. Sympathizers would be left outside and the party would be organised based on the concept of democratic centralism. Martov, until a close friend of Lenin, agreed with him that the core of the party should consist of professional revolutionaries, but he argued that party membership should be open to sympathizers, revolutionary workers, other fellow travellers.
The two had disagreed on the issue as early as March–May 1903, but it was not until the Congress that their differences became irreconcilable and split the party. At first, the disagreement appeared to be inspired by personal conflicts. For example, Lenin's insistence on dropping less active editorial board members from Iskra or Martov's support for the Organizing Committee of the Congress which Lenin opposed; the differences grew and the split became irreparable. Internal unrest arose over the political structure, best suited for Soviet power; as discussed in What Is To Be Done?, Lenin believed that a rigid political structure was needed to initiate a formal revolution. This idea was met with opposition from once close followers, including Martov, Georgy Plekhanov, Leon Trotsky, Pavel Axelrod. Plekhanov and Lenin's major dispute arose addressing the topic of nationalizing land or leaving it for private use. Lenin wanted to nationalize to aid in collectivization whereas Plekhanov thought worker motivation would remain higher if individuals were able to maintain their own property.
Those who opposed Lenin and wanted to continue on the Marxist path towards complete socialism and disagreed with his strict party membership guidelines became known as "softs" while Lenin supporters became known as "hards". Some of the factionalism could be attributed to Lenin's steadfast belief in his own opinion and what was described by Plekhanov as Lenin's inability to "bear opinions which were contrary to his own" and loyalty to his own self-envisioned utopia. Lenin was seen by fellow party members as being so narrow-minded and unable to accept criticism that he believed that anyone who didn't follow him was his enemy. Leon Trotsky, one of Lenin's fellow revolutionaries, compared Lenin in 1904 to the French revolutionary Maximilien Robespierre; the two factions were known as "hard" and "soft", but the terminology soon changed to "Bolsheviks" and "Mensheviks", from the Russian bolshinstvo and menshinstvo. In the Second Party Congress vote, the Bolsheviks won votes on the majority of important issues, hence the name.
On the other hand, Martov's supporters won the vote concerning the question of part
The Apes of God is a 1930 novel by the British artist and writer Wyndham Lewis. It is a satire of London's contemporary artistic scene; the novel is set in 1926. It has an episodic structure, following a young simpleton called Dan Boleyn from one encounter with the literati to another. Dan follows the directions of an infatuated sixty-year-old albino, Horace Zagreus, who believes him to be a genius. The'Apes of God' that he meets are imitators of true creators. Zagreus is himself only the imitator of another character, who appears to be the origin of all the ideas that circulate in the society depicted in the novel. Pierpoint, though mentioned and maligned, never appears in the novel, he is described as'a painter turned philosopher', a description that could be applied to Lewis himself. Lewis's "enemies", such as his patron Sidney Schiff, Edward Wadsworth and John Rodker, along with members of the Bloomsbury Group, including Lytton Strachey, are recognisable under fictional names and are treated with savage humour.
The penultimate and longest chapter,'Lord Osmund's Lenten Party', is a satirical account of a fancy-dress party held by three members of the'Finnian Shaw' family, who are modeled on the Sitwell family, Osbert and Sacheverell. The political and cultural'diagnosis' of England that the novel aspires to make is a development of the ideas put forward by Lewis in his 1926 book, The Art of Being Ruled. Stinson, Emmett. "'The Vortex as Ontology in The Apes of God: Self-Reflexive Satire and Apophaticism'". Journal of the Wyndham Lewis Society. Retrieved 29 September 2016. Edwards, Paul,'The Apes of God: Form and Meaning', in Jeffrey Meyers, Wyndham Lewis: A Revaluation: 133-48
Idaten Jump is a Japanese manga series created by Toshihiro Fujiwara. It was serialized in Kodansha's Comic BomBom; the manga tells the story about a boy named Sho Yamato. It was adapted into a 52-episode anime series, produced by Aniplex, Production I. G. and Trans Arts. It aired from October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006. A toyline was made by Tomy. Sho Yamato is a boy. He's always practiced at the "X-Zone" with his friends Kakeru and Makoto while riding on a bike his dad has built called "Flame Kaiser". One day, he was challenged to a race by a MTB team called Team Shark Tooth and whoever won the race will get the X-Zone. For Sho, the X-Zone had always been a place of happy memories, he had spent many days there with his father who had disappeared, so he could not lose the game. During the race with Team Shark Tooth's leader Gabu Samejima, black smoke covered the ground around them, they were sent to another world that's called the "X-Zone." When Sho woke up, he found Kakeru and his MTB Flame Kaiser were there.
Of course, they did not know. While they were wondering what had happened, MTB riders came, they challenged Sho to a form of MTB race in the X-Zone. They said the only way for Sho to return is by collecting 10 gold emblems by winning Idaten battles with their emblems while making their way to X-City, at the epicenter of the X-Zone; this is how Sho came down to compete in Idaten Battles at various courses such as ghost towns, ancient ruins and snow-topped mountains. Now Sho must Idaten Battle for the sake of returning home. Before an Idaten Battle begins, the MTB riders would put on their bike helmets while quoting "Ready, go." When their bike helmets are on, a full mountain biking suit appears on them during the Idaten Battles. Sho's group decide to go to the X-City, the main city of X-Zone so that they can get the 10 gold emblem and can return to their home, they face off against Team Shark Tooth and their various allies when he arrives in X-City where Gabu Samejima is their dictator. Gabu, in order to maintain his dictatorship over X-zone, steals the 10 gold emblems which Sho won and when Sho tried to get it the first time, he knocked him off with his bike's most powerful move "Bloody Impact", a part of X tower collapsed over Sho as a result but luckily Sho survived and his friends helped get pass the tight security which Gabu did for his safety.
Gabu tried to kill Sho, 3 times in a row, first by making a powerful attack on him and the impact caused Sho to be stampeded by the part of the building which fell on him causing him to lose consciousness. And thirdly, he tried to push Sho off the cliff by kicking at him and his bike when they were battling for the X tower but this time, Sho survived by using his move "Idaten Jump" to come right on the track and keeping up with Gabu. After defeating Gabu, the black smoke takes them back to earth, but Makoto' s brother remains there. They find. After returning home, Sho returned to X-Zone to find his lost father Takeshi while taking on the mysterious Team X. To his shock, he discovers that his father is the commander of team X and is possessed by a evil and ancient spirit, who made him do so, now being possessed he wants nothing but a platinum emblem, which only Sho has. Inorder to make his father come back to normal, Sho decides and accepts his challenge for an Idaten battle and is defeated at first and his emblem is taken.
But he went to the Ancient Training Grounds, where centuries ago, an ancient hero, went there to train, in order to defeat an evil spirit, destroying the world and defeated it. Makoto and Kakeru went to him. There he passed the first two training grounds but he realised that he had learnt nothing new but just did what his dad taught him, when he was a child, he discovered the third and final training ground, The Hero Falls. Sho attempted to climb that fall but he failed each time he got hurt & exhausted and damaged Imperial Tiger. Later it was revealed that no one till this day has been successful to climb that falls. At night, while Kakeru was repairing Imperial X, Makoto was reading the MTB handbook which Yuki gave Kakeru. While reading the book to find any solution to climb the falls, She comes across a picture of a tablet written in ancient language which she could not read. Sho Yamato (山登 翔 Voiced by: Akeno Watanabe, he can do amazing tricks. After winning the Idaten Tournament held in X-City by Team S.
T, he defeats Gabu for the control of X City with the assistance of Makoto, Kyoichi and Koei. After defeating his father, under the control of an ancient demoniac evil, Sho chose to leave behind his friends to stay in X-Zone, but with the help of Hosuke the Owl and his dad were able to travel between Earth and X-Zone, Sho's dad went to home to his wife while Sho went to reunite with his friends in the X-Zone MTB course. He owns an MTB, known as Flame Kaiser; this bike is the only bike with Platinum emblem. Makoto Shido (獅堂 まこと Voiced by: Sawa Ishige, she realizes that her MTB is a legendary Idaten Bike called Neptune Emperor. During her ti