Gordon Bennett Cup (auto racing)
As one of three Gordon Bennett Cups established by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. millionaire owner of the New York Herald, the automobile racing award was first given in 1900 in France. In 1899 Gordon Bennett offered the Automobile Club de France a trophy to be raced for annually by the automobile clubs of the various countries; the trophy was awarded annually until 1905, after which the ACF held the first Grand Prix motor racing event at the Circuit de la Sarthe, in Le Mans. The 1903 event in Ireland gave rise to the birth of British Racing Green; the trophy given the winner was a Panhard, driven by the Genius of Progress, with Nike as his co-driver. Competition was intended to be between national automobile clubs, or nations, not individuals; the first contestants were France, Great Britain, the United States, Austria, Switzerland and Italy. Each club was required to pay a Fr3000 entry fee; each could send up to three cars. A race, once scheduled, had to be held between 15 May and 15 August, with a total distance of between 550 and 650 km.
Participating clubs shared the cost of running the event. The cars themselves had to have side by side, with driver and riding mechanic. Cars were to weigh at least 400 kg empty, had to be built in the country under whose colors they ran; the Gordon Bennett Cup auto races drew entrants from across Europe, including future aviator Henry Farman, competitors from the United States such as Alexander Winton driving his Winton automobile. Under the rules, the races were hosted in the country of the previous year's winner; as the races were between national teams, it led to the reorganisation and standardisation of national racing colours. Count Eliot Zborowski, father of inter-war racing legend Louis Zborowski, suggested that each national entrant be allotted a different colour. Britain had to choose a different colour from its usual national colours of red and blue, as these had been taken by USA, France respectively.. Reputedly as a concession to Ireland where the 1903 Gordon Bennett Cup race was run, the British adopted shamrock green which became known as British racing green, although the winning Napier of 1902 had been painted olive green, green was well-established as an appropriate colour for locomotives and machinery, in which Britain had led the world during the previous century.
The international motor car race from Paris to Lyons for the Gordon Bennett Cup took place on June 14, 1900. The start from Paris was made at 3 o'clock in the morning and Charron was the first to reach Lyons, arriving at 12:23 p.m. M. Girardot finished second at 2 o'clock. In 1901 the Gordon Bennett Cup race was run in conjunction with the Paris-Bordeaux race on 29 May over a distance of 527.1 km. The race was won by Henri Fournier driving a Mors with a time of 6h 10m 44s; the first of the Gordon Bennett Cup contestants was Leonce Girardot, driving a Panhard with a time of 8h 50m 59s. The 1902 Gordon Bennett Cup was run over a distance of 565 km from Paris to Innsbruck in conjunction with the Paris-Vienna motor car race; the race started in Paris on June 26. Competing were 30 heavy cars, 48 light cars, six voiturettes, three motorcycles, three motorcyclettes; each nation was allowed to nominate up to three cars to compete for the Gordon Bennett Cup, but only six entries were received, three French and three British.
The Automobile Club of Great Britain announced that car No. 160 driven by Mr White, car No. 45, made by Napier & Son of London with Dunlop tyres, driven by Mr Edge. The Times announced on June 30, it was announced in Vienna on July 1 that M. Marcel Renault had won the Paris-Vienna race, with M. Henri Farman second. On Thursday, 2 July 1903 the Gordon Bennett Cup was the first international motor race to be held in Ireland, an honorific to Selwyn Edge who had won the 1902 event in the Paris-Vienna race driving a Napier; the Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland wanted the race to be hosted in the British Isles, their secretary, Claude Johnson, suggested Ireland as the venue because racing was illegal on British public roads. The editor of the Dublin Motor News, Richard J. Mecredy, suggested an area in County Kildare, letters were sent to 102 Irish MPs, 90 Irish peers, 300 newspapers, 34 chairmen of county and local councils, 34 County secretaries, 26 mayors, 41 railway companies, 460 hoteliers, 13 PPs, plus the Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin, Patrick Foley, who pronounced himself in favour.
Local laws had to be adjusted, ergo the'Light Locomotives Bill' was passed on 27 March 1903. Kildare and other local councils drew attention to their areas, whilst Queen’s County declared That every facility will be given and the roads placed at the disposal of motorists during the proposed race. Kildare was chosen on the grounds that the straightness of the roads would be a safety benefit; as a compliment to Ireland the British team chose to race in Shamrock green which thus became known as British racing green although the winning Napier of 1902 had been painted Olive green. There was considerable public concern about safety after the 1901 Paris-Bordeaux Rally, in which at least eight people had been killed, severe crashes during the May 24th 1903 Paris-Madrid race where more than 200 cars competed over a distance of 800 miles but which had to be halted at Bordeaux because there had been so many fatalities. To allay these fears, the 1903 race was held over a closed course which had
Winton Motor Carriage Company
The Winton Motor Carriage Company was a pioneer United States automobile manufacturer based in Cleveland, Ohio. Winton was one of the first American companies to sell a motor car. Scottish immigrant Alexander Winton, owner of the Winton Bicycle Company, turned from bicycle production to an experimental single-cylinder automobile before starting his car company. Winton owned a large lakeshore estate in Ohio. In the mid-1960s the home was demolished and an upscale high rise condominium was constructed aptly named Winton Place; the company was incorporated on March 15, 1897. Their first automobiles were built by hand; each vehicle had fancy painted sides, padded seats, a leather roof, gas lamps. B. F. Goodrich made the tires for Winton. By this time, Winton had produced two operational prototype automobiles. In May of that year, the 10 hp model achieved the astonishing speed of 33.64 mph on a test around a Cleveland horse track. However, the new invention was still subject to much skepticism, so to prove his automobile's durability and usefulness, Alexander Winton had his car undergo an 800-mile endurance run from Cleveland to New York City.
Alexander Winton, in Cleveland, Ohio sold his first manufactured semi-truck in 1899. On March 24, 1898, Robert Allison of Port Carbon, became the first person to buy a Winton automobile after seeing the first automobile advertisement in Scientific American; that year the Winton Motor Carriage Company sold twenty-one more vehicles, including one to James Ward Packard, who founded the Packard automobile company after Winton challenged a dissatisfied Packard to do better. Winton sold 22 cars that year. In 1899, more than one hundred Winton vehicles were sold, making the company the largest manufacturer of gasoline-powered automobiles in the United States; this success led to the opening of the first automobile dealership by Mr. H. W. Koler in Reading, Pennsylvania. To deliver the vehicles, in 1899, Winton built the first auto hauler in America. One of these 1899 Wintons was purchased by his new wife, Isabel Weld Perkins, it is still on display at Larz Anderson Auto Museum in Massachusetts. Publicity generated sales and in 1901 the news that both Reginald Vanderbilt and Alfred Vanderbilt had purchased Winton automobiles boosted the company's image substantially.
That same year, Winton lost a race at Grosse Pointe to Henry Ford. Models Winton vowed to come back and win, producing the 1902 Winton Bullet, which set an unofficial land speed record of 70 mph in Cleveland that year; the Bullet was defeated in another Ford by famed driver Barney Oldfield, but two more Bullet race cars were built. In 1903, Dr Horatio Nelson Jackson made the first successful automobile drive across the United States. On a $50 bet, he purchased a used 2 cylinder, 20 hp Winton touring car and hired a mechanic to accompany him. Starting in San Francisco, ending in Manhattan, the trip took sixty-three days, twelve hours, thirty minutes, including breakdowns and delays while waiting for parts to arrive; the two men drove miles out of the way to find a passable road hoisted the Winton up and over rocky terrain and mud holes with a block and tackle, or were pulled out of soft sand by horse teams. Jackson's Winton is now part of the collections at the National Museum of American History.
The 1904 Winton was a five-passenger tonneau-equipped tourer which sold for US$2,500. By contrast, the Enger 40 was US$2,000, the FAL US$1,750, an Oakland 40 US$1,600, the Cole 30 and Colt Runabout US$1,500, while the Lozier Light Six Metropolitan started at US$3,250, American's lowest-priced model was US$4,250, Lozier's Big Six were US$5,000 and up. ModelsWinton's flat-mounted water-cooled Straight-twin engine, situated amidships of the car, produced 20 hp; the channel and angle steel-framed car weighed 2300 lb. ModelsWinton continued to market automobiles to upscale consumers through the 1910s, but sales began to fall in the early 1920s; this was due to the conservative nature of the company, both in terms of technical development and styling. Only one sporting model was offered - the Sport Touring, with the majority of Wintons featuring tourer, sedan and town car styling. Models The Winton Motor Carriage Company ceased automobile production on February 11, 1924. However, Winton continued in the marine and stationary gasoline and diesel engine business, an industry he entered in 1912 with the Winton Engine Company.
Winton Engine Company became the Winton Engine Corporation, a subsidiary of General Motors, on June 20, 1930. It produced the first practical two-stroke diesel engines in the 400 to 1,200 hp range, which powered early Electro-Motive Corporation diesel locomotives and U. S. Navy submarines. A Winton 8-cylinder, 600-horsepower, 8-201-A diesel engine was the motive power of the revolutionary Burlington Zephyr streamliner passenger train, in 1934 the first American diesel-powered mainline train. Winton provided 201 series engines for rail use until late 1938, when Winton Engine Corporation was reorganized as the General Motors Cleveland Diesel Engine Division and the GM 567 series locomotive engines were introduced. Cleveland Diesel produced marine and locomotive engines until 1941, when locomotive engine production was moved under Electro-Motive Diesel. In 1962 Cleveland Diesel was absorbed by EMD, still in business today. Winton and Cleveland engines were used by the U. S. Navy in the Second World War, powering submarines, destroyer escorts, numerous auxiliaries.
The Winton engines were systematically replaced with the more reliable Cleveland engines
Grosse Pointe, Michigan
Grosse Pointe is a waterfront city adjacent to Detroit in Wayne County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The municipality had a population of 5,421 at the 2010 census, it is bordered on the west by Grosse Pointe Park, on the north by Detroit, on the east by Grosse Pointe Farms, on the south by Lake Saint Clair. Grosse Pointe is about eight miles east of downtown Detroit, accessible by Jefferson Avenue or several other cross streets. Grosse Pointe is one of five named municipalities in northeastern Wayne County, is called "The City" or Grosse Pointe City. Together with "The Park" and "The Farms", "the City" comprises part of the southern Pointes, which are older and more densely populated than the northern Pointes, it became populated between 1910 and 1930 as one of Detroit's first commuter suburbs. Grosse Pointe, Grosse Pointe Farms, Grosse Pointe Park make up the Grosse Pointe South High School district. Downtown Grosse Pointe, along Kercheval Avenue from Neff to Cadieux, nicknamed "The Village," is considered by many to be the central downtown for all five of the Grosse Pointes, although each of them has several blocks of retail properties.
Grosse Pointe was incorporated as a village in 1880, but at that time included what is now Grosse Pointe Farms. The community was divided along its present lines in 1893 over issues of allowing the sale of alcohol, it was incorporated as a city in 1934. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.25 square miles, of which 1.06 square miles is land and 1.19 square miles is water. The water is part of Lake St. Clair; the street layout of Grosse Pointe is a grid inside of its Cadieux and Fisher Road boundaries. Inside this small rectangle, most blocks contain rows of single-family homes built between 1910 and 1950, on parcels 50 feet wide on average; some streets offer large backyards, such as Washington and Lakeland, while other streets are more compact. In some areas homes are configured in a traditionally urban, close-together fashion, while other nearby blocks may offer yards up to 150 feet wide. Home sizes and styles vary from 1,500 to 12,000 square feet, but under 3,000 square feet on average.
Most of the largest homes are within a few blocks of the lakefront. Predominant architecture includes the neo-Georgian, Tudor revival, Dutch Colonial, arts and crafts styles; some Victorian homes and traditional bungalow homes can be found just north and south of the Village retail district. Some blocks just south of the Village, have townhouses and apartments. Most of these were built in the 1920s, can be seen along St. Paul and Jefferson avenues west of Rivard Boulevard, between Notre Dame and Cadieux south of the Village retail district. There are retail and low-rise office buildings along Kercheval Avenue in the Village district, on Fisher Road near Grosse Pointe South High School, along Mack Avenue bordering Detroit; this climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Grosse Pointe has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 5,421 people, 2,236 households, 1,481 families residing in the city.
The population density was 5,114.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,446 housing units at an average density of 2,307.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.2% White, 3.3% African American, 0.1% Native American, 1.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 2,236 households of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.9% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.8% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.06. The median age in the city was 44.7 years. 26.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.4% male and 53.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,670 people, 2,388 households, 1,559 families residing in the city.
The population density was 5,297.9 per square mile. There were 2,504 housing units at an average density of 2,339.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.18% White, 0.79% African American, 0.07% Native American, 1.04% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 0.60% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.46% of the population. 19.9% were of German, 14.8% Irish, 13.9% English, 7.8% Polish and 7.2% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. The largest reported. There were 2,388 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.7% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.7% were non-families. 31.1% of all households were made up of indi
National Inventors Hall of Fame
The National Inventors Hall of Fame is an American not-for-profit organization which recognizes individual engineers and inventors who hold a U. S. patent of significant technology. Founded in 1973, its primary mission is to "honor the people responsible for the great technological advances that make human and economic progress possible." Besides the Hall of Fame, it operates a museum in Alexandria, a former middle school in Akron and sponsors educational programs, a collegiate competition, special projects all over the United States to encourage creativity among students. As of 2019, 582 inventors have been inducted constituting historic persons from the past three centuries, but including about 100 living inductees. An NIHF committee chooses an annual inductee class in February from nominations accepted from all sources. Nominees must hold a U. S. patent of significant contribution to the U. S. welfare, which advances science and useful arts. The 2018 class included 15 inventors, including Marvin Caruthers for chemical synthesis, Joseph C.
Shivers for Spandex. The National Inventors Hall of Fame was founded in 1973 on the initiative of H. Hume Mathews the chairman of the National Council of Patent Law Associations. In the following year, it gained a major sponsor in the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office from Washington, D. C. At first, the Hall was housed in the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office in Washington, D. C. near the Washington National Airport but it soon needed more room at a more prominent location. A committee was formed in 1986 to find a new home for it. For a time, the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, was the frontrunner, but in 1987, a patent attorney from Akron, Edwin "Ned" Oldham, the representative from the National Council of Patent Law Associations, led the drive to move the Hall to Akron. According to Maurice H. Klitzman, one of the founding members of the Board of Directors, because of the guaranteed financial support by the city of Akron that exceeded any other community's proposal, the Board selected Akron as the new home.
The construction of the new building was finished in 1995 and the Hall opened to the public with the name of the Inventure Place. From the beginning, the Inventure Place was intended to be more than a science and technology museum and library, it was designed to double as a national resource center for creativity. Designed by an architect from New York City, James Stewart Polshek, it was a stainless-steel building, shaped like a curving row of white sails, with five tiers of exhibits. One of the exhibits allowed the visitors to use computer programs for making animations and mechanisms for running laser-light shows, but attendance did not meet the expectations and the museum never made a profit, although its related ventures and programs, such as Invent Now and Camp Invention, proved to be more successful. In 2002, its name was changed to the National Inventors Hall of Fame Museum. Six years the Hall moved to Alexandria, its former facility was converted to a specialty school for students in grades between 8th.
It is now the National Inventors Hall of Fame STEM Middle School, a middle school for the Akron Public Schools. In Alexandria, the National Inventors Hall of Fame operates a museum in the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office building at 600 Dulany Street, with a gallery of digital portraits of the honorees, interactive kiosks and a theater. Admission is free. In addition to the exhibits of the artifacts and documents from the collections of the Patent and Trademark Office, it promotes future generations of inventors by sponsoring the Invent Now Kids program, Camp Invention, Club Invention and the Collegiate Inventors Competition as well as, with national partners, many ventures and special projects. Camp Invention, founded in 1990, is a daytime summer camp for children, with program sites in 49 states. Camp Invention is the only nationally recognized summer program focused on creativity, real-world problem solving and the spirit of the invention; the Collegiate Inventors Competition was created in 1990 to encourage college and university students to be creative and innovative with science and technology for dealing with the problems of the world.
Since with the help from the sponsors, it has awarded more than $1 million to the winning students in two categories and graduate. In 2012, the first places were won with a delivery therapy for treating cancer and a way to facilitate suturing in abdominal surgery. Other finalists included the use of CT scanning and 3-D printing technology to replicate an amputee's lost hand, a low-profile shoulder brace that can be applied by the athletes themselves, an electric motorcycle that runs on spheres instead of wheels. List of African-American inventors and scientists NASA spinoff Science and technology in the United States Technological and industrial history of the United States Timeline of United States inventions Timeline of United States discoveries United States Patent and Trademark Office Yankee ingenuity GeneralAkron Life and Leisure magazine, Baker Publishing, J. McGarrity, June 2003Specific Official website
Berna Eli "Barney" Oldfield was an American pioneer automobile racer. After success in bicycle racing, he began auto racing in 1902 and continued until his retirement in 1918, he was the first man to drive a car at 60 miles per hour on a circular track. Berna Eli Oldfield was born in York Township, Fulton County, near Wauseon, on January 29, 1878, to Henry Clay, a laborer, Sarah Oldfield, he was named after his father's bunkmate in the 68th Ohio Volunteer Infantry during the American Civil War. He had a sister Bertha; as of the 1880 United States Census, the Oldfields lived in Wauseon. In 1889 they moved to Toledo. In the summer of 1891, Berna worked as a waterboy. According to legend, he spent most of his Sunday afternoons at the local Toledo fire station, hoping for the next call; as the company's “mascot”, he was allowed to ride the big red hose wagon, pulled by a pair of horses that raced through the streets. The following year, Berna worked after school selling the Toledo Toledo Bee newspapers.
Oldfield dropped out of school after the eighth grade in 1892. He started working with his father as a kitchen helper at the mental asylum during the day and a bellhop at the downtown hotel at night, he worked at the hotel full-time, as he felt uneasy around mental patients. The bell captain was said to tell him that “Berna” was a sissy name, so he took “Barney” as his official name. Barney, who had a "magnetic personality", received many tips at the hotel, he used them to buy an "Advance Traveller" with pneumatic tires. Clarence Brigham, who sold the “Cleveland” brand bike, Edward G. Eager who sold the “Columbia” models in his store, organized the Wauseon Cycle Club in their town, they wanted both to increase bicycle sales and draw more people to the town via the Michigan Lake Shore Railroad. Other cycling groups in Swanton, Monroe, Adrian and Toledo were part of the same cycle racing circuit. Half-mile and mile classes were raced on public racetracks reserved for horse racing. Other members included Fred Ballmeyer, Ora Brailey and Buff Harrison, Doc Myers, Emil Winzeler, Doc Miley, Frank Harper, Dan Raymond, Sid Black and Barney Oldfield.
In October 1892, the second “Silver Tournament” was held in Wauseon. In 1893, Oldfield began working as an elevator operator at a different hotel; every night he stored one hotel tenant's lightweight "Cleveland" cycle in the basement. At age 16, Oldfield began serious bicycle racing in 1894 after officials from the "Dauntless" bicycle factory asked him to ride for the Ohio state championship. Although he came in second, the race was a turning point. Oldfield was hired as a parts sales representative for the Stearns bicycle factory. There he met his future wife. By 1896, Oldfield was paid by Stearns in New York, to race on its amateur team. Oldfield was lent a gasoline-powered bicycle to race at Salt Lake City. Through fellow racer Tom Cooper, he met Henry Ford, at the beginning of his career as an auto manufacturer, he had readied two automobiles for racing, he asked Oldfield if he would like to test one in Michigan. Oldfield agreed and traveled to Michigan for the trial. Although Oldfield had never driven an automobile, he and Cooper bought both test vehicles when Ford offered to sell them for $800.
One was "No. 999", debuted in October 1902 at the Manufacturer's Challenge Cup. Today it is displayed at the Henry Ford Museum in Greenfield Village. Oldfield agreed to drive against Alexander Winton. Oldfield was rumored to have learned how to operate the controls of the "999" only the morning of the event. Oldfield won by a half mile in the five-mile race, he slid through the corners like a motorcycle racer rather than braking. It resulted in both Oldfield and Ford becoming nationally known. John Wilkinson, who designed an air-cooled engine for Franklin Automobile Company and was their chief engineer, raced against Oldfield in 1902, he won the state 5 miles championship in the record time of 6:54:06. On June 20, 1903, at the Indiana State Fairgrounds, Oldfield became the first driver to run a mile track in one minute flat, or 60 miles per hour. Two months he drove one mile in 55.8 seconds at the Empire City Race Track in Yonkers, New York. Winton agreed to supply free cars for racing. Oldfield, his manager Ernest Moross, agent Will Pickens traveled throughout the United States in a series of timed runs and match races, he earned a reputation as a showman.
Oldfield was "the first American to become a celebrity for his ability to drive a car with great skill and daring." He liked to increase the drama in best of three matches: he would win the first part by a nose, lose the second, win the third. Oldfield won first place at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on August 1909 in a Mercedes Benz, he bought a Benz, raised his speed in 1910 to 70.159 mph while driving his "Blitzen Benz". In 1910 Oldfield reached the speed of 131.25 mph. At Daytona Beach, Florida, on March 16, 1910, in his Blitzen Benz, he set the world speed record, driving 131.724 mph, for which he earned the nickname “speed king”. In November 1914 he won the Los Angeles-to-Phoenix Cactus Derby Race.
Daytona Beach, Florida
Daytona Beach is a city in Volusia County, United States. It lies about 51 miles northeast of Orlando, 86 miles southeast of Jacksonville, 242 miles northwest of Miami. In the 2010 U. S. Census, it had a population of 61,005, it is a principal city of the Deltona–Daytona Beach–Ormond Beach metropolitan area, home to 600,756 people as of 2013. Daytona Beach is a principal city of the Fun Coast region of Florida; the city is known for its beach where the hard-packed sand allows motorized vehicles to drive on the beach in restricted areas. This hard-packed sand made Daytona Beach a mecca for motorsports, the old Daytona Beach Road Course hosted races for over 50 years; this was replaced in 1959 by Daytona International Speedway. The city is the headquarters for NASCAR. Daytona Beach hosts large groups of out-of-towners that descend upon the city for various events, notably Speedweeks in early February when over 200,000 NASCAR fans come to attend the season-opening Daytona 500. Other events include the NASCAR Coke Zero Sugar 400 race in July, Bike Week in early March, Biketoberfest in late October, the 24 Hours of Daytona endurance race in January.
The area where Daytona Beach is located was once inhabited by the indigenous Timucuan Indians who lived in fortified villages. The Timucuas were nearly exterminated by contact with Europeans through war and disease and became extinct as a racial entity through assimilation and attrition during the 18th century; the Seminole Indians, descendants of Creek Indians from Georgia and Alabama, frequented the area prior to the Second Seminole War. During the era of British rule of Florida between 1763 and 1783, the King's Road passed through present-day Daytona Beach; the road extended from Saint Augustine, the capital of East Florida, to Andrew Turnbull's experimental colony in New Smyrna. In 1804 Samuel Williams received a land grant of 3,000 acres from the Spanish Crown, which had regained Florida from the British after the American Revolution; this land grant encompassed the area. Williams built a slave-labor-based plantation to grow cotton and sugar cane, his son Samuel Hill Williams would abandon the plantation during the Second Seminole War, when the Seminoles burned it to the ground.
The area now known as the Daytona Beach Historical District was once the Orange Grove Plantation, a citrus and sugar cane plantation granted to Samuel Williams in 1787. The plantation was situated on the west bank of the tidal channel known as the Halifax River, 12 miles north of Mosquito Inlet. Williams was a British loyalist from North Carolina who fled to the Bahamas with his family until the Spanish reopened Florida to non-Spanish immigration. After his death in 1810, the plantation was run by his family until it was burned down in 1835. In 1871, Mathias Day Jr. of Mansfield, purchased the 3,200 acre tract of the former Orange Grove Plantation. He built a hotel. In 1872, due to financial troubles, Day lost title to his land. In 1886, the St. Johns & Halifax River Railway arrived in Daytona; the line would be purchased in 1889 by Henry M. Flagler, who made it part of his Florida East Coast Railway; the separate towns of Daytona, Daytona Beach and Seabreeze merged as "Daytona Beach" in 1926, at the urging of civic leader J.
B. Kahn and others. By the 1920s, it was dubbed "The World's Most Famous Beach". Daytona's wide beach of smooth, compacted sand attracted automobile and motorcycle races beginning in 1902, as pioneers in the industry tested their inventions, it hosted land speed record attempts beginning in 1904, when William K. Vanderbilt set an unofficial record of 92.307 mph. Land speed racers from Barney Oldfield to Henry Seagrave to Malcolm Campbell would visit Daytona and make the 23 mi beach course famous. Record attempts, including numerous fatal endeavors such as Frank Lockhart and Lee Bible, would continue until Campbell's March 7, 1935 effort, which set the record at 276.816 mph and marked the end of Daytona's land speed racing days. On March 8, 1936, the first stock car race was held on the Daytona Beach Road Course, located in the present-day Town of Ponce Inlet. In 1958, William France Sr. and NASCAR created the Daytona International Speedway to replace the beach course. Automobiles are still permitted at a maximum speed of 10 mph.
Daytona Beach is located at 29°12′N 81°2′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 64.93 sq mi. of which 58.68 sq mi is land and 6.25 sq mi is water. Water is 9.6% of the total area. The city of Daytona Beach is split in two by the Halifax River lagoon, part of the Intracoastal Waterway, sits on the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered on the north by Holly Hill and Ormond Beach and on the south by Daytona Beach Shores, South Daytona and Port Orange. Daytona Beach has a humid subtropical climate, typical of the Gulf and South Atlantic states; as is typical of much of Florida, there are two seasons in Daytona Beach. In summer, temperatures are stable and there is an average of only 9.2 days annually with a maximum at or above 95 °F. The Bermuda High pumps hot and unstable tropical air from the Bahamas and Gulf of Mexico, resulting in daily, but brief thundershowers
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
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