Georges Benjamin Clemenceau was a French politician and journalist who served as Prime Minister of France during the First World War. A leader of the Radical Party, he played a role in the politics of the French Third Republic. Clemenceau first served as Prime Minister from 1906 to 1909, in favour of a total victory over the German Empire, he militated for the restitution of Alsace-Lorraine to France. He was one of the architects of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. Clemenceau was a native of the Vendée, born at Mouilleron-en-Pareds, during the period of the French Revolution, the Vendée had been a hotbed of monarchist sympathies, but by the time of his birth, its people were fiercely republican. The region was remote from Paris and poor and his mother, Sophie Eucharie Gautreau, was of Huguenot descent. His father, Benjamin Clemenceau, came from a line of physicians. Benjamin had a reputation as an atheist and a political activist, he was arrested and briefly held in 1851 and he instilled in his son a love of learning, devotion to radical politics, and a hatred of Catholicism.
The lawyer Albert Clemenceau was his brother, after his studies in the Lycée in Nantes, Georges received his French baccalaureate of letters in 1858. He went to Paris to study medicine, eventually graduating with the completion of his thesis De la génération des éléments anatomiques in 1865, in Paris, the young Clemenceau became a political activist and writer. In December 1861, he co-founded a weekly newsletter, Le Travail, on 23 February 1862, he was arrested by the police for having placed posters summoning a demonstration. He spent 77 days in the Mazas Prison and he finally graduated as a doctor of medicine on 13 May 1865, founded several literary magazines, and wrote many articles, most of which attacked the imperial regime of Napoleon III. Clemenceau left France for the United States when the agents began cracking down on dissidents. Clemenceau worked in New York City in the years 1865-69, following the American Civil War and he maintained a medical practice, but spent much of his time on political journalism for a Parisian newspaper.
He taught French at the home of Calvin Rood in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, on 23 June 1869, he married one of his students, Mary Eliza Plummer, in New York City. She was the daughter of William Kelly Plummer and wife Harriet A. Taylor, the Clemenceaus had three children together before the marriage ended in a contentious divorce. During this time, he joined French exile clubs in New York opposing the imperial regime, Clemenceau returned to Paris after the French defeat at the Battle of Sedan in 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War and the fall of the Second French Empire. When the Paris Commune seized power in March 1871, he tried unsuccessfully to find a compromise between the radical leaders and the commune and the more conservative French government
Adolphe Marie Messimy was a French politician and general. He served as Minister of War in 1911-12 and again for a few months during the outbreak of, having begun his career as an army officer, he returned to the Army and successfully commanded a brigade at the Battle of the Somme, and a division. Defeated for re-election to the Chamber of Deputies in 1919, he served as a senator from 1923 until his death in 1935. Born in Lyon on 31 January 1869, Adolphe Messimy was the eldest son of notary Paul Charles Léon Messimy and he married Andrée, the daughter of Victor Cornil, whom he divorced in 1921. His second marriage, in 1923, was to Marie-Louise Blanc and he had two children from each marriage. Tuchman described him as “an exuberant, almost violent man, with … bright peasant’s eyes behind spectacles and his hobbies were mountain-climbing and collecting weapons and furniture. Messimy entered the academy of Saint-Cyr at the age of eighteen. He was promoted to captain at the age of twenty-five and at twenty-seven attained his Brevet détat-major, opening up the promise of an excellent military career.
In 1899 he resigned from his post as a captain of chasseurs in protest at the Army’s refusal to reopen the Dreyfus case, entering politics determined on “reconciling the army with the nation. After leaving the Army he became a journalist, writing on military matters for a number of Paris newspapers including Le Temps, le Matin, le Rappel, le Radical and Lyon-Républicain. He published documented studies in La Revue politique et parlementaire, La Revue des questions colonials and he became an administrator of the General Company of Niger. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies as a Radical-socialiste in 1902, in the second round he defeated the incumbent deputy, Girou, by 9,068 votes to 8,569. In 1905 he voted in favour of the law separating church and he was re-elected as a Gauche radicale-socialiste, again at the second round, on 20 May 1906, by 11,894 votes to 5,438 for his opponent Fraguier. On 8 May 1910, once again at the second round and his prewar writings included, The Armed Peace, France can Lighten the Burdens, General Considerations on the Organisation of the Army, The Army and its Cadres and Our Colonial Work.
Messimy became Minister of the Colonies in the government of Ernest Monis, from 27 June 1911 to 14 January 1912 Messimy served as Minister of War in the government of Joseph Caillaux. He was the fourth new War Minister that year, and within a few days of his appointment the German gunboat Panther arrived at Agadir, sparking the Second Moroccan Crisis. The Vice-President, General Victor-Constant Michel, proposed that the French Army adopt a defensive war plan. Messimy, in common with senior French generals, thought that these plans would blunt the spirit of the French Army
Orne is a department in the northwest of France, named after the river Orne. Orne is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution, on 4 March 1790 and it was created from parts of the former provinces of Normandy and Perche. Orne is in the region of Normandy neighbouring Eure, Eure-et-Loir, Manche, Mayenne and it is the only department of Normandy to be landlocked. The largest town by a margin is the prefecture, Alençon which is an administrative. There are no industrial centres, agriculture remains the economic focus of Orne. The inhabitants of the department are called Ornais, the recorded population level peaked at 443,688 in 1836. Once motor car ownership started to surge in the 1960s employment opportunities became less restricted, the two major cities in the Orne are Alençon, the prefecture, and Flers. Alençon is the town of the Orne department. Camembert, the village where Camembert cheese is made, is located in Orne, the local dialect is known as Augeron
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information. A journalists work is called journalism, a journalist can work with general issues or specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, and by cooperating with other journalists, for example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, and make reports. The information-gathering part of a job is sometimes called reporting. Reporters may split their time working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a beat or area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers, Journalism has developed a variety of ethics and standards.
While objectivity and a lack of bias are of concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism. This has become prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions. These platforms often project extreme bias, as sources are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, nor did they often directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights. These limitations were made worse by a media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was really important. ”Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger. Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom, as of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment.
The ten deadliest countries for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1st 2010,145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. The ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Ethiopia, apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically. This applies especially to war reporters, but their offices at home often do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger
In law, the term bar has two principal meanings. The area behind the bar is open to the public and this restriction is enforced in nearly all courts. In most courts, the bar is represented by a physical partition, the bar may refer to the qualifying procedure by which a lawyer is licensed to practice law in a given jurisdiction. In the United States, this procedure is administered by the individual U. S. states, in general, a candidate must graduate from a qualified law school and pass a written test, the bar examination. Nearly all states use the Multistate Bar Examination, usually with additions for that states laws, the candidate is admitted to the bar. A lawyer whose license to practice law is revoked is said to be disbarred, in the United Kingdom, the practice of law is divided between barristers and solicitors. It is usually the former who appear in a role before the court. When a lawyer becomes an advocate or barrister, he is called to the bar, the Bar commonly refers to the legal profession as a whole.
With a modifier, it may refer to a branch or division of the profession, as for instance, in conjunction with bench, bar may differentiate lawyers who represent clients, from judges or members of a judiciary. In this sense, the bar advocates and the bench adjudicates, judges commonly remain members of the bar, and lawyers are commonly referenced as Officers of the Court. The phrase bench and bar denotes all judges and lawyers collectively, Admission to practise law Admission to the bar in the United States Bar Association Bench Call to the bar Courtroom Importance of Bar & Bench relationship, Available at learningthelaw. in
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. There are 96 departments in metropolitan France and 5 overseas departments, each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, they were called general councils, the departments were created in 1791 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity, the title department is used to mean a part of a larger whole. Almost all of them were named after geographical features rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of dArgenson and they have inspired similar divisions in many countries, some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a number, the Official Geographical Code. Some overseas departments have a three-digit number, the number is used, for example, in the postal code, and was until recently used for all vehicle registration plates.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as the 45 and this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René dArgenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration, before the French Revolution, France gained territory gradually through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces, during the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved, partly in order to weaken old loyalties. Their boundaries served two purposes, Boundaries were chosen to break up Frances historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences, Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a days ride of the capital of the department. This was a security measure, intended to keep the national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of rural areas far from any centre of government.
The old nomenclature was carefully avoided in naming the new departments, most were named after an areas principal river or other physical features. Even Paris was in the department of Seine, the number of departments, initially 83, was increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleons defeats in 1814-1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size, in 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice, the 89 departments were given numbers based on their alphabetical order. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following Frances defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
Paul Eugène Louis Deschanel was a French statesman. He served as President of France from 18 February to 21 September 1920. Paul Deschanel, the son of Émile Deschanel, professor at the Collège de France and senator, was born in Brussels and he is one of only two French Presidents who were born outside France. Paul Deschanel studied law, and began his career as secretary to Deshayes de Marcère, in October 1885, he was elected deputy for Eure-et-Loir. From the first, he took an important place in the chamber, in January 1896, he was elected vice-president of the chamber, and henceforth devoted himself to the struggle against the Left, not only in parliament, but in public meetings throughout France. In June 1898, he was elected president of the chamber, and was re-elected in 1901, nevertheless, he came forward brilliantly in 1904 and 1905 as a supporter of the law on the separation of church and state. He gained a position on the Committee of Foreign Affairs and he was re-elected deputy in 1910, and on May 23,1912 was chosen to be the Presidency of the Chamber.
In this role he played a part during World War I as the national orator. He served until he was elected President of France on 17 January 1920 by an overwhelming majority, having beaten Georges Clemenceau in the preliminary party ballot. Deschanel aspired to a more active role as president than had been de rigueur under the Third Republic. As president, his behaviour caused some consternation, on one occasion, after a delegation of schoolgirls had presented him with a bouquet. On another occasion he received the British Ambassador to France naked except for the decorations of his office. Soon afterwards, Deschanel walked out of a meeting, straight into a lake. His resignation was offered on 21 September 1920, and he was placed in an institution, nevertheless, he was narrowly elected to the senate in January 1921, serving until his death. He was the only French head of state during whose term in office no persons in France were executed until the penalty was abolished in 1981. Deschanel himself was a death penalty opponent
Joseph Simon Gallieni was a French soldier, active for most of his career as a military commander and administrator in the French colonies. Gallieni is infamous in Madagascar as the French military leader who exiled Queen Ranavalona III and he was recalled from retirement at the outbreak of the First World War. He was made Marshal of France posthumously in 1921, Gallieni was born in 1849 at Saint-Beat, in the department of Haute-Garonne, in the central Pyrenees. He was of Corsican and Italian descent and his father, born in Pogliano Milanese, had risen from the ranks to be a captain. Gallieni fought at Sedan and was taken prisoner at Bazeilles, scene of the stand of the colonial marines and he learned German whilst a prisoner there, and kept a notebook in German and Italian called “Erinnerungen of my life di ragazzo”. He was promoted to Lieutenant in 1873 and his colonial career began in 1876 in Senegal. He was promoted to Captain in 1878 and he led an expedition to the upper Niger. He served in Reunion and Martinique, in 1886 he was appointed governor of the French Sudan, during which time he successfully quelled a rebellion by Sudanese insurgents under Mahmadu Lamine.
He was outstanding at colonial penetration without open hostilities in West Africa in 1880, in 1888 he was appointed to the War College. In 1892-6 he served as a colonel in French Indochina commanding the military division of the territory in Tonkin. In 1894 he led successful French action against the nationalist leader Đề Thám, in 1896 he was promoted to General and made Governor of Madagascar, a new French possession, where the French had just been defeated, with 4,613 soldiers dying of disease. He stayed in Madagascar with one interruption until 1905, his future commander Joseph Joffre served under him there. In August 1896 Gallieni reorganised French forces and executed several rebel leaders, early in 1897 he unlawfully abolished the Malagasy monarchy and exiled Queen Ranavalona to Reunion. Like Lyautey, Gallieni practised tache d’huile and politique des races, initially military, his role became more administrative, building roads, a railway, medical services and schools. In 1905 Gallieni defended the code de l’indigenat, as it administered punishment more swiftly than would be possible under due legal process, in 1905 he was appointed Military Governor of Lyon and commandant of the Army of the Alps.
Also in 1906 he became a member of the Conseil Superieur de la Guerre, along with Yvon Dubail and Pol Durand, Gallieni was one of those who told War Minister Messimy that General Victor-Constant Michel must be removed. Following Michels removal Gallieni, who was the choice of Prime Minister Caillaux. His former subordinate Joffre was appointed instead, Gallieni commanded Fifth Army until his retirement, and protested that it was not strong enough to advance into Belgium, and that Maubeuge should be fortified more strongly
University of Paris
The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, France. Emerging around 1150 as an associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris. Vast numbers of popes, royalties and intellectuals were educated at the University of Paris, following the turbulence of the French Revolution, education was suspended in 1793 whereafter its faculties were partly reorganised by Napoleon as the University of France. In 1896, it was renamed again to the University of Paris, in 1970, following the May 1968 events, the university was divided into 13 autonomous universities. Others, like Panthéon-Sorbonne University, chose to be multidisciplinary, in 1150, the future University of Paris was a student-teacher corporation operating as an annex of the Notre-Dame cathedral school. The university had four faculties, Medicine, the Faculty of Arts was the lowest in rank, but the largest, as students had to graduate there in order to be admitted to one of the higher faculties.
The students were divided into four nationes according to language or regional origin, Normandy, the last came to be known as the Alemannian nation. Recruitment to each nation was wider than the names might imply, the faculty and nation system of the University of Paris became the model for all medieval universities. Under the governance of the Church, students wore robes and shaved the tops of their heads in tonsure, students followed the rules and laws of the Church and were not subject to the kings laws or courts. This presented problems for the city of Paris, as students ran wild, students were often very young, entering the school at age 13 or 14 and staying for 6 to 12 years. Three schools were especially famous in Paris, the palatine or palace school, the school of Notre-Dame, the decline of royalty brought about the decline of the first. The other two were ancient but did not have much visibility in the early centuries, the glory of the palatine school doubtless eclipsed theirs, until it completely gave way to them.
These two centres were much frequented and many of their masters were esteemed for their learning, the first renowned professor at the school of Ste-Geneviève was Hubold, who lived in the tenth century. Not content with the courses at Liège, he continued his studies at Paris, entered or allied himself with the chapter of Ste-Geneviève, and attracted many pupils via his teaching. Distinguished professors from the school of Notre-Dame in the century include Lambert, disciple of Fulbert of Chartres, Drogo of Paris, Manegold of Germany. Three other men who added prestige to the schools of Notre-Dame and Ste-Geneviève were William of Champeaux, Abélard, humanistic instruction comprised grammar, dialectics, geometry and astronomy. To the higher instruction belonged dogmatic and moral theology, whose source was the Scriptures and it was completed by the study of Canon law. The School of Saint-Victor arose to rival those of Notre-Dame and Ste-Geneviève and it was founded by William of Champeaux when he withdrew to the Abbey of Saint-Victor
Second French Empire
The Second French Empire was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. The structure of the French government during the Second Empire was little changed from the First, but Emperor Napoleon III stressed his own imperial role as the foundation of the government. He had so often, while in prison or in exile and his answer was to organize a system of government based on the principles of the Napoleonic Idea. This meant that the emperor, the elect of the people as the representative of the democracy, ruled supreme. He himself drew power and legitimacy from his role as representative of the great Napoleon I of France, the anti-parliamentary French Constitution of 1852 instituted by Napoleon III on 14 January 1852, was largely a repetition of that of 1848. All executive power was entrusted to the emperor, who, as head of state, was responsible to the people. The people of the Empire, lacking democratic rights, were to rely on the benevolence of the rather than on the benevolence of politicians.
He was to nominate the members of the council of state, whose duty it was to prepare the laws, and of the senate, a body permanently established as a constituent part of the empire. One innovation was made, that the Legislative Body was elected by universal suffrage and this new political change was rapidly followed by the same consequence as had attended that of Brumaire. The press was subjected to a system of cautionnements and avertissements, in order to counteract the opposition of individuals, a surveillance of suspects was instituted. In the same way public instruction was strictly supervised, the teaching of philosophy was suppressed in the lycées, for seven years France had no democratic life. The Empire governed by a series of plebiscites, up to 1857 the Opposition did not exist, from till 1860 it was reduced to five members, Darimon, Émile Ollivier, Hénon, Jules Favre and Ernest Picard. On 2 December 1851 Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, who had been elected President of the Republic and he thus became sole ruler of France, and re-established universal suffrage, previously abolished by the Assembly.
His decisions and the extension of his mandate for 10 years were popularly endorsed by a referendum that month that attracted an implausible 92 percent support. A new constitution was enacted in January 1852 which made Louis-Napoléon president for 10 years, however, he was not content with merely being an authoritarian president. Almost as soon as he signed the new document into law, in response to officially-inspired requests for the return of the empire, the Senate scheduled a second referendum in November, which passed with 97 percent support. As with the December 1851 referendum, most of the yes votes were manufactured out of thin air, the empire was formally re-established on 2 December 1852, and the Prince-President became Napoléon III, Emperor of the French. The constitution concentrated so much power in his hands that the only changes were to replace the word president with the word emperor
The Paris Commune was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871. Following the defeat of Emperor Napoleon III in September 1870, the French Second Empire swiftly collapsed, in its stead rose a Third Republic at war with Prussia, which laid siege to Paris for four months. A hotbed of radicalism, Frances capital was primarily defended during this time by the often politicized. In February 1871 Adolphe Thiers, the new executive of the French national government, signed an armistice with Prussia that disarmed the Army. Soldiers of the Communes National Guard killed two French army generals, and the Commune refused to accept the authority of the French government, the regular French Army suppressed the Commune during La semaine sanglante beginning on 21 May 1871. Debates over the policies and outcome of the Commune had significant influence on the ideas of Karl Marx, on 2 September 1870, after Frances unexpected defeat at the Battle of Sedan in the Franco-Prussian War, Emperor Napoleon III surrendered to the Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck.
When the news reached Paris the next day and angry crowds came out into the streets, Empress Eugénie de Montijo, the Emperors regent, fled the city, and the Government of the Second Empire swiftly collapsed. Republican and radical deputies of the National Assembly went to the Hôtel de Ville, proclaimed the new French Republic, though the Emperor and the French Army had been defeated at Sedan, the war continued. The German army marched swiftly toward Paris, in Paris, the republican candidates dominated, winning 234,000 votes against 77,000 for the Bonapartists. Only about 40,000 were employed in factories and large enterprises, most were employed in industries in textiles, furniture. There were 115,000 servants and 45,000 concierges, in addition to the native French population, there were about 100,000 immigrant workers and political refugees, the largest number being from Italy and Poland. The working class and immigrants suffered the most from the lack of activity due to the war. The Commune resulted in part from growing discontent among the Paris workers and this discontent can be traced to the first worker uprisings, the Canut Revolts, in Lyon and Paris in the 1830s.
Many Parisians, especially workers and the classes, supported a democratic republic. They wanted a more just way of managing the economy, if not necessarily socialist, socialist movements, such as the First International, had been growing in influence with hundreds of societies affiliated to it across France. In early 1867, Parisian employers of bronze-workers attempted to de-unionize their workers and this was defeated by a strike organized by the International. Later in 1867, a public demonstration in Paris was answered by the legal dissolution of its executive committee. The International had considerable influence even among unaffiliated French workers, particularly in Paris, the killing of journalist Victor Noir incensed Parisians, and the arrests of journalists critical of the Emperor did nothing to quiet the city
A lawyer is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, counselor or solicitor or chartered legal executive. The role of the lawyer varies greatly across legal jurisdictions, in practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine who is recognized as being a lawyer. As a result, the meaning of the lawyer may vary from place to place. In Australia, the lawyer is used to refer to both barristers and solicitors. In Canada, the word lawyer refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called barristers and solicitors, however, in Quebec, civil law advocates often call themselves attorney and sometimes barrister and solicitor in English. The Legal Services Act 2007 defines the activities that may only be performed by a person who is entitled to do so pursuant to the Act. Lawyer is not a protected title, in India, the term lawyer is often colloquially used, but the official term is advocate as prescribed under the Advocates Act,1961.
In Scotland, the word refers to a more specific group of legally trained people. It specifically includes advocates and solicitors, in a generic sense, it may include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term refers to attorneys who may practice law. It is never used to refer to patent agents or paralegals, in fact, there are regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law. Other nations tend to have terms for the analogous concept. In most countries, particularly civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries and scriveners. Several countries that originally had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a type of lawyer. Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, in countries with fused professions, a lawyer is usually permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below. Arguing a clients case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the province of the barrister in England.
However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved, in England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, and barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts