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Alexander Fleming

Sir Alexander Fleming was a Scottish biologist, physician and pharmacologist. His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the world's first antibiotic substance benzylpenicillin from the mould Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, he wrote many articles on bacteriology and chemotherapy. Fleming was knighted for his scientific achievements in 1944. In 1999, he was named in Time magazine's list of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century. In 2002, he was chosen in the BBC's television poll for determining the 100 Greatest Britons, in 2009, he was voted third "greatest Scot" in an opinion poll conducted by STV, behind only Robert Burns and William Wallace. Born on 6 August 1881 at Lochfield farm near Darvel, in Ayrshire, Alexander was the third of four children of farmer Hugh Fleming from his second marriage to Grace Stirling Morton, the daughter of a neighbouring farmer.

Hugh Fleming had four surviving children from his first marriage. He was 59 at the time of his second marriage, died when Alexander was seven. Fleming went to Loudoun Moor School and Darvel School, earned a two-year scholarship to Kilmarnock Academy before moving to London, where he attended the Royal Polytechnic Institution. After working in a shipping office for four years, the twenty-year-old Alexander Fleming inherited some money from an uncle, John Fleming, his elder brother, was a physician and suggested to him that he should follow the same career, so in 1903, the younger Alexander enrolled at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in Paddington. Fleming, a private in the London Scottish Regiment of the Volunteer Force from 1900 to 1914, had been a member of the rifle club at the medical school; the captain of the club, wishing to retain Fleming in the team, suggested that he join the research department at St Mary's, where he became assistant bacteriologist to Sir Almroth Wright, a pioneer in vaccine therapy and immunology.

In 1908, he gained a BSc degree with Gold Medal in Bacteriology, became a lecturer at St Mary's until 1914. Commissioned lieutenant in 1914 and promoted captain in 1917, Fleming served throughout World War I in the Royal Army Medical Corps, was Mentioned in Dispatches, he and many of his colleagues worked in battlefield hospitals at the Western Front in France. In 1918 he returned to St Mary's Hospital, where he was elected Professor of Bacteriology of the University of London in 1928. In 1951 he was elected the Rector of the University of Edinburgh for a term of three years. During World War I, Fleming witnessed the death of many soldiers from sepsis resulting from infected wounds. Antiseptics, which were used at the time to treat infected wounds worsened the injuries. In an article he submitted for the medical journal The Lancet during World War I, Fleming described an ingenious experiment, which he was able to conduct as a result of his own glass blowing skills, in which he explained why antiseptics were killing more soldiers than infection itself during World War I.

Antiseptics worked well on the surface, but deep wounds tended to shelter anaerobic bacteria from the antiseptic agent, antiseptics seemed to remove beneficial agents produced that protected the patients in these cases at least as well as they removed bacteria, did nothing to remove the bacteria that were out of reach. Sir Almroth Wright supported Fleming's findings, but despite this, most army physicians over the course of the war continued to use antiseptics in cases where this worsened the condition of the patients. At St Mary's Hospital Fleming continued his investigations into antibacterial substances. Testing the nasal secretions from a patient with a heavy cold, he found that nasal mucus had an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth; this was the first recorded discovery of lysozyme, an enzyme present in many secretions including tears, skin and nails as well as mucus. Although he was able to obtain larger amounts of lysozyme from egg whites, the enzyme was only effective against small counts of harmless bacteria, therefore had little therapeutic potential.

One sometimes finds. When I woke up just after dawn on September 28, 1928, I didn't plan to revolutionize all medicine by discovering the world's first antibiotic, or bacteria killer, but I suppose, what I did. By 1927, Fleming had been investigating the properties of staphylococci, he was well known from his earlier work, had developed a reputation as a brilliant researcher, but his laboratory was untidy. On 3 September 1928, Fleming returned to his laboratory having spent August on holiday with his family. Before leaving for his holiday, he had stacked all his cultures of staphylococci on a bench in a corner of his laboratory. On returning, Fleming noticed that one culture was contaminated with a fungus, that the colonies of staphylococci surrounding the fungus had been destroyed, whereas other staphylococci colonies farther away were normal, famously remarking "That's funny". Fleming showed the contaminated culture to his former assistant Merlin Pryce, who reminded him, "That's how you discovered lysozyme."

Fleming grew the mould in a pure culture and found that it produced a substance that killed a number of disease-causing bacteria. He identified the mould as being from the genus Penicillium, after some months of calling it "mould juice", named the substance it released penicillin on 7 March 1929; the laboratory in which Fleming discovered and tested penicillin is preserve

Hubert LaRue

François Alexandre Hubert LaRue was a French-Canadian writer and physician. Born in Saint-Jean-de-l'île d'Orléans on March 24, 1833, son of notary Hubert Casimir Nazaire Larue and Adélaïde Roy, he married Alphonsine Panet, daughter of Judge Philippe Panet and Luce Casgrain. Together they raised ten children, he attended the Petit Séminaire de Québec and went on to study medicine at the Laval University in Montreal. Attending a university in Louvain, Belgium he transferred to the École de Médicine in Paris where he furthered his scientific training; when he returned to Quebec he began teaching at Laval in a variety of subjects including forensic medicine, inorganic chemistry and toxicology. La Rue was a major contributor to the literary movement of 1860, he wrote extensively in the magazines and newspapers of his time, notably in the Courrier du Canada, L'Événement, Soirées Canadiennes, Foyer Canadien, in La Ruche littéraire, where he signed his name Isidore de Méplats. One of his most remarkable studies is his work on Chansons populaires et historiques du Canada, which he published: Le Voyage sentimental sur la rue Saint-Jean.

His articles and lectures were collected in two volumes under the collective title Mélanges historiques, littéraires, et d'économie politique. LaRue published a Histoire populaire du Canada. LaRue was interested in educational and agricultural reforms. In an article, De l’éducation dans la province de Québec, he describes steps to improve education at the elementary and secondary levels, he advocated for teaching of agriculture in specialized schools. As well, he tried to improve farming on depleted soils, he did this through the publication of manuals such as Petit manuel d’agriculture à l’usage des cultivateurs and Petit manuel d’agriculture à l’usage des écoles élémentaires. In life he became interested in metallurgy, he took out patents for methods of separating sands using magnets. He patented a process for concentrating pyrites to extract their magnetite. Voyage Autour De L'Isle D'Orléans, Petit Manuel D'Agriculture, Mélanges Historiques, Littéraires, Et D'Économie Politique, Histoire Populaire Du Canada, Voyage Sentimental Sur La Rue Saint-Jean, Petite Histoire Des Etats-Unis Très-Élémentaire, Source: Works by Hubert LaRue at Faded Page

Yuanjin Temple

Yuanjin Temple known as Temple of Goddess, is a Buddhist temple located in Zhujiajiao, Qingpu District, Shanghai. The temple is known as "Temple of Goddess" for the fact that it enshrines the statue of Guanyin Boddhisatva; the temple was built in 1341, during the Mongolian-ruling Yuan dynasty. It was rebuilt in the reign of Wanli Emperor of the Ming dynasty; the temple was enlarged in the Kangxi periods of the Qing dynasty. In 1658, abbot Tongzheng supervised the restoration of the entire temple complex. Yifeng Hall, Caoxi Humble Cottage, Xigong Hall, Qinghua Pavilion and other halls were added to the temple. Of them, Qinghua Pavilion was the most prestigious structure. In early Qing dynasty, the 3rd-generation abbot of the temple and a few of his successors were specialized in either painting, epigraphy or poetry, so literati and scholars held poetry saloons and literary discussions in the temple, giving the temple a deep cultural heritage. A modern renovation of the entire temple complex was carried out in 1991.

The temple was reopened to the public in 1995. On November 6, 2018, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev visited the temple. Kang Guojian, ed.. "Zhujiajiao Town" 《朱家角镇》. 《古镇》. Hefei, Anhui: Huangshan Shushe. ISBN 978-7-5461-2712-5. Shi Jueming. 《圆津禅院小志》. Shanghai: Shanghai Classics Publishing House. ISBN 9787532527953

Hornblower in the West Indies

Hornblower in the West Indies, or alternately Admiral Hornblower in the West Indies, is one of the novels in the series that C. S. Forester wrote about fictional Royal Navy officer Horatio Hornblower. All the other novels in the series take place during the wars with revolutionary and Napoleonic France. Hornblower has been promoted rear-admiral and has been named in command of the West Indies station with a squadron consisting of three frigates and fourteen brigs and schooners, it is the last Hornblower novel chronologically, although at least one short story is set after the events in this novel. Like some other Hornblower novels, Forester wrote it in the form of several novellas that can be read independently. Hornblower pays a courtesy call at New Orleans. There, he learns of a plot by Napoleon's most loyal followers to liberate him from his exile on the isolated island of St Helena. Hornblower is powerless to stop them by force, he lies to Count Cambronne, telling him that Napoleon has died.

When he returns to port, he learns to his astonishment and relief that his lie was the truth, recalling Saint Elizabeth's miracle of the roses. While attempting to suppress the slave trade, HMS Clorinda, the vessel carrying Hornblower's flag, follows a faster slave ship, the Estrella del Sur, into a Puerto Rican port. Hornblower figures out a way to disable the slave ship, so that when it leaves port, the Clorinda will be able to catch it. Hornblower, characteristically, outsmarts his subordinate, the dim-witted, pompous Captain Fell of the Clorinda to the point he thinks the sabotage plan was his idea. Pirates kidnap Hornblower and his young secretary Spendlove and take them to their hideout near Montego Bay, in an attempt to extort a pardon for themselves, they send Hornblower with their demand. Hornblower feels honour-bound to return to secure Spendlove's release, but finds the resourceful secretary has escaped. Free to act, Hornblower leads a sea-borne attack on the pirate's camp, using mortars to reduce their hideout.

Forester takes artistic license with the geography of Jamaica. Hornblower is visited by a rich young wool merchant, named Ramsbottom, one of the first millionaires; the young man is on a tour of the Caribbean in his yacht, a converted ex-Royal Navy brig-sloop, the Bride of Abydos. Hornblower tours Ramsbottom's yacht during a dinner party on board. Ramsbottom explains his interest in Latin America by saying, he is cautioned to stay away from the South American coast, in a state of rebellion against Spain. It turns out, that Ramsbottom, far from being a tourist, is dedicated to helping Spain's South American colonies to achieve their independence. While Hornblower and his squadron are conveniently away on manoeuvres, Ramsbottom, by pretending that his yacht is the Desperate, a Royal Navy brig enforcing a blockade, captures the Helmond, an unsuspecting Dutch transport, secures the Spanish artillery train forming its cargo. Hornblower goes to investigate, he finds Ramsbottom's ship, accompanied by the Helmond, anchored off the coast of Venezuela.

The captured cannons have been instrumental in the defeat of the Spanish forces. Hornblower secures Bride of Abydos just before the arrival of a Spanish and a Dutch frigate, from where Spanish and Dutch naval officers swiftly arrive to demand its surrender. Hornblower by verbal trickery manages to avoid both surrendering the Bride of Abydos and starting a war. Hornblower's wife Barbara comes out to Jamaica for Hornblower's final days as Commander in Chief, to accompany him home. Hornblower is troubled by the case of a young marine bandsman, Hudnutt, a gifted musician who refuses to play what he feels is a wrong note. Hornblower is sympathetic to the man's plight, endeavours to help him, but is constrained by the demands of naval discipline; as the couple leave the island he hears. On the voyage back, they endure a hurricane. In the middle of the hurricane, Barbara drops her final wall of reserve as she assures him she has never loved another man. Chapter 4 of the novel, "The Guns of Carabobo," belongs immediately after Chapter 1, "St. Elizabeth of Hungary" and, in the original serialisation in John Bull from 1957, "Hornblower and the Guns of Carabobo" was the second episode published.

This is the only Hornblower novel. In the Royal Navy of the early nineteenth century, promotion from captain to admiral was based on seniority; the distinguished officer Edward Berry was promoted to captain in 1797 and did not become a rear-admiral until 1821. Hornblower was made a captain in 1805. Admiral Hornblower in the West Indies at Faded Page

Transfer switcher

A transfer switcher was a type of railroad locomotive designed to perform "transfer" work in which freight cars are transported between two freight yards in a large terminal area. As transfer work required high pulling power but not much speed, the general design of a transfer locomotive consisted of two engines with high-horsepower on an elongated locomotive frame, gearing designed for low speeds, several driving axles, but were built without dynamic braking or multiple unit capability. In addition to the "center cab" design, transfer locomotives were built in the form of road switchers and drawbar-coupled cow and calf switcher sets; the "center cab" configuration is the best remembered transfer locomotive design, as the majority of these locomotives were built for transfer work. The first of the "center cab" locomotives was designated the T, was a one-of-a-kind locomotive, built as a collaboration by the Electro Motive Corporation, St. Louis Car Company and General Electric for the Illinois Central Railroad in 1936.

Baldwin Locomotive Works and Lima-Hamilton produced the majority of these units, with the former producing 70 Baldwin DT-6-6-2000/Baldwin RT-624 locomotives, the latter producing 22 Lima LT-2500 locomotives between 1946 and 1954. Only one surviving example of these locomotives is known to exist. Minneapolis and Southern Railroad DT-6-6-2000 #21 is preserved at the Illinois Railway Museum in Union, Illinois. "Transfer locomotives". Trains Magazine ABC'S of Railroading. Kalmbach Publishing. May 1, 2006. "Spotter's Guide". The Yard Limit

Charles M. Floyd

Charles Miller Floyd was an American merchant, manufacturer, Republican politician from Manchester, New Hampshire who served two years as Governor of New Hampshire. Floyd was born in Derry, New Hampshire on June 5, 1861, he graduated from Pinkerton Academy and became a successful businessman, including ownership interests in retail clothing stores, farms, a shoe factory, a furniture making factory, a door and window blind factory, a construction company and commercial real estate. A Republican, Floyd served in the New Hampshire State Senate from 1899 to 1901, he was a member of the state Executive Council from 1905 to 1907. In 1906 Floyd ran for Governor, he defeated popular novelist Winston Churchill for the Republican nomination, finished first with a plurality in the general election. In a four-way race which included Socialist and Prohibition candidates, Floyd finished with less than the majority required by the state constitution; the election moved to the New Hampshire General Court, which chose Floyd.

Floyd's term included: attempts at ethics reform, including the elimination of free railroad passes for state legislators. After leaving office Floyd returned to his business interests, he was a Delegate to the 1912 Republican National Convention, was the state's World War I fuel administrator, chaired the state tax commission from 1921 to 1923. Floyd died in Manchester on February 3, 1923, he was buried at Pine Grove Cemetery in Manchester. Derry's Charles M. Floyd Elementary School, which closed in 2006, was named for him. Floyd at New Hampshire's Division of Historic Resources Charles M. Floyd at National Governors Association