Monte Carlo refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located. Informally the name refers to a larger district, the Monte Carlo Quarter, which besides Monte Carlo/Spélugues includes the wards of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins, Saint Michel; the permanent population of the ward of Monte Carlo is about 3,500, while that of the quarter is about 15,000. Monaco has four traditional quarters. From west to east they are: Fontvieille, Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo is situated on a prominent escarpment at the base of the Maritime Alps along the French Riviera. Near the quarter's western end is the world-famous Place du Casino, the gambling center which has made Monte Carlo "an international byword for the extravagant display and reckless dispersal of wealth", it is the location of the Hôtel de Paris, Café de Paris and Salle Garnier. The quarter's eastern part includes the community of Larvotto with Monaco's only public beach, as well as its new convention center, the Monte-Carlo Bay Hotel & Resort.
At the quarter's eastern border, one crosses into the French town of Beausoleil, just 8 kilometres to its east is the western border of Italy. By the 1850s Monaco's reigning family was bankrupt. At the time, a number of small towns in Europe were growing prosperous from the establishment of casinos, notably in German towns such as Baden-Baden and Homburg. In 1856 Charles III of Monaco granted a concession to Napoleon Langlois and Albert Aubert to establish a sea-bathing facility for the treatment of various diseases, to build a German-style casino in Monaco; the initial casino was not a success. The success of the casino grew largely due to the area's inaccessibility from much of Europe; the installation of the railway in 1868, brought with it an influx of people into Monte Carlo and saw it grow in wealth. Saint-Charles Church on Monte Carlo's Avenue Sainte-Charles was completed in 1883, it was restored in its centenary year. In 1911 when the Constitution divided the principality of Monaco in three municipalities, the municipality of Monte Carlo was created covering the existing neighborhoods of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins and Saint Michel.
The municipalities were merged into one in 1917, after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer" and they were accorded the status of wards thereafter. Today, Monaco is divided into 10 wards, with an eleventh ward planned to encompass land reclaimed from the sea; the quarter of Monte Carlo was served by tramways from 1900 to 1953. In 2003 a new cruise ship pier was completed in the harbour at Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, influenced by oceanic climate and humid subtropical climate; as a result, it has mild, rainy winters. Monte Carlo is host to most of the Circuit de Monaco, on which the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix takes place, it hosts world championship boxing bouts, the European Poker Tour Grand Final and the World Backgammon Championship as well as the Monaco International Auto Show, fashion shows and other events. Although the Monte Carlo Masters tennis tournament is billed as taking place in the community, its actual location is in the adjacent French commune of Roquebrune-Cap-Martin.
Monte Carlo has been visited by royalty as well as the public and movie stars for decades. The Monte Carlo Rally is one of most respected car rallies; the rally, takes place outside the Monte Carlo quarter and is run on French roads. Monte Carlo is one of Europe's leading tourist resorts, although many of the key tourist destinations are in other parts of Monaco, including such attractions as Monaco Cathedral, the Napoleon Museum, the Oceanographic Museum and aquarium, the Prince's Palace, all of which are in Monaco-Ville; the Opéra de Monte-Carlo or Salle Garnier was built to designs of the architect Charles Garnier, who designed the Paris opera house now known as the Palais Garnier. Although much smaller, the Salle Garnier is similar in style with decorations in red and gold, frescoes and sculptures all around the auditorium, it was inaugurated on 25 January 1879 with a performance by Sarah Bernhardt dressed as a nymph. The first opera performed there was Robert Planquette's Le Chevalier Gaston on 8 February 1879, and, followed by three more in the first season.
With the influence of the first director, Jules Cohen and the fortunate combination of Raou
The French Riviera is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France. There is no official boundary, but it is considered to extend from Cassis or Toulon on the west to the France–Italy border in the east, where the Italian Riviera joins; the coast is within the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France. The principality of Monaco is a semi-enclave within the region, surrounded on three sides by France and fronting the Mediterranean; this coastline was one of the first modern resort areas. It began as a winter health resort for the British upper class at the end of the 18th century. With the arrival of the railway in the mid-19th century, it became the playground and vacation spot of British and other aristocrats, such as Queen Victoria and King Edward VII, when he was Prince of Wales. In the summer, it played home to many members of the Rothschild family. In the first half of the 20th century, it was frequented by artists and writers, including Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Francis Bacon, Edith Wharton, Somerset Maugham, Aldous Huxley, as well as wealthy Americans and Europeans.
After World War II, it became a popular tourist convention site. Many celebrities, such as Elton John and Brigitte Bardot, have homes in the region; the French Riviera is home to 163 nationalities with 83,962 foreign residents, although estimates of the number of non-French nationals living in the area are much higher. Its largest city is Nice, which has a population of 347,060; the city is the center of a communauté urbaine – Nice-Côte d'Azur – bringing together 24 communes and more than 500,000 inhabitants and 933,080 in the urban area. Nice is home to Nice Côte d'Azur Airport, France's third-busiest airport, on an area of reclaimed coastal land at the western end of the Promenade des Anglais. A second airport at Mandelieu was once the region's commercial airport, but is now used by private and business aircraft; the A8 autoroute runs through the region, as does the old main road known as the Route nationale 7. High-speed trains serve the coastal region and inland to Grasse, with the TGV Sud-Est service reaching Nice-Ville station in five and a half hours from Paris.
The French Riviera has a total population of more than two million. It contains the seaside resorts of Cap-d'Ail, Beaulieu-sur-Mer, Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, Villefranche-sur-Mer, Juan-les-Pins, Saint-Raphaël, Fréjus, Sainte-Maxime and Saint-Tropez, it is home to a high-tech and science park at Sophia-Antipolis, a research and technology center at the University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis. The region has 35,000 students; the French Riviera is a major cruising area with several marinas along its coast. According to the Côte d'Azur Economic Development Agency, each year the Riviera hosts 50 percent of the world's superyacht fleet, with 90 percent of all superyachts visiting the region's coast at least once in their lifetime; as a tourist centre, French Riviera benefits from 310 to 330 days of sunshine per year, 115 kilometres of coastline and beaches, 18 golf courses, 14 ski resorts and 3,000 restaurants. The term French Riviera is typical of English use, it was built by analogy with the term Italian Riviera.
As early as the 19th century, the British referred to the region as the Riviera or the French Riviera referring to the eastern part of the coast, between Monaco and the Italian border. Riviera is an Italian noun which means "coastline"; the name Côte d'Azur was given to the coast by the writer Stéphen Liégeard in his book, La Côte d’azur, published in December 1887. Liégeard was born in Dijon, in the French department of Côte-d'Or, adapted that name by substituting the azure blue colour of the Mediterranean for the gold of Côte-d'Or. In Occitan and French, the only usual names are Côte d'Azur in French. A term like "French Riviera" would only be used in adaptations of it. For instance, in French, "Riviera Française" is found in the online Larousse encyclopedia to refer to the holidays of a group of English workers; the Côte d'Azur and the French Riviera have no official boundaries. Some sources put the western boundary at Saint-Tropez in the Var département. Others include Saint Tropez, Hyères or Toulon in the Var, or as far as Cassis in the Bouches-du-Rhône département.
In her 1955 novel, The Talented Mr. Ripley, Patricia Highsmith describes the Riviera as including all of the coast between Toulon and the Italian border; the region of the French Riviera has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Primitive tools dating to between 1,000,000 and 1,050,000 years ago were discovered in the Grotte du Vallonnet, near Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, with stones and bones of animals, including bovines and bison. At Terra Amata, near the Nice Port, a fireplace was discovered, one of the oldest found in Europe. Stone dolmens, monuments from the Bronze Age, can be found near Draguignan, while the Valley of Marvels near Mount Bégo
Land speed record
The land speed record is the highest speed achieved by a person using a vehicle on land. There is no single body for regulation; the land speed record is standardized as the speed over a course of fixed length, averaged over two runs. Two runs are required in opposite directions within one hour, a new record mark must exceed the previous one by at least one percent to be validated; the first regulators were the Automobile Club de France, who proclaimed themselves arbiters of the record in about 1902. Different clubs had different standards and did not always recognize the same world records until 1924, when the Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus introduced new regulations: two passes in opposite directions averaged with a maximum of 30 minutes between runs, average gradient of the racing surface not more than 1 percent, timing gear accurate within 0.01sec, cars must be wheel-driven. National or regional auto clubs had to be AIACR members to ensure; the AIACR became the FIA in 1947.
Controversy arose in 1963: Spirit of America was not recognized due to its being a three-wheeler and not wheel-driven so the FIA introduced a special wheel-driven class. No holder of the absolute record since has been wheel-driven. In 1906 Dorothy Levitt broke the women's world speed record for the flying kilometer, recording a speed of 91 mph and receiving the sobriquet the "Fastest Girl on Earth", she drove a six-cylinder Napier motorcar, a 100 hp development of the K5, in a speed trial in Blackpool. A subsequent record was held by Lee Breedlove, the wife of Craig Breedlove, who piloted her husband's Spirit of America - Sonic 1 to a record 308.506 mph in 1965, making her the fastest woman alive, as of 1974. According to author Rachel Kushner, Craig Breedlove had talked Lee into taking the car out for a record attempt in order to monopolize the salt flats for the day and block one of his competitors from making a record attempt; the current women's absolute record was set by Kitty O'Neil, in the jet-powered SMI Motivator, set at the Alvord Desert in 1976.
Held back by her contract with a sponsor and using only 60 percent of her car's power, O'Neil reached 512.710 mph. Craig Breedlove's mark of 407.447 miles per hour, set in Spirit of America in September 1963, was considered unofficial. The vehicle breached the FIA regulations on two grounds: it had only three wheels, it was not wheel-driven, since its jet engine did not supply power to its axles; some time the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme created a non-wheel-driven category, ratified Spirit of America's time for this mark. On July 27, 1964, Donald Campbell's Bluebird CN7 posted a speed of 403.10 miles per hour on Lake Eyre, Australia. This became the official FIA LSR, although Campbell was disappointed not to have beaten Breedlove's time. In October, several four-wheel jet-cars surpassed the 1963 mark, but were eligible for neither FIA nor FIM ratification; the confusion of having three different LSRs lasted until December 11, 1964, when the FIA and FIM met in Paris and agreed to recognize as an absolute LSR the higher speed recorded by either body, by any vehicles running on wheels, whether wheel-driven or not.
Thus, Art Arfons' Green Monster was belatedly recognized as the absolute LSR holder, Bluebird the holder of the wheel-driven land speed record, Spirit of America the tricycle record holder. No wheel-driven car has since held the absolute record. List of vehicle speed records British land speed record Production car speed record Land speed record for rail vehicles Motorcycle land speed record Aero-engined car Pioneer 2M – Soviet Union attempt at the land speed record in early 1960s Budweiser Rocket – Claimed but not verified to have reached 739.666 miles per hour and to have broken the sound barrier in 1979 North American Eagle Project – Aiming for 808 mph to break current record. Bloodhound SSC – Project aiming for 1,050 mph. Rosco McGlashan – Australia's fastest man on the land, his Aussie Invader team is building a rocket-powered LSR car with an attempt at the record on hold pending funding. The Bullet Project – Australia's land speed record challenger Autoracing Speed Records at Curlie Aussie Invader official website - Australian challengers to the supersonic showdown Speed Record Club - The Speed Record Club seeks to promote an informed and educated enthusiast identity and impartially to the best of its ability on record-breaking engineering, events and history.
The Land Speed Record in the Sixties: an on-line collection
Opel is a German automobile manufacturer, a subsidiary of French automaker Groupe PSA since August 2017. From 1929 until 2017, Opel was owned by American automaker General Motors. Opel vehicles are sold in the United Kingdom under the Vauxhall brand; some Opel vehicles are badge-engineered in Australasia under the Holden brand, in North America and China under the Buick brand. Opel traces its roots to a sewing machine manufacturer founded by Adam Opel in 1862 in Rüsselsheim am Main; the company began manufacturing bicycles in 1886 and produced its first automobile in 1899. After listing on the stock market in 1929, General Motors took a majority stake in Opel and full control in 1931, establishing the American reign over the German automaker for nearly 90 years. In March 2017, Groupe PSA agreed to acquire Opel from General Motors for €2.2 billion, making the French automaker the second biggest in Europe, after Volkswagen. Opel is headquartered in Rüsselsheim am Main, Germany; the company designs, engineers and distributes Opel-branded passenger vehicles, light commercial vehicles, vehicle parts and together with its British sister brand Vauxhall they are present in over 50 countries around the world.
The company was founded in Rüsselsheim, Germany, on 21 January 1862, by Adam Opel. In the beginning, Opel produced sewing machines. In 1888, production was relocated from a cowshed to a more spacious building in Rüsselsheim. Opel launched a new product in 1886: he began to sell high-wheel bicycles known as penny-farthings. Opel's two sons participated in high-wheel bicycle races, thus promoting this means of transportation; the production of high-wheel bicycles soon exceeded the production of sewing machines. At the time of Opel's death in 1895, he was the leader in both markets; the first cars were produced in 1899 after Opel's wife Sophie and their two eldest sons entered into a partnership with Friedrich Lutzmann, a locksmith at the court in Dessau in Saxony-Anhalt, working on automobile designs for some time. These cars were not successful and the partnership was dissolved after two years, following which Opel signed a licensing agreement in 1901 with the French Automobiles Darracq France to manufacture vehicles under the brand name Opel Darracq.
These cars consisted of Opel bodies mounted on Darracq chassis, powered by two-cylinder engines. The company first showed cars of its own design at the 1902 Hamburg Motor Show, started manufacturing them in 1906, with Opel Darracq production being discontinued in 1907. In 1909, the Opel 4/8 PS model, known as the Doktorwagen was produced, its reliability and robustness were appreciated by physicians, who drove long distances to see their patients back when hard-surfaced roads were still rare. The Doktorwagen sold about half as much as the luxury models of its day. In 1911, the company's factory was destroyed by fire and a new one was built with more up-to-date machinery. In the early 1920s, Opel became the first German car manufacturer to incorporate a mass-production assembly line in the building of their automobiles. In 1924, they used their assembly line to produce a new open two-seater called the Laubfrosch; the Laubfrosch was finished in green lacquer. The car sold for an expensive 4,500 marks, but by the 1930s, this type of vehicle would cost a mere 1,990 marks – due in part to the assembly line, but due to the skyrocketing demand for cars.
Adam Opel led the way for motorised transportation to become not just a means for the rich, but a reliable way for people of all classes to travel. Opel had a 37.5% market share in Germany and was the country's largest automobile exporter in 1928. The "Regent" – Opel's first eight-cylinder car – was offered; the RAK 1 and RAK 2 rocket-propelled cars made sensational record-breaking runs. In March 1929, General Motors, impressed by Opel's modern production facilities, bought 80% of the company, increasing this to 100% in 1931; the Opel family gained $33.3 million from the transaction. Subsequently, during 1935, a second factory was built at Brandenburg for the production of "Blitz" light trucks. In 1935, Opel became the first German car manufacturer to produce over 100,000 vehicles a year; this was based on the popular Opel "P4" model. The selling price was a mere 1,650 marks and the car had a 23 hp 1.1 L four-cylinder engine and a top speed of 85 km/h. Opel produced the first mass-production vehicle in Germany with a self-supporting all-steel body following the 1934 Citroën Traction Avant.
This was one of the most important innovations in automotive history. They called the car, launched in 1935, the Olympia. With its small weight and aerodynamics came an improvement in both performance and fuel consumption. Opel received a patent on this technology; the 1930s was a decade of growth, by 1937, with 130,267 cars produced, Opel's Rüsselsheim plant was Europe's top car plant in terms of output, while ranking seventh worldwide.1939 saw the presentation of the successful Kapitän. With a 2.5 L six-cylinder engine, all-steel body, front independent suspension, hydraulic shock absorbers, hot-water heating, central speedometer. 25,374 Kapitäns left the factory before the intensification of World War II brought automotive manufacturing to a temporary stop in the Autumn of 1940, by order of the government. World War II brought to Rüsselsheim the only year in the history of Opel – 1945 – in which it produced fewer vehicles since that first Lutzmann-authored Opel was made in 1899. Before the conflict broke out, the Adam Opel AG had established itself as the largest motor vehicle manufa
Automobiles Darracq France
Automobiles Darracq France was a manufacturer of motor vehicles and aero engines in Suresnes, near Paris. The enterprise, known at first as A Darracq et Cie, was founded in 1896 by successful businessman Alexandre Darracq. In 1902 he sold his new business to a held English company named A Darracq and Company Limited, taking a substantial shareholding and a directorship himself, he continued to run the business from Paris but was obliged to retire to the Côte d'Azur in 1913 following years of difficulties that brought his business into hazardous financial circumstances. He had introduced an unproven unorthodox engine in 1911 which proved a complete failure yet he neglected Suresnes' popular conventional products. France entered the first World War. In 1916 ownership of the Suresnes business was transferred to Darracq S. A. In 1922 Darracq's name was dropped from its products and this business was renamed Talbot S. A, its products were branded Darracq-Talbot and just Talbot. The London parent company suffered a financial collapse during the great depression and in 1935 Talbot S.
A. was acquired by investors led by Antonio Lago. Alexandre Darracq, using part of the substantial profit he had made from selling his Gladiator bicycle factory to Adolpe Clément, formed a société en commanditie in February 1897 and named it A Darracq et Cie, he built the Perfecta works, in the Paris suburb of Suresnes just south of Puteaux. Production began in January 1898 with bicycle parts and quadricycles and a Millet motorcycle powered by a five-cylinder rotary engine and shortly after an electric brougham. In 1898 Darracq et Cie made a Léon Bollée-designed voiturette tricar; the somewhat old-fashioned voiturette proved a débâcle: the steering was problematic, the five-speed belt drive "a masterpiece of bad design", the hot tube ignition crude, proving the 250,000 francs or £10,000 Darracq et Cie had paid for the rights a mistake. A. Darracq et Cie was sold as of 30 September 1902 to A. Darracq and Company Limited, an English company a substantial part owned by Alexandre Darracq but majority controlled by a small group of English investors.
J S Smith-Winby was appointed chairman. Further capital was raised and large sums were spent on factory expansion, the Suresnes site was expanded to some four acres in extent, in England extensive premises were bought. In 1902, A. Darracq et Cie signed a contract with Adam Opel to jointly produce vehicles in the German Empire under licence, with the brand name "Opel Darracq". A. Darracq et Cie prospered. By 1903, four models were offered: a 1.1-litre single, a 1.3 L and 1.9 L twin, a 3.8 L four. The 1904 models abandoned flitch-plated wood chassis for pressed steel, the new Flying Fifteen, powered by a 3-litre four, had its chassis made from a single sheet of steel; this car was Alexandre Darracq's chef d'oeuvre. There was nothing outstanding in its design but "every part was in such perfect balance and harmony" it became an outstanding model, its exceptional quality helped the company capture a ten percent share of the French auto market. In late 1904 the chairman reported sales were up by 20 per cent though increased costs meant the profit had risen more slowly.
But what was more important was they had many more orders than they could fill and the only solution was to enlarge the factory by as much as 50 per cent. Twelve months the chairman was able to tell shareholders all the six speed records of the automobile world were held by Darracq cars and they had all been held more than twelve months and yet another had been added by K Lee Guinness. Alexandre Darracq established Società Italiana Automobili Darracq in Portello, a suburb of Milan in Italy in 1906 through a license arrangement with Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan; the business did not do well and Darracq shut it down in 1910. A new partnership, Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili, acquired the business. In 1914 Nicola Romeo bought. In 1907, Darracq formed Sociedad Anonima Espanola de Automoviles Darracq in Vitoria, Spain with a capitalization of 1,000,000 pesetas. An order was accepted from a M. Charley for several thousand cabs to sell to franchised operators in major European and American cities.
Darracq ordered 4,000 chassis frames and built a new factory beside the existing one but except in New York the cabs were not as popular as the Renault and Unic competition. In 1907 one-third of New York's 1,800 cabs were Darracqs, it was useful business during the recession of 1908 but Darracq turned his attention to heavy motor vehicles. A joint venture into steam buses designed by Leon Serpollet was not a success. Only twenty were sold, Darracq and Co lost money on the project. London's Darracq-Serpollet Omnibus Company incorporated in May 1906 was hampered by delays in building a new factory by the death by cancer of 48-year old Serpollet in early 1907; the nurse of either Mr Nickols or Mr Karslake believed the steam buses would blow up and would not allow any of her charges to travel on one. The unpopular buses proved to have a brief uneconomic service life and their manufacturer was liquidated in 1912. Darracq and Co had to write off a substantial portion of their capital. In 1907 Alexandre Darracq became interested in aviation and by 1909 Darracq S.
A. were building light aero engines, used by Alberto Santos-Dumont. They were based on their racing engines. There may have been just the two built. After 1907 it became harder to sell Darracq's cars, prices had to be cut, new models did not attract the expected custom. Returning to Alexandre Darracq's 1898 idea to build low-cost, good-quality cars, much as Henry Ford was doing with the Model T, Darracq S. A. introduced a £260 14–16 hp (10–12
Cité de l'Automobile
Cité de l’Automobile, Musée national de l’automobile, Collection Schlumpf is an automobile museum located in Mulhouse and built around the Schlumpf Collection of classic automobiles. It has the largest displayed collection of automobiles and contains the largest and most comprehensive collection of Bugatti motor vehicles in the world. Brothers Hans and Fritz Schlumpf were Swiss citizens born in Italy, but after their mother Jeanne was widowed, she moved the family to her home town of Mulhouse in Alsace, France; the two brothers, who were described as having a "Schlumpf obsession", were devoted to their mother. In 1935 the Schlumpf brothers founded a limited company which focused on producing spun woollen products. By 1940, at the time of the German invasion of France, 34-year-old Fritz was the chairman of a spinning mill in Malmerspach. After World War II, the two brothers devoted their time to obsessively growing their business, became wealthy. Fritz loved cars, driven by an abiding love for beautiful automotive engineering.
Having wanted a Bugatti since childhood, he bought a Bugatti Type 35B just before the German invasion of France. After the war he began racing classic cars, but was requested by the textile union to "abstain from this competition which could endanger your life and deprive us of our esteemed director." Schlumpf had been generous to his workers, providing employee trips, installing an employee theater and driving expectant mothers to the hospital in his own car. This was in great contrast to brother Hans, a former banker, who paid the mill workers poorly, docked fifteen minutes off their pay if they were late or signed out a minute or two early, did not pay bonuses or increments. With post-war modern 1950s car designs coming on stream, people wanted to exchange their classic 1920s through 1930s cars in for new models. Fritz and Hans began collecting in earnest in the early 1950s, developing a reputation in the trade for only buying the most desirable models. Assisted by Mr. Raffaelli, a Renault dealer from Marseilles and the owner of several Bugattis, they built a Bugatti collection obsessively and quickly: During the summer of 1960, they acquired ten Bugattis, including two Type 57s and one Type 46 5-litre model.
In addition the pair found two Hispano-Suizas and one Tatra. By the end of the summer, they had purchased 40 cars. Gordini sold them ten old racing cars in one sale Ferrari sold a racing single seater Mercedes-Benz sold spare cars from its collection Racing driver Jo Siffert sold three Lotus racing carsWhile an enormous variety of marques is represented in the collection, it is now clear that the primary focus of the Schlumpf brothers was Bugatti. Fritz sent a form letter to all Bugatti owners on the club register, offering to buy all of their cars. In 1962 he bought nearly 50 Bugattis. In the spring of 1963, he acquired 18 of Ettore Bugatti's personal cars, including the Bugatti Royale Coupé Napoléon. In 1963 collector John Shakespeare of Centralia, offered his collection of 30 Bugattis, Fritz bought all of them, they were shipped from Hoffman, Illinois by the Southern Railroad to New Orleans by freighter to Le Havre, making headlines in the US. By 1967 an inventory showed 105 Bugattis in the brothers Schlumpf collection.
Over the years nearly 400 items were acquired, from 1964 as the woollen industry started to downturn, a wing of the former 200,000 sq ft Mulhouse spinning mill was chosen to restore and house the collection. A team of up to 40 carpenters and master mechanics was assembled to carry out the restoration work, who under a confidentiality agreement kept their work and the scale of the collection a secret - a singlemindedness referred to as "The Schlumpf Obsession." Many, including members of Bugatti clubs around the world, knew of the collection. The scale of the enterprise surprised everybody. Fritz visited Mulhouse daily, choosing the colors and type of restoration each car would receive; the workers removed the mill's interior walls and laid a red tile walkway with gravel floors for the cars to rest upon. The brothers Schlumpf remained secretive about their car collection, only showing it to a favored few. In light of the unrelenting global shift of textile manufacturing to Asia, by 1976 the Schlumpf brothers began selling their factories.
In October the Malmerspach plant laid off employees, a strike broke out, with 400 police holding back the workers from ransacking the Mulhouse plant. After a stand-off, on March 7, 1977, textile-union activists staged a sit-in strike at Schlumpf offices, broke into the Mulhouse "factory" to find the astounding collection of cars. An unrestored Austin 7 was burned and the workers' union representative remarked "There are 600 more where this one came from." The Schlumpfs fled to their native Switzerland, spent the rest of their days as permanent residents of the Drei Koenige Hotel in Basel. But with wages and tax evasion accusations outstanding, the factory was occupied the next two years by the textile-union and renamed "Workers’ Factory." To recoup some lost wages, the union opened the museum to the public, with some 800,000 people viewing the collection in two years. As the scale of the brothers Schlumpf debt rose, various creditors, including the French government and unions, eyed the car collection toward recovering their losses.
To save the collection from destruction, break-up or export the contents were classified in 1978 as a French Historic Monument by Council of State. In 1979, a bankruptcy liquidator ordered. In 1981 the collection and residual land were sold to the National Automobile Museum Associ
The Vanderbilt Cup was the first major trophy in American auto racing. An international event, it was founded by William Kissam Vanderbilt II in 1904 and first held on October 8 on a course set out in Nassau County on Long Island, New York; the announcement that the race was to be held caused considerable controversy in New York, bringing a flood of legal actions in an attempt to stop the race. The politicians soon jumped in. Vanderbilt prevailed and the inaugural race was run over a 30.24 miles course of winding dirt roads through the Nassau County area. Vanderbilt put up a large cash prize hoping to encourage American manufacturers to get into racing, a sport well organized in Europe, yielding many factory improvements to motor vehicle technology; the race drew the top drivers and their vehicles from across the Atlantic Ocean, some of whom had competed in Europe's Gordon Bennett Cup. The first Long Island race featured seventeen vehicles and the newspaper and poster art promotion drew large crowds hoping to see an American car defeat the mighty European vehicles.
However, George Heath won the race in a Panhard and another French vehicle, a Darracq, took the Cup the next two years straight. Crowd control was a problem from the start and after a spectator, Curt Gruner, was killed in 1906, the race was cancelled. Meanwhile, in France, the first Grand Prix motor racing event had been run on June 26, 1906, under the auspices of the Automobile Club de France in Le Mans. One of the competitors was American Elliot Shepard, the son of Margaret Vanderbilt-Shepard and a cousin of William Kissam Vanderbilt. Learning from his cousin about the success of the French Grand Prix and the rapid expansion of Grand Prix racing in other European countries, William Vanderbilt conceived a way to solve the safety issue as well as improve attendance to his race. Vanderbilt formed a company to build the Long Island Motor Parkway, one of the country's first modern paved parkways that could not only be used for the race but would open up Long Island for easy access and economic development.
Construction began in 1907 of the multimillion-dollar toll highway, to run from the Kissena Corridor in Queens County over numerous bridges and overpasses to Lake Ronkonkoma, a distance of 48 miles. The 1908 race was held over parts of the new highway and much to the delight of the large crowd on hand, 23-year-old local hero George Robertson from Garden City, New York became the first American to win the event driving the American Locomobile, the company's first gas-powered car and designed by famed engineer Andrew L. Riker; the Vanderbilt Cup was held on Long Island until 1911 when it was showcased at Savannah, Georgia in combination with the American Grand Prize. The next year it moved to a racecourse in Milwaukee, Wisconsin for three years in California: Santa Monica in 1914 and 1916, San Francisco in 1915; the race was canceled after the United States joined the Allies in World War I in 1917. Some of the drivers who participated in the Vanderbilt Cup became famous names, synonymous with automobiles and racing such as Louis Chevrolet, Vincenzo Lancia and Ralph DePalma.
The Vanderbilt Cup was not held again until 1936 when William Kissam Vanderbilt II's nephew, George Washington Vanderbilt III picked up the cause and sponsored a 300-mile race at the new facilities at Roosevelt Raceway. Once again, the Europeans were enticed by the substantial prize money and Scuderia Ferrari entered three Alfa Romeo racers. A lack of American competition and a less-than-exciting course layout saw the race run for only two years, both won by Europeans; the Vanderbilt Cup would not return to the United States motor racing scene for more than twenty years. In 1960, sponsored by Cornelius Vanderbilt IV, it was run as a Formula Junior event and held again at Roosevelt Raceway. In 1965, 1967, 1968, the Bridgehampton Sports Car Races were billed as the Vanderbilt Cup; the original Cup is cast of silver and measures 2.5 feet in height. It bears the image of William K. Vanderbilt II driving his record-setting Mercedes at the Daytona Beach Road Course in 1904; the trophy today is stored at a Smithsonian Institution storage facility and is not available to be seen by the public.
The George Vanderbilt Cup is on display at Museo Nicolis in Verona. ^A The 1966 event was billed as the "Bridgehampton 200". The Vanderbilt Cup name disappeared for another 36 years until 1996. In recognition of William Kissam Vanderbilt's place in automotive racing history, a copy of the original cup was created as the trophy for the CART U. S. 500 race. In 2000, CART designated the Vanderbilt Cup as its series championship trophy. Names of U. S. 500 winners from 1996–99 and the CART series winners since 2000, are etched into the new Cup. With the bankruptcy of Champ Car and purchase of the assets by the IRL, Tony George has mentioned interest in using the Vanderbilt Cup as the Series Championship Trophy for the IndyCar Series. However, the Astor Cup has been used since the 2011 season. Vanderbilt Cup Race Series - EMRA - EASTERN MOTOR RACING ASSOCIATION - Owners of the "Vanderbilt Cup" service mark Vanderbilt Cup Races 22 October 1904. Cup Contest