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Alexander Mackenzie (politician)

Alexander Mackenzie, was a Scottish-Canadian politician who served as the second prime minister of Canada, in office from 1873 to 1878. Mackenzie was born in Logierait, Scotland, he left school at the age of 13, following his father's death to help his widowed mother, trained as a stonemason. Mackenzie immigrated to Canada, his masonry business prospered, allowing him to pursue other interests – such as the editorship of a pro-Reformist of a newspaper called the Lambton Shield. Mackenzie was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada in 1861, as a supporter of George Brown. In 1867, Mackenzie was elected to the new House of Commons of Canada for the Liberal Party, he became leader of the party in mid-1873, a few months succeeded John A. Macdonald as prime minister, following Macdonald's resignation in the aftermath of the Pacific Scandal. Mackenzie and the Liberals won a clear majority at the 1874 election, he was popular among the general public for his humble background and apparent democratic tendencies.

As prime minister, Mackenzie continued the nation-building programme, begun by his predecessor. His government established the Supreme Court of Canada and Royal Military College of Canada, created the District of Keewatin to better administer Canada's newly acquired western territories. However, it made little progress on the transcontinental railway, struggled to deal with the aftermath of the Panic of 1873. At the 1878 election, Mackenzie's government suffered a landslide defeat, he remained leader of the Liberal Party for another two years, continued on as a Member of Parliament until his death, due to a stroke. Mackenzie was born on 28 January 1822 in Logierait, Scotland, the son of Mary Stewart and Alexander Mackenzie, Sr. who were married in 1817. The site of his birthplace is known as Clais-'n-deoir "The Hollow of the Weeping", where families said their goodbyes as the convicted were led to nearby Gallows Hill; the house in which he was born was built by his father and is still standing in 2019.

He was the third of 10 boys. Alexander Mackenzie, Sr. was a carpenter and ship's joiner who had to move around for work after the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. Mackenzie's father died on 7 March 1836 and at the age of 13, Alexander Mackenzie, Jr. was thus forced to end his formal education to help support his family. He apprenticed as a stonemason and met his future wife, Helen Neil, in Irvine, where her father was a stonemason; the Neils were Baptist and shortly thereafter, Mackenzie converted from Presbyterianism to Baptist beliefs. Together with the Neils, he immigrated to Canada in 1842 to seek a better life. Mackenzie's faith was to link him to the influential temperance cause strong in Canada West where he lived, a constituency of which he was to represent in the Parliament of Canada; the Neils and Mackenzie settled in Ontario. The limestone in the area proved too hard for his stonemason tools, not having money to buy new tools, Mackenzie took a job as a labourer constructing a building on Princess Street.

The contractor on the job claimed financial difficulty, so Mackenzie accepted a promissory note for summer wages. The note proved to be worthless. Subsequently, Mackenzie won a contract building a bomb-proof arch at Fort Henry, he became a foreman on the construction of Kingston's four Martello Towers - Murney Tower, Fort Frederick, Cathcart Tower, Shoal Tower. He was a foreman on the construction of the Welland Canal and the Lachine Canal. While working on the Beauharnois Canal, a one-ton stone crushed one of his legs, he never regained the strength in that leg. While in Kingston, Mackenzie became a vocal opponent of religious and political entitlement and corruption in government. Mackenzie married Helen Neil in 1845 and with her had three children, with only one girl, surviving infancy. Helen and he moved to Sarnia, Ontario in 1847 and Mary was born in 1848, they were soon joined from Scotland by his mother. He began working as a general contractor, earning a reputation for being a hard-working, honest man, as well as having a working man's view on fiscal policy.

Mackenzie helped construct many jails across southern Ontario. A number of these still stand today, including the Sandwich Courthouse and Jail now known as the Mackenzie Hall Cultural Centre in Windsor and the Kent County Courthouse and Jail in Chatham, Ontario, he bid, unsuccessfully, on the construction of the Parliament buildings in Ottawa in 1859. Helen died in 1852 succumbing to the effects of excessive doses of mercury-based calomel used to treat a fever while in Kingston. In 1853, he married Jane Sym. Mackenzie involved himself in politics from the moment he arrived in Canada, he fought passionately for the elimination of all forms of class distinction. In 1851, he became the secretary for the Reform Party for Lambton. After convincing him to run in Kent/Lambton, Mackenzie campaigned relentlessly for George Brown, owner of the Reformist paper The Globe in the 1851 election, helping Brown to win his first seat in the Legislative Assembly. Mackenzie and Brown remained the closest of colleagues for the rest of their lives.

In 1852, Mackenzie became editor of the Lambton Shield. As editor, Mackenzie was a little too vocal, leading the paper to a lawsuit for libel against the local conservative candidate; because a key witness claimed Cabinet Confidence and would not testify, the pap

Prince Edward Island dollar

The Prince Edward Island dollar was a unit of currency used in Prince Edward Island. The dollar replaced the Prince Edward Island pound in 1872 at a rate of 1 pound = 4.866 dollars. The dollar was subdivided into 100 cents. Only one type of coin, the one-cent piece, was struck for the Prince Edward Island dollar, in 1871. PEI entered Confederation two years later. Both sides of the coin were designed by Leonard Charles Wyon; the obverse had Queen Victoria, with the date. The reverse was specially made for the PEI government, it had the seal of the colony—a large oak tree, symbolising England, sheltering three younger ones, which symbolised Prince Edward Island's three counties. Below the seal was located the Latin phrase "PARVA SUB INGENTI", translated as "The small beneath the great". Around the seal and phrase was written "PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND", the denomination, "ONE CENT"; the coin was produced at the Heaton Mint, due to the London Mint having to strike domestic coins. However, the "H" mint mark is missing.

The coin is composed of 95% copper. 4% tin, 1% zinc. It has a diameter of 25.40 mm. It has a plain edge. Two million one-cent pieces were minted. PEI's government would experience difficulties in placing the coins in circulation—10 years were needed for the government to get rid of them; the last of the coins were sold at a 10 percent discount. The Prince Edward Island Treasury issued British pound notes in 5 and 10 shilling, 1, 2, 5-pound denominations; the Merchant Bank of Prince Edward Island issued banknotes in 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 dollar denominations. The Bank of Prince Edward Island incorporated on 14 April 1856 in Charlottetown, after nearly two years of negotiations with Great Britain over the legality of a colony-established bank. On 13 August 1856 the bank opened for business, was the first bank established on the island; the founding directors included: James Peake, Richard Heartz, Daniel Davies, Henry Haszard, Daniel Brenan. In 1857 the Bank of PEI temporarily closed after the directors discovered that the bank president and cashier had made loans that exceeded their capital.

The cashier remained at the bank. In 1881, after it was discovered that the cashier had made irresponsibly large loans, the bank was closed, liquidated over the next several years; the Bank of Prince Edward Island was the first in Canada to file for bankruptcy. The bank's first issue of paper currency was dated the same day and included 5 and 10 shilling notes, 1 and 5 pound notes. A shorter issue of notes in 1859 only included 2 pound denominations; the 1872 issue in Canadian dollars was dated 1 January 1872. Prince Edward Island pound Baldwin, Douglas O. "The Growth and Decline of the Charlottetown Banks, 1854–1906", Acadiensis, 15: 28–52 Baldwin, Douglas O.. K. Cross. Canadian Coins. Toronto: Charlton Press. P. 33. ISBN 0-88968-288-7. Cuhaj, George S. ed.. Standard Catalog of World Paper Money Specialized Issues. Krause. ISBN 978-1-4402-0450-0. Forbes, E. R.. The Atlantic Provinces in Confederation. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-6817-0. Krause, Chester L.. Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1801–1991.

Krause Publications. ISBN 0873411501. Pick, Albert. Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: Specialized Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer. Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-149-8. Currency Reforms

Emilios Panayiotou

Emilios Panayiotou is a Cypriot footballer who plays as a midfielder for AEZ Zakakiou in the Cypriot Second Division. He made his first football steps at the age of six at Polemidia and a year he joined AEL Limassol academies. After a test in PSV Eindhoven, Emilios joined the Academies of Nikodimos Papavasiliou. In 2007, after having passed through tests in Manchester City, Southampton and AJ Auxerre, he joined the academies of Sochaux. Two years he returned to Cyprus and signed a contract with APOEL. On 10 February 2010, he made his debut with APOEL in a Cypriot Cup match against Ermis Aradippou, coming on as a substitute in the 72nd minute. On 29 August 2012, Emilios joined Olympiakos Nicosia on a season-long loan deal from APOEL, he appeared in 15 league matches and scored one goal against AEP Paphos on 9 December 2012, in Olympiakos' 3–1 home win. The summer of 2013, he moved again on a season-long loan deal from APOEL to the Cypriot First Division side Alki Larnaca. On September 2014, Emilios signed a contract with Aris Limassol.

APOEL Official Profile Emilios Panayiotou at Soccerway