Alexander Majors

Alexander Majors was an American businessman, who along with William Hepburn Russell and William B. Waddell founded the Pony Express, based in Missouri. In about 1860, their freight firm, now known as "Russell and Waddell," formed the "Central Overland California and Pikes Peak Express Company" to get the federal contract to deliver mail between Missouri and California, it had been held by Butterfield Overland Mail, which delivered the mail in 25 days or more over a route that went through the South. With sectional tensions on the rise and his colleagues proposed to deliver the mail over a central route through Salt Lake City and proposed doing it in 10 days via a horse relay called the Pony Express. Though they succeeded in making the deliveries, they did not get the contract, they went bankrupt after the Transcontinental Telegraph opened in October 1861, as its competition eliminated the need for some mail service. He provided rail ties for the crews of the Union Pacific Railroad working on the First Transcontinental Railroad.

After the railroad was completed, he continued to haul freight to towns not yet served by the railroad. Alexander Majors was born October 1814, in Franklin, Kentucky. In 1848 Alexander Majors started hauling overland freight on the Santa Fe Trail. On his first trip, he set a new time record of 92 days for the 1564-mile round trip, he employed 4,000 men, including a 15-year-old lad named Billy Cody known as Buffalo Bill. Cody became one of his most famous Pony Express riders. In 1853 Majors was awarded contracts to haul supplies to United States Army posts along the Santa Fe Trail. Majors helped establish the Kansas City stockyards, which became a center of shipping beef to the East Coast and Midwest. In 1854 he teamed up with William B. Waddell and William Hepburn Russell. Majors was responsible for the freighting part of the business, Waddell was to manage the office, Russell was to use his Washington DC contacts to acquire new contracts. Waddell chose be a silent partner, so the firm was called "Majors and Russell".

In the 1850s their firm Russell and Waddell and the short-lived Pony Express were major businesses, contributing to the growth of Kansas City. Majors' Overland Stage Company was part of a wide network. Fifteen years it was all over. On the Missouri side of State Line at 81st Street, Majors built his two-story frame farmhouse in 1855. There, wagon trains loaded with goods from his warehouse down on the river headed west. In Westport, Majors operated a meat-packing plant, it supplied the trains with cured pork and candles. For 15 years Majors and his far-flung interests were successful. In 1860 his Pony Express began, but by technology was threatening. Telegraphs and railroads were a reality; the telegraph spelled doom for Pony Express, the "great iron horse" killed Majors' freighting and stage coach operations in time. By 1865 Majors sold out what little moved to Colorado. There, 30 years his former young wagonmaster and Pony Express rider, William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody, found him. He was old and penniless.

Cody helped him. Majors lived at Cody's Scouts' Rest Ranch in Nebraska for a time. Majors died in Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, on January 13, 1900, aged 86, is buried in Union Cemetery in Kansas City, MO. Pony Express Postage stamps and postal history of the United States Pony Express bible Works by Alexander Majors at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Alexander Majors at Internet Archive "Life of Alexander Majors in Kansas City", Alexander Majors Chapter, Sons of the American Revolution, at GeoCities "Alexander Majors", Over Land

Threat and error management

Threat and error management is an overarching safety management approach that assumes that pilots will make mistakes and encounter risky situations during flight operations. Rather than try to avoid these threats and errors, its primary focus is on teaching pilots to manage these issues so they do not impair safety, its goal is to maintain safety margins by training pilots and flight crews to detect and respond to events that are to cause damage as well as mistakes that are most to be made during flight operations. TEM allows crews to measure the complexities of a specific organization's context — meaning that the threats and errors encountered by pilots will vary depending upon the type of flight operation — and record human performance in that context. TEM considers technical and environmental issues, incorporates strategies from Crew Resource Management to teach pilots to manage threats and errors; the TEM framework was developed in 1994 by psychologists at University of Texas based on the investigation of accidents of high capacity Regular Public Transport airlines.

However, an evaluation method was needed to identify threats and errors during flight operations and to add information to existing TEM data. A Line Operations Safety Audit serves this purpose and involves the identification and collection of safety-related information — on crew performance, environmental conditions, operational complexity — by a trained observer. LOSA data is used to assess the effectiveness of an organization's training program and to find out how trained procedures are being implemented in day-to-day flights. Threat and error management is an important element in the training of competent pilots that can manage in-flight challenges. Many strategies have been developed that were focused on improving on stress and error. Flight crew training stressed the importance of operational procedures and technical knowledge, with less emphasis placed on nontechnical skills, which became isolated from the real-world operational contexts. Safety training, including TEM, is important because a crew's nontechnical knowledge helps more in managing errors than crews' familiarization with operations through experience.

Candidates who are shortlisted during selection and training processes must demonstrate analytical and coordination capabilities. Possessing these nontechnical skills allows pilots and crew members to carry out their duties efficiently and effectively; the following components are methods that help provide data for the TEM. Training for LOSA experts includes two sessions: education in procedural protocols, TEM concepts and classifications. A LOSA trainee is taught to find data first and code them for both sessions, during which a crew member must exhibit "LOSA Etiquette" — ability to notify the pilot as to why he or she was not able to detect an error or threat after a flight; the pilot's responsibilities include his or her opinions on what safety issues could have had an adverse impact on their operations. A LOSA trainee must record the specific responses of the pilot and thereafter code performance using behavioral markers; the order of the recording is as follows: a) record visible threats.

Observers will record a pilot's overall response on a 4-point Likert scale: 1) poor, 2) marginal, 3) good, 4) outstanding. The data are quantified and tabulated as exemplified by the following format:Planning and execution of performance Frequency is the total number of threats that occurred and is denoted by N. LOSA identifies three main categories that must be recorded: Threats are external factors or errors that are outside the influence of flight crews; these increase the complexity of normal operations. Examples of threats are weather, aircraft malfunctions, other external errors related to a personnel in charge of flight operations other than cockpit members. Non-standard care, decision strategy errors, procedural errors and protocol deviations are examples of external factors. A LOSA expert, seated on the jump seat, must record such threats. A study on crew performance using the TEM approach, discovered that a captain who had less than 6 hours of sleep the day before a regular flight schedule carried out poorer threat management.

First Officers experienced frustration and crews experienced Heightened Emotional Activity as a result of restricted sleep. An understanding of HEA as a major part of the TEM approach is important during normal flight operations. Errors are caused by inaction that increase the likelihood of an adverse event; these errors come from crew communication problems. The difference between an error and a threat is that an error can, with careful attention, be identified and crew members can find prompt solutions to the error; the impact of an error can, therefore, be reduced if properly managed. Examples of errors include procedural errors, violation of SOP. Although crew members are encouraged not to be afraid of admitting their mistakes, they must be able to criticize themselves since the learning process helps them understand the potential danger presented other crew members. Undesired Aircraft States are aircraft configurations or circumstances that are caused either by human error or by external factors.

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Light Car Company

The Light Car Company was a British manufacturer of automobiles. Gordon Murray and Chris Craft founded the Light Car Company in St Neots in 1991 and started producing automobiles. Production went until 1998; the only model was the Rocket. The vehicle was built to be lightweight and as such it weighs only 850 pounds, less than the Lotus or Caterham Seven; the open, doorless body offers space for two people in a tandem configuration. A frame formed the chassis. A 1000 cc Yamaha engine with options of 143 hp or 165 hp powered the vehicle; the top speed was 230 km/h for the weaker model. The Rocket has a wheelbase of 2413 mm, total dimensions are 3518 mm long, 1600 mm wide and 914 mm high. Rocket R & D Limited tried a new edition of the vehicle in 2007. George Nick Georgano: The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. Volume 2: G–O. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago 2001, ISBN 1-57958-293-1. Www.