Alexander Daniel Hales is an English cricketer. He is a right-handed opening batsman who plays for Nottinghamshire and the England cricket team, he made his One Day International debut against India in August 2014 and his Test cricket debut against South Africa in December 2015. Hales is the first and to date only English batsman to score a T20I century, he is the first batsman to be dismissed for 99 in an ODI and a T20I. Hales was born in Hillingdon and attended both Westbrook Hay School and Chesham High School in Buckinghamshire, his father Gary broke several local batting records while his grandfather Dennis was a talented tennis player who once forced Rod Laver to five sets at Wimbledon. His mother is Lisa Hales. Hales first came to national attention in 2005 when, as a sixteen-year-old, he hit 55 off a single over in a Cricket Idol T20 tournament at Lords, he had been picked for his fast bowling ability. Hales first represented Buckinghamshire in Minor Counties cricket during the 2006 season, played for MCC Young Cricketers in the Second XI Championship of 2007.
He impressed whilst trialling with Nottinghamshire in 2007, scoring 218 in only his second appearance for the county, following it up with a hundred and two 95s. Notts offered him a two-year contract until the end of the 2009 season, he made his List A debut in a rain-affected match against Leicestershire in May 2008 and his first-class debut against Somerset in September 2008. During the 2009 season, after an impressive start, he signed a new two-year contract extension. On 29 August 2009, Alex hit the top score in the Pro40 2009, 150 off 102 balls for Nottinghamshire against Worcestershire at Trent Bridge. In July 2011, Hales made a century for Nottinghamshire in the county championship, a score that, according to Cricinfo marked him as "beginning to warrant the attention of the England selectors": it was the second century of his first-class career, he went on to make 184. In May 2015, Hales hit six consecutive sixes across two overs on the opening day of the NatWest t20 Blast in his 86 not out against Birmingham.
On the 5th August 2017 Hales hit an incredible 95 off 30 balls against Durham in the T-20 Blast competition. Hales represented England U19s in the summer of 2008 in a series of youth Test matches and ODIs against a touring New Zealand U19's, enjoying a successful time averaging 50 in the Tests and over 30 in the ODIs, including 3 half centuries. After just one season on the county circuit he was named in an England Performance Programme squad in the 09/10 winter. In the 2011 summer he was selected for the England Lions against Sri Lanka and was chosen for all the matches. Following an impressive year in domestic Twenty20, he was selected for the senior England squad to play India, he scored a two-ball duck on debut, however in the following series against the West Indies, he scored an unbeaten 62 in a 128-run stand with Craig Kieswetter as England won by 10 wickets. Hales kept his place in the side for the T20 match against India, but only scored 11 runs off 19 balls. On 24 June 2012, England achieved their highest successful chase in Twenty20 internationals.
Hales was man of the match, after scoring 99 before losing his wicket to a yorker bowled by Rampaul with the game won. Hales played in both games against South Africa, making scores of 11 in both innings, although he remained unbeaten in the second as the match was rained off. Alex Hales is the only batsman to be dismissed for 99 in a T20I innings. Now an integral part of England's T20 team, Hales played in the 2012 ICC World Twenty20. England beat Afghanistan to qualify from the group, with Hales being run out on 31. However, England were bowled out for 80 in the next game against India. In the super 8 stage, Hales again batted well against the West Indies, scoring 68. In that match against West Indies he along with Eoin Morgan set the record for the highest 4th wicket partnership in ICC World T20 history. After beating New Zealand, England lost to Sri Lanka, with Hales being dismissed for just 3, meaning England were knocked out of the tournament. Hales played in all three T20 games against New Zealand, now batting with his county teammate Michael Lumb.
He made scores of 21, 5 and 80. In the third match of the series, in which Hales made 80, he participated in a 143 opening partnership with Lumb as England won by 10 wickets. In the return series Hales made 39. Hales made 94 in the second match against Australia, as he consolidated his position at the top of the ICC player rankings. Hales was less effective in the away series in Australia, scoring 22, 16 and 6, he was selected in the limited overs tour of West Indies, where he was expected to play in his first ODI. However, injury meant he could only play in the T20 series, where he made scores of 3, 40 and 38. England were drawn in a tough group for the 2014 World T20. Hales made a second ball duck in the first match against New Zealand, but followed this up by an unbeaten 116 against Sri Lanka. In doing so he became the first Englishman to score a T20I century. In that same match he along with Eoin Morgan set the record for the highest 3rd wicket partnership in T20 World Cup history. However, although Hales made 38 against South Africa, England lost and were knocked out of the competition.
They suffered a humiliating defeat against the Netherlands in their final match, in which Hales made 12 as England were bowled out for 88. Hales kept his place in the team for Peter Moores first game in charge of the T20 side against Sr Lanka. Although England lost, Hales top scored with 66. Hales made his long-awaited ODI debut in th
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, values, reason and language. Such questions are posed as problems to be studied or resolved; the term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will? "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology and economics. Other investigations related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of science. Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science and politics. Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics. In the first part of the first book of his Academics, Cicero introduced the division of philosophy into logic and ethics. Metaphysical philosophy was the study of existence, God, logic and other abstract objects; this division has changed.
Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy still includes value theory. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality". A broad and impartial conception of philosophy finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales and Pythagoras who practiced a "love of wisdom" and were termed physiologoi.
Socrates was a influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient, Medieval philosophy, Modern philosophy; the Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato, who founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle, founding the Peripatetic school, who were both influential in Western tradition. Other traditions include Cynicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics, the nature of the well-lived life, the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason. With the rise of the Roman empire, Greek philosophy was increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca. Medieval philosophy is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the ris
Richard of Saint Victor
Richard of Saint Victor, C. R. S. A. was a Medieval Scottish philosopher and theologian and one of the most influential religious thinkers of his time. A canon regular, he was a prominent mystical theologian, was prior of the famous Augustinian Abbey of Saint Victor in Paris from 1162 until his death in 1173. Little is known about the origins and upbringing of Richard of Saint Victor. John of Toulouse wrote a short Vita of Richard in the seventeenth century, he said. John added that Richard was received into the Abbey of St Victor by Abbot Gilduin and was a student under Hugh of St Victor, the most influential of all Victorine teachers; this account of Richard's early life is not accepted by all modern scholars and some have suggested that Richard entered the abbey after Hugh's death in 1141. All scholarship agrees, that Richard was a magister during the 1150s, was promoted to subprior in 1159, he served under Achard of St. Victor's elected successor Ernisius, unworthy of the position. Richard's life was burdened by the frustrations of working under a man, ill-suited for his responsibilities.
Ernisius wasted the abbey's resources on overly ambitious building projects and persecuted those who attempted to resist him. Richard was allowed to keep his office but his influence was restricted. Things became so unbearable that an appeal was made to the Pope, who visited Saint Victor in 1162. Through a multitude of transactions, Ernisius was removed from his position and the Pope commended Richard for his continued involvement in the matter. Letters from England written to Richard show that he was in constant touch with English affairs and give evidence of the international character of intellectual life at this time, he was promoted to prior in 1162, a position he held until his death on 10 March 1173. Richard wrote extensively. There are some problems with establishing the chronology of Richard’s works; the earliest ones come before 1153, the latest were written one or two years before his death. His earlier works are similar to the general writing of the period, his writing develops from basic exegesis and philosophy to more of a study of purely spiritual questions.
In his early writings he relies on the moral interpretations of previous theologians such as Augustine of Hippo, Pope Gregory I and Hugh. He became more independent and strayed from Hugh's influence. There is some debate between historians about which of Richard's texts are the most influential and important; because Richard's work covers many spheres of thought it is somewhat difficult to categorise his work. The Book of the Twelve Patriarchs, sometimes titled Benjamin Minor, is one of Richard of Saint Victor's great works on contemplation, it is not known when it was written, but it would seem to date before 1162. Richard specifies that this work is not a treatise on contemplation but rather prepares the mind for contemplation; the Mystical Ark, sometimes called Benjamin Major or The Grace of Contemplation completes this with the study of the mind in relation to prayer. However, in the last chapters of Benjamin Major, written than the Minor, Richard abandons his topic and the discussion of the teaching of mystical theology takes up a good portion of every remaining chapter.
He is still attempting to instruct his followers on a text but he has engaged himself in creating a system of mystical theology. One of Richard’s greatest works was the De Trinitate, written while Richard was prior, between 1162 and 1173; this is known because it incorporates pieces of theological text which editors are now finding in earlier works. De Trinitate is Richard's most original study on dogmatic theology, it stems from the desire to show that dogmatic truths of Christian revelation are not against reason. Richard's theological approach stems from a profoundly mystical life of prayer, which in the Spirit seeks to involve the mind, in continuation with the Augustinian and Anselmian tradition. Owing to the fact that until this masterpiece has not been available in any English translation, its diffusion has been limited and its influence has gone beyond'Book III', condemning serious enquiry to an understanding of Richard's argument, only partial. In 2011, through the efforts of Ruben Angelici's scholarship, the first, full translation of Richard's'De Trinitate' has been released for publication in English and now this scholastic masterpiece is available to a wider audience to be appreciated in its entirety.
Richard wrote a massive handbook of biblical education entitled Liber Exceptionum, important scriptural commentaries, many treatises. The Four Degrees of Violent Charity, composed about 1170, with its description of how vehement love leads to union with God and more perfect service of neighbour, has been of interest to writers interested in Christian mysticism. Richard’s other treatises are a number of short works which deal with textual difficulties and theological issues. Many of them can be grouped together with larger works; some of them are correspondence between Richard and his students while others seem to have been written at the request of friends. Although short, they are interesting because they allow the modern reader to see the mentality of the students and the discussions and issues of the time. Richard of Saint Victor’s Commentary on Ezekiel is of special interest in the field of art histor
Aurelius Ambrosius, better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century. He was the Roman governor of Liguria and Emilia, headquartered in Milan, before being made bishop of Milan by popular acclamation in 374. Ambrose was a staunch opponent of Arianism. Ambrose was one of the four original Doctors of the Church, is the patron saint of Milan, he is notable for his influence on Augustine of Hippo. Traditionally, Ambrose is credited with promoting "antiphonal chant", a style of chanting in which one side of the choir responds alternately to the other, as well as with composing Veni redemptor gentium, an Advent hymn. Ambrose was born into a Roman Christian family about 340 and was raised in Gallia Belgica, the capital of, Augusta Treverorum, his father is sometimes identified with a praetorian prefect of Gaul. His mother was a woman of intellect and piety and a member of the Roman family, Aurelii Symmachi and thus Ambrose was cousin of the orator Q.
Aurelius Symmachus. He was the youngest of three children, who included Marcellina and Satyrus venerated as saints. There is a legend that as an infant, a swarm of bees settled on his face while he lay in his cradle, leaving behind a drop of honey, his father honeyed tongue. For this reason and beehives appear in the saint's symbology. After the early death of his father, Ambrose went to Rome, where he studied literature and rhetoric, he followed in his father's footsteps and entered public service. Praetorian Prefect Sextus Claudius Petronius Probus first gave him a place in the council and in about 372 made him governor of Liguria and Emilia, with headquarters at Milan. In 286 Diocletian had moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Ambrose was the Governor of Aemilia-Liguria in northern Italy until 374, when he became the Bishop of Milan, he was a popular political figure, since he was the Governor in the effective capital in the Roman West, he was a recognizable figure in the court of Valentinian I.
In the late 4th century there was a deep conflict in the diocese of Milan between the Nicene Church and Arians. In 374 the bishop of Milan, Auxentius, an Arian and the Arians challenged the succession. Ambrose went to the church where the election was to take place, to prevent an uproar, probable in this crisis, his address was interrupted by a call, "Ambrose, bishop!", taken up by the whole assembly. Ambrose was known to be Nicene Christian in belief, but acceptable to Arians due to the charity shown in theological matters in this regard. At first he energetically refused the office, for which he was in no way prepared: Ambrose was neither baptized nor formally trained in theology. Upon his appointment, Ambrose fled to a colleague's home seeking to hide. Upon receiving a letter from the Emperor Gratian praising the appropriateness of Rome appointing individuals evidently worthy of holy positions, Ambrose's host gave him up. Within a week, he was baptized and duly consecrated bishop of Milan; as bishop, he adopted an ascetic lifestyle, apportioned his money to the poor, donating all of his land, making only provision for his sister Marcellina.
This raised his popularity further, giving him considerable political leverage over the emperor. Upon the unexpected appointment of Ambrose to the episcopate, his brother Satyrus resigned a prefecture in order to move to Milan, where he took over managing the family's affairs. Ambrose studied theology with a presbyter of Rome. Using his excellent knowledge of Greek, rare in the West, to his advantage, he studied the Old Testament and Greek authors like Philo, Origen and Basil of Caesarea, with whom he was exchanging letters, he applied this knowledge as preacher, concentrating on exegesis of the Old Testament, his rhetorical abilities impressed Augustine of Hippo, who hitherto had thought poorly of Christian preachers. In the confrontation with Arians, Ambrose sought to theologically refute their propositions, which were contrary to the Nicene creed and thus to the defined orthodoxy; the Arians appealed to many high level clergy in both the Western and Eastern empires. Although the western Emperor Gratian supported orthodoxy, the younger Valentinian II, who became his colleague in the Empire, adhered to the Arian creed.
Ambrose did not sway the young prince's position. In the East, Emperor Theodosius I professed the Nicene creed. In this contested state of religious opinion, two leaders of the Arians, bishops Palladius of Ratiaria and Secundianus of Singidunum, confident of numbers, prevailed upon Gratian to call a general council from all parts of the empire; this request appeared so equitable. However, Ambrose feared the consequences and prevailed upon the emperor to have the matter determined by a council of the Western bishops. Accordingly, a synod composed of thirty-two bishops was held at Aquileia in the year 381. Ambrose was elected president and Palladius, being called upon to defend his opinions, declined. A vote was taken, when Palladius and his associate Secundianus were deposed
Peter Lombard, was a scholastic theologian, Bishop of Paris, author of Four Books of Sentences, which became the standard textbook of theology, for which he earned the accolade Magister Sententiarum. Peter Lombard was born in northwestern Italy, to a poor family, his date of birth was between 1095 and 1100. His education most began in Italy at the cathedral schools of Novara and Lucca; the patronage of Odo, bishop of Lucca, who recommended him to Bernard of Clairvaux, allowed him to leave Italy and further his studies at Reims and Paris. Petrus Lombardus studied first in the cathedral school at Reims, where Magister Alberich and Lutolph of Novara were teaching, arrived in Paris about 1134, where Bernard recommended him to the canons of the church of St. Victor. In Paris, where he spent the next decade teaching at the cathedral school of Notre Dame, he came into contact with Peter Abelard and Hugh of St. Victor, who were among the leading theologians of the time. There are no proven facts relating to his whereabouts in Paris until 1142 when he became recognized as writer and teacher.
Around 1145, Peter became a "magister", or professor, at the cathedral school of Notre Dame in Paris. Peter's means of earning a living before he began to derive income as a teacher and from his canon's prebend is shrouded in uncertainty. Lombard's style of teaching gained quick acknowledgment, it can be surmised that this attention is what prompted the canons of Notre Dame to ask him to join their ranks. He was considered a celebrated theologian by 1144; the Parisian school of canons had not included among their number a theologian of high regard for some years. The canons of Notre Dame, to a man, were members of the Capetian dynasty, relatives of families aligned to the Capetians by blood or marriage, scions of the Île-de-France or eastern Loire Valley nobility, or relatives of royal officials. In contrast, Peter had no relatives, ecclesiastical connections, no political patrons in France, it seems that he must have been invited by the canons of Notre Dame for his academic merit. He became a subdeacon in 1147.
He was present at the consistory of Paris in 1147, he attended the Council of Reims in 1148, where Pope Eugenius III was present at the synod, which examined Gilbert de la Porrée and Éon de l'Étoile. Peter was among the signers of the act condemning Gilbert's teachings. At some time after 1150 he became a deacon an archdeacon, maybe as early as 1152, he was ordained priest some time before 1156. On 28 July 1159, at the Feast of Saints Paul, he was consecrated as bishop of Paris. Walter of St Victor accused Peter of obtaining the office by simony; the more usual story is that Philip, younger brother of Louis VII. and archdeacon of Notre-Dame, was elected by the canons but declined in favor of Peter, his teacher. His reign as bishop was brief, he died on either 21 or 22 July 1160. Little can be ascertained about Lombard's administrative style or objectives because he left behind so few episcopal acta, he was succeeded by the builder of the Cathedral of Notre Dame. His tomb in the church of Saint-Marcel in Paris was destroyed during the French Revolution, but a transcription of his epitaph survives.
Peter Lombard wrote commentaries on the Pauline epistles. From the 1220s until the 16th century, no work of Christian literature, except for the Bible itself, was commented upon more frequently. All the major medieval thinkers, from Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas to William of Ockham and Gabriel Biel, were influenced by it; the young Martin Luther still wrote glosses on the Sentences, John Calvin quoted from it over 100 times in his Institutes. Though the Four Books of Sentences formed the framework upon which four centuries of scholastic interpretation of Christian dogma was based, rather than a dialectical work itself, the Four Books of Sentences is a compilation of biblical texts, together with relevant passages from the Church Fathers and many medieval thinkers, on the entire field of Christian theology as it was understood at the time. Peter Lombard's magnum opus stands squarely within the pre-scholastic exegesis of biblical passages, in the tradition of Anselm of Laon, who taught through quotations from authorities.
It stands out as the first major effort to bring together commentaries on the full range of theological issues, arrange the material in a systematic order, attempt to reconcile them where they appeared to defend different viewpoints. The Sentences starts with the Trinity in Book I, moves on to creation in Book II, treats Christ, the saviour of the fallen creation, in Book III, deals with the sacraments, which mediate Christ's grace, in Book IV. Peter Lombard's most famous and most controversial doctrine in the Sentences was his identification of charity with the Holy Spirit in Book I, distinction 17. According to this doctrine, when the Christian loves God and his neighbour, this love is God; this idea, in its inchoate form, can be extrapolated from certain remarks of St. Augustine of Hippo. Although this was never declared unorthodox, few theologians have been prepared to follow Peter Lombard in this aspect of his teaching. Compare Pope Benedict XVI's encyclical Deus caritas est, 2006. In the Sentences was the doctrine that marriage was consensual and need not be consummated to be cons
Saint Bonaventure, born Giovanni di Fidanza, was an Italian medieval Franciscan, scholastic theologian and philosopher. The seventh Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, he was Cardinal Bishop of Albano, he was canonised on 14 April 1482 by Pope Sixtus IV and declared a Doctor of the Church in the year 1588 by Pope Sixtus V. He is known as the "Seraphic Doctor". Many writings believed in the Middle Ages to be his are now collected under the name Pseudo-Bonaventure, he was born at Bagnoregio in Umbria, not far from Viterbo part of the Papal States. Nothing is known of his childhood, other than the names of his parents, Giovanni di Fidanza and Maria di Ritella, he entered the Franciscan Order in 1243 and studied at the University of Paris under Alexander of Hales, under Alexander's successor, John of Rochelle. In 1253 he held the Franciscan chair at Paris. A dispute between seculars and mendicants delayed his reception as Master until 1257, where his degree was taken in company with Thomas Aquinas.
Three years earlier his fame had earned him the position of lecturer on The Four Books of Sentences—a book of theology written by Peter Lombard in the twelfth century—and in 1255 he received the degree of master, the medieval equivalent of doctor. After having defended his order against the reproaches of the anti-mendicant party, he was elected Minister General of the Franciscan Order. On 24 November 1265, he was selected for the post of Archbishop of York. During his tenure, the General Chapter of Narbonne, held in 1260, promulgated a decree prohibiting the publication of any work out of the order without permission from the higher superiors; this prohibition has induced modern writers to pass severe judgment upon Roger Bacon's superiors being envious of Bacon's abilities. However, the prohibition enjoined on Bacon was a general one, its promulgation was not directed against him, but rather against Gerard of Borgo San Donnino. Gerard had published in 1254 without permission a heretical work, Introductorius in Evangelium æternum.
Thereupon the General Chapter of Narbonne promulgated the above-mentioned decree, identical with the "constitutio gravis in contrarium" Bacon speaks of. The above-mentioned prohibition was rescinded in Roger's favour unexpectedly in 1266. Bonaventure was instrumental in procuring the election of Pope Gregory X, who rewarded him with the title of Cardinal Bishop of Albano, insisted on his presence at the great Second Council of Lyon in 1274. There, after his significant contributions led to a union of the Greek and Latin churches, Bonaventure died and in suspicious circumstances; the 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia has citations that suggest he was poisoned, but no mention is made of this in the 2003 second edition of the New Catholic Encyclopedia. The only extant relic of the saint is the arm and hand with which he wrote his Commentary on the Sentences, now conserved at Bagnoregio, in the parish church of St. Nicholas, he steered the Franciscans on a moderate and intellectual course that made them the most prominent order in the Catholic Church until the coming of the Jesuits.
His theology was marked by an attempt to integrate faith and reason. He thought of Christ as the "one true master" who offers humans knowledge that begins in faith, is developed through rational understanding, is perfected by mystical union with God. Bonaventure's feast day was included in the General Roman Calendar upon his canonisation in 1482, it was at first celebrated on the second Sunday in July, but was moved in 1568 to 14 July, since 15 July, the anniversary of his death, was at that time taken up with the feast of Saint Henry. It remained on that date, with the rank of "double", until 1960, when it was reclassified as a feast of the third class. In 1969 it was assigned to the date of his death, 15 July. Bonaventure was formally canonised in 1484 by the Franciscan Pope Sixtus IV, ranked along with Thomas Aquinas as the greatest of the Doctors of the Church by another Franciscan, Pope Sixtus V, in 1587. Bonaventure was regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of the Middle Ages, his works, as arranged in the most recent Critical Edition by the Quaracchi Fathers, consist of a Commentary on the Sentences of Lombard, in four volumes, eight other volumes, including a Commentary on the Gospel of St Luke and a number of smaller works.
The German philosopher Dieter Hattrup denies that Reduction of the Arts to Theology was written by Bonaventure, claiming that the style of thinking does not match Bonaventure's original style. His position is no longer tenable given recent research: the text remains "indubitably authentic". A work that for many years was falsely attributed to Bonaventure, De septem itineribus aeternitatis, was written by Rudolf von Biberach. For St. Isabelle of France, the sister of King St. Louis IX of France, her monastery of Poor Clares at Longchamps, St. Bonaventure wrote the treatise, Concerning the Perfection of Life; the Commentary on the Sentences, written at the
Order of Friars Minor
The Order of Friars Minor is a mendicant Catholic religious order, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi. The order adheres to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others; the Order of Friars Minor is considered to be the successor to the original Franciscan Order within the Catholic Church, is the largest of the contemporary First Orders within the Franciscan movement. Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval of his order from Pope Innocent III in 1209; the original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the pope disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties; the extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in final revision of the Rule in 1223.
The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor known as the Observant branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the Capuchins and Conventuals The Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller Franciscan orders,completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII; the latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Franciscans are sometimes referred to as greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians instead; the "Order of Friars Minor" are called the "Franciscans". This Order is a mendicant religious order of men, their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum.
The modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate family or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and with particular type of governance. They all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis; these are The Order of Friars Minor, known as the "Observants", most simply called Franciscan friars, official name: "Friars Minor". The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or Capuchins, official name: "Friars Minor Capuchin"; the Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name: "Friars Minor Conventual". The 2013 Annuario Pontificio gave the following figures for the membership of the principal male Franciscan orders:. Order of Friars Minor: 2,212 communities. Clad in a rough garment, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance; the mendicant orders had long been exempt from the jurisdiction of the bishop, enjoyed unrestricted freedom to preach and hear confessions in the churches connected with their monasteries.
This had led to endless friction and open quarrels between the two divisions of the clergy. This question was definitively settled by the Council of Trent. Amid numerous dissensions in the 14th century sprang a number of separate congregations of sects. To say nothing of the heretical parties of the Beghards and Fraticelli, some of which developed within the order on both hermit and cenobitic principles; the Clareni or Clarenini, an association of hermits established on the river Clareno in the march of Ancona by Angelo da Clareno after the suppression of the Franciscan Celestines by Boniface VIII. Like several other smaller congregations, it was obliged in 1568 under Pope Pius V to unite with the general body of Observantists; the Minorites of Narbonne originated through the union of a number of houses which followed Olivi after 1308. It was limited to southwestern France and, its members being accused of the heresy of the Beghards, was suppressed by the Inquisition during the controversies under John XXII.
The quasi-Observantist brothers living under the rule of the Conventual ministers, such as the male Colletans led by Boniface de Ceva in his reform attempts principally in France and Germany.