Christopher Edward "Chris" Bangle is an American automobile designer. Bangle is known best for his work as Chief of Design for BMW Group, where he was responsible for the BMW, MINI and Rolls-Royce motor cars. Bangle was born in Ravenna and raised in Wausau, Wisconsin. After considering becoming a Methodist minister, Bangle attended the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena, earning a Bachelor of Science degree, a Master of Science degree in Industrial Design at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Bangle started his career at Opel in Germany, where he worked from 1981 until 1985; the first work that he designed is the interior of the Opel Junior concept car. He moved to Fiat in Italy in 1985. From 1990 he worked as a chief designer of the Fiat Coupé, he became the first American chief of design of BMW on October 1, 1992, where he designed the Z9 Gran Turismo concept car. Bangle's designs are incorporated in the entire BMW lineup, including the BMW Z4, 1, 3, 5, 6 and 7 series as well as the X3, X5, X6 the newest design SUVs, the concept car Gina.
These span the automotive platforms E81 / E82 / E87 / E88, E90 / E91 / E92 / E93, E60 / E61, E63 / E64, E65 / E66 and E53. During the Bangle era, BMW overtook Mercedes as the global leader in premium car sales, he introduced a new BMW concept car, called GINA on June 10, 2008. On February 3, 2009, Bangle announced that he was to quit both his position at BMW and the auto industry altogether, to focus on his own design-related endeavours, he was replaced by Adrian van Hooydonk. Bangle now works for his own firm called Chris Bangle Associates based in Italy. In 2012, Bangle was hired by Samsung, his styling themes have generated intense controversy among automotive designers, have had a polarizing effect with respect to their visual cues. Bangle acknowledges that his designs do not look good in photographs, suggesting to critics that they should see the cars in real life before judging them on their looks. Bangle himself did not coin the phrase "flame surfacing" to describe his work; the reason for this design was to use BMW's new technology of 3D panel pressing allowing a single press for compound curves, which had needed multiple pressings unless the panel was shaped by hand.
This is further evidenced by the fact that Bangle has pointed out architect Frank Gehry's work as a major influence. The most controversial of Bangle and van Hooydonk's work was the E65 7 Series, a sharp contrast to the preceding E38 generation, conservatively styled. In fact, van Hooydonk's original 1998 sketch for the E65 was much more radical sleek fastback, but ending up the final design was toned down to a more conventional three-box sedan. Time magazine named the E65 as one of the 50 Worst Cars of All Time for its rear end styling and iDrive functionality, while there were several online petitions pressing BMW to sack Bangle. While the sales for the 2002 and 2003 models years were off 60% from the 2001, the E65 7 series became the best-selling 7 Series of all time. Bangle aggressively defended his designs against criticism, he was supported by the BMW board of directors. He said it was necessary for product lines to follow a cycle of a revolutionary generation followed by an evolutionary generation followed by another revolutionary generation and so on.
Indeed, he oversaw the conservative evolution of BMW designs with the redesign of the BMW 3 Series and the introduction of the BMW X5. For Bangle this marked the end of the evolution of BMW design and the revolution was witnessed with the 2002 introduction of the BMW E65. Bangle's successor as chief designer van Hooydonk has shepherded succeeding generations of BMW nameplates into the evolutionary phase of design while reincorporating traditional BMW cues such as L-styled taillights and a strong family resemblance. According to van Hooydonk, "BMW design has a tendency to periodically muscle in with big, design statements – to knock down walls – and in the follow-up model, its stylists can move about a bit more in the clean air made possible by its predecessor"; some have criticized van Hooydonk's designs as too bland and conservative and lacking the Avant-garde styling of Bangle designs. J Mays, Ford's chief creative officer, dislikes Bangle's designs, but admits Bangle has been significant in reshaping modern cars.
Marc Newson, an industrial designer and car enthusiast, described Bangle's BMW Z4 as having been designed with a machete. Patrick le Quément, chief designer at Renault, said: " the most talked about designer, his designs have a great deal of presence, they're well proportioned. He's been influential. My only concern is his use of concave surfaces: they're hollow shapes and lack that muscled look I feel helps design." Martin Smith, head of design for Ford of Europe, describes Bangle as an instigator of the trend toward "surface entertainment" in cars. Dr Klaus Draeger, BMW AG's Board Member for Development, said: "Christopher Bangle has had a lasting impact on the identity of BMW Group's brands, his contribution to the company's success has been decisive, together with his teams he has mapped out a clear and aesthetic route into the future," Robert Cumberford, former GM designer and Design Editor for Automobile, wrote in 2004 that Bangle is "a man with the courage of his
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. is an Italian luxury car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A. L. F. A. on 24 June 1910, in Milan. The brand is known for sporty vehicles and has been involved in car racing since 1911; the company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat Group. In February 2007, the Alfa Romeo brand became Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. A subsidiary of Fiat Group Automobiles, now Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy; the company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with Italian investors. In late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and the Italian partners of the company hired Giuseppe Merosi to design new cars. On 24 June 1910, a new company was founded named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Merosi.
A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged. In 1921, the Banca Italiana di Sconto. Nicola Romeo & Co, went broke and the government needed to support the industrial companies involved, among, Alfa Romeo, through the "Consorzio per Sovvenzioni sui Valori Industriali". In 1925, the railway activities were separated from the Romeo company, in 1928, Nicola Romeo left. In 1933, the state ownership was reorganized under the banner of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale by Benito Mussolini's government, which had effective control; the company struggled to return to profitability after the Second World War, turned to mass-producing small vehicles rather than hand-building luxury models.
In 1954, it developed the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, which would remain in production until 1994. During the 1960s and 1970s, Alfa Romeo produced a number of sporty cars, but struggled to make a profit, so Istituto per la Reconstruzione, the state conglomerate that controls Finmeccanica sold the marque to the Fiat Group in 1986. Alfa Romeo has competed in Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing, rallies, it has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries, private entries. The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of the company, Alfa Romeo won the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925; the race victories gave a sporty image to the marque, Enzo Ferrari founded the Scuderia Ferrari racing team in 1929 as an Alfa Romeo racing team, before becoming independent in 1939. It has had the most wins of any marque in the world; the company's name is a combination of the original name, "A. L. F.
A.", the last name of entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who took control of the company in 1915. The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. One of them, Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan, became chairman of the SAID in 1909; the firm's initial location was in Naples, but before the construction of the planned factory had started, Darracq decided late in 1906 that Milan would be more suitable and accordingly a tract of land was acquired in the Milan suburb of Portello, where a new factory of 6,700 square metres was erected. Late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and Stella, with the other Italian co-investors, founded a new company named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Giuseppe Merosi, hired in 1909 for designing new cars more suited to the Italian market. Merosi would go on to design a series of new A.
L. F. A. Cars, with more powerful engines. A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In 1914, an advanced Grand Prix car was designed and built, the GP1914, with a four-cylinder engine, double overhead camshafts, four valves per cylinder, twin ignition. However, the onset of the First World War halted automobile production at A. L. F. A. for three years. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. Munitions, aircraft engines and other components and generators based on the company's existing car engines were produced in a vastly enlarged factory during the war. After the war, Romeo invested his war profits in acquiring locomotive and railway carriage plants in Saronno and Naples, which were added to his A. L. F. A. Ownership. Car production had not been considered at first, but resumed in 1919 since parts for the completion of 105 cars had remained at the A.
L. F. A. Factory since 1915. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged, their first success came in 1920 whe
Multijet is Fiat Chrysler Automobiles' term for its current common rail direct injection turbodiesel engine range. Most of the Fiat, Alfa Romeo, Lancia range as well as certain Chrysler, RAM Trucks and Maserati vehicles are equipped with Multijet engines. Ownership of some Fiat Multijet designs is shared with General Motors as part of a settlement of the failed merger between the two auto conglomerates. GM Powertrain Torino group in Turin, Italy manages their interest in these engines; some PSA Peugeot Citroën diesel engines are rebadged JTD units, vice versa. Fiat's common rail diesel engine is known as JTD, an initialism of Jet Turbo Diesel; the property that distinguishes the Multijet from previous generations of common rail diesel engines from FCA is the combustion of the fuel, split into multiple injections, thus allowing for a more complete, quieter combustion in the cylinder. Compared to the first-generation JTD engines which only featured a smaller pilot and a larger main injection, Multijet is capable of up to five injections per combustion cycle which enables better, more efficient cold running, better performance in the lower rev-range, quieter operation as well as lower consumptions and emissions.
The time between injections has been reduced to 150 microseconds while the minimal injection quantity has been reduced from two to less than one microlitre. This enables mid-sized sedans like the Alfa Romeo 156 and Lancia Lybra equipped with the 1.9 JTD to achieve fuel economy upwards of 45 mpgUS on country roads and highways while offering an equal amount of torque as the 3.0L 24V V6 engine. A sophisticated electronic control unit controls the injection and changes the injection logic and number of injections based on a multitude of parameters, most revolutions per minute of the engine, engine torque requested by the driver and the temperature of the coolant; the injection pressure of the diesel fuel on the second-generation Multijet is limited to between 1,400 bar on the 1.3 Multijet and 1,600 bar on the 2.4 Multijet 20V. In 2009 Fiat Powertrain introduced the third generation of this technology, called Multijet II. With its new and innovative injectors with hydraulically balanced solenoid valve and higher injection pressure of 2,000 bar it is capable of more precise controlling of the injected diesel fuel, injecting it in a quicker and more flexible manner.
It enables up to eight consecutive injections per combustion cycle and implemented Injection Rate Shaping technology, which provides two close pilot injections making the fuel delivery more continuous and modulated. This results in an engine, quiet and has a smoother operation, lower emissions, better fuel mileage and higher performance compared to the previous generation. A 1.0 L 3-cylinder variant, or Smartech Diesel, was introduced in 2011. Co-developed by GM Powertrain Torino and the GM Technical Center India for the Indian Market the engine is rated at 57 bhp of power and 150 N⋅m of torque. Applications: 2011–2017 Chevrolet Beat A small 1.3 L version introduced in February 2003 is produced in Bielsko-Biała, in Ranjangaon, India, by Fiat India Automobiles. The Multijet 75 PS version was chosen in 2005 as the International Engine of the Year in the 1-litre to 1.4-litre category. There are five versions of this engine: a 70 PS, a 75 PS, a variable inlet geometry 90 PS, a 95 PS from the Multijet II generation, a 105 PS available on the Lancia Ypsilon.
At the time of the launch this was the smallest four-cylinder diesel engine available and had a fuel consumption of 3.3 L/100 km in some applications. The engine is able to meet Euro IV pollution standards without the use of a diesel particulate filter. In January 2008, Tata Motors introduced the new Indica Vista model, which features new Quadrajet branded version of this engine; the second generation Ford Ka uses 1.3 Multijet named as Duratorq TDCi. In GM nomenclature, it is called Small Diesel Engine. During 2009, Fiat launched a new generation badged Multijet II, with a new injection management system and able to meet Euro V pollution standards, it is available with several power outputs, from 75 PS, with fixed geometry turbocharger, to 95 PS, with variable geometry turbocharger. As of 2013, more than 5 million 1.3 MultiJet engines were produced. Applications: Alfa Romeo MiTo Chevrolet Aveo Chevrolet Sail Chevrolet Spin Citroen Nemo Fiat 500L Fiat Albea Fiat Doblò Fiat Fiorino Fiat Grande Punto Fiat Idea Fiat Linea Fiat 500 Fiat Palio Fiat Panda Fiat Punto Fiat Qubo Fiat Strada Fiat Tipo Ford Ka Lancia Musa Lancia Ypsilon Opel Agila Opel Astra Opel Combo Opel Corsa Opel Meriva Opel Tigra TwinTop Premier Rio Peugeot Bipper Suzuki Ciaz Suzuki Ertiga Suzuki Ignis Suzuki Splash Suzuki Swift Suzuki SX4 Suzuki SX4 S-Cross Suzuki Vitara Brezza Suzuki Wagon R+ Tata Bolt Tata Indica Vista Tata Indigo Manza Tata Zest In 2006, Fiat Powertrain announced a downsized version of the 1.9 16V Multijet, a new 1.6L 16V Multijet with two power levels of 105 PS and 120 PS to replace the still-used 1.9L 8-valve engine.
The new 1.6 Multijet diesel with 105 PS was released in Decem
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. The term transmission refers to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft and final drive shafts. In American English, the term refers more to the gearbox alone, detailed usage differs; the most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, inappropriate for starting and slower travel; the transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted. A transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies.
This switching may be done automatically. Directional control may be provided. Single-ratio transmissions exist, which change the speed and torque of motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling because internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed; the output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include power transformation. Hybrid configurations exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to speed and throttle input. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, steam engines, in support of pumping and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, this reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque; some of the simplest gearboxes change the physical rotational direction of power transmission. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types. Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different—often stationary—applications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are used in agricultural, construction and automotive equipment. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.
The simplest transmissions called gearboxes to reflect their simplicity, provide gear reduction, sometimes in conjunction with a right-angle change in direction of the shaft. These are used on PTO-powered agricultural equipment, since the axial PTO shaft is at odds with the usual need for the driven shaft, either vertical, or horizontally extending from one side of the implement to another. More complex equipment, such as silage choppers and snowblowers, have drives with outputs in more than one direction; the gearbox in a wind turbine converts the slow, high-torque rotation of the turbine into much faster rotation of the electrical generator. These are more complicated than the PTO gearboxes in farm equipment, they weigh several tons and contain three stages to achieve an overall gear ratio from 40:1 to over 100:1, depending on the size of the turbine. The first stage of the gearbox is a planetary gear, for compactness, to distribute the enormous torque of the turbine over more teeth of the low-speed shaft.
Durability of these gearboxes has been a serious problem for a long time. Regardless of where they are used, these simple transmissions all share an important feature: the gear ratio cannot be changed during use, it is fixed at the time. For transmission types that overcome this issue, see Continuously variable transmission known as CVT. Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios; this is to ease the starting and stopping of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel efficiency. The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Eng
Alfa Romeo Twin Spark engine
Alfa Romeo Twin Spark technology was used for the first time in the Alfa Romeo Grand Prix car in 1914. In the early 1960s it was used in their race cars to enable it to achieve a higher power output from its engines, and in the early and middle 1980s, Alfa Romeo incorporated this technology into their road cars to enhance their performance and to comply with stricter emission controls. In the current Alfa Romeo world the "Twin Spark" name refers to the dual ignition engines installed in Alfa Romeo cars; the 8-valve engine was fitted to the Alfa Romeo 75 but the Alfa Romeo 164 and Alfa Romeo 155. The 16-valve engines appeared in the Alfa Romeo 145, Alfa Romeo 146, Alfa Romeo 155, Alfa Romeo 156, Alfa Romeo 147, Alfa Romeo 166, Alfa Romeo GTV & Spider and Alfa Romeo GT models; the TS series engines are all'4-cylinder inline' with twin camshafts. The original 8-valve engine was derived from Alfa's Twin Cam family, featured a light alloy block + head, wet-cooled iron cylinder liners, the camshafts were driven by a single duplex timing chain.
So, similar design to the earlier and famous Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engines, but with narrower valve angle and double ignition on this model. The 16-valve engines were part of FIAT's "Pratola Serra" modular engine series, had a heavier cast-iron block engine, with an alloy head, the camshafts were belt driven; the Twin Spark name comes from the fact. It was cast iron for its higher beam strength, less complexity and hence lower production costs; when new, these engines were notable for their high efficiency as demonstrated by the BMEP exerted upon the piston crowns. The two sparks plugs on the 8V Alfa Twin Spark engines fire at the same time and are symmetrically placed around the vertical line passing through the intake and exhaust valve centers; the flame front travels less distance. Leaner mixtures can be tolerated for better fuel economy; the 8V engine has 8 identical spark plugs. There is no room for a centrally positioned spark plug due to 2-valve design which uses rather large 44 mm diameter inlet valve on the 2.0 engine.
On the newer models using the 8V engine the system uses the popular wasted spark system as well. Combining one coil for 2 plugs on opposite phase sister cylinders like 1-4, 2-3 on 4 cylinder engine.. 8V twinspark head view On the Alfa 16V Twin Spark engines one spark plug is ideally located in the centre of the cylinder, as is common in all multi-valve configuration engines. In order to accommodate a second spark plug in the 4-valve combustion chamber, a smaller diameter spark plug is located the edge of the combustion chamber between an inlet and an exhaust valve; the location of the additional plug means. However the engine is able to idle smoothly in lean conditions, this suggests the addition plug is here to improve combustion efficiency under light loads; the next generation Alfa fours, the JTS engines lost the second plugs gained direct injection and increased performance. The TS 16V engines, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0, all use a 10 mm diameter and a 14 mm diameter long life platinum electrode spark plug per cylinder.
The spark plugs have a replacement interval of 100,000 kilometres. The 16 Valve engine features individual'coil over plug' ignition where the timing of the ignition is controlled directly by the Bosch engine management system, with each coil firing two spark plugs simultaneously. On the earlier CF1 and CF2 16 valve engines each coil fired the plug below it and a plug in the other cylinder, 360° crankshaft rotation out of phase (i.e. one coil would fire a spark plug in the cylinder nearing the top of the compression stroke, the a spark plug in the cylinder nearing the top of the exhaust stroke. So in this configuration each coil services two spark plugs and each cylinder is serviced by two coils. In case of a coil failure one of two plugs would still work. Ignition systems that fire a plug in a cylinder on its exhaust stroke are referred to as a "wasted spark" ignition system. Wasted spark systems are used as a production economy as half the number of coils are required, e.g. a four-cylinder four-stroke engine requires only 2 coils alternately firing every 180° of crankshaft rotation, each coil firing every 360° crank rotation to fire all four cylinders.
In the 16 Valve Twin Spark 4 coils are required by the eight plugs, so production economy was unlikely to be a factor in the adoption of a wasted spark system. On the CF3 16v TS the four coils fire both spark plugs in one cylinder, may not be a wasted spark system; the potential benefits of each coil being associated with one cylinder being: halving the firing frequency - the coil is only required to fire every 720° crankshaft rotation rather than every 360° crankshaft rotation. This would double coil saturation time, improving spark quality at high rpm; some Bosch engine management system have the ability to advance and retard ignition timing in individual cylinders, which would be impossible in the CF1 and CF2 configurations as each cylinder is serviced by two coils, but could be used in the CF3 setup. The engines incorporate two other devices to enhance the performance under operation
Campania is a region in Southern Italy. As of 2018, the region has a population of around 5,820,000 people, making it the third-most-populous region of Italy. Located on the Italian Peninsula, with the Mediterranean Sea to the west, it includes the small Phlegraean Islands and Capri for administration as part of the region. Campania was part of Magna Græcia. During the Roman era, the area maintained a Greco-Roman culture; the capital city of Campania is Naples. Campania is rich in culture in regard to gastronomy, architecture and ancient sites such as Pompeii, Oplontis, Aeclanum and Velia; the name of Campania itself is derived from Latin, as the Romans knew the region as Campania felix, which translates into English as "fertile countryside" or "happy countryside". The rich natural sights of Campania make it important in the tourism industry along the Amalfi Coast, Mount Vesuvius and the island of Capri; the original inhabitants of Campania were three defined groups of the Ancient peoples of Italy, who all spoke the Oscan language, part of the Italic family.
During the 8th century BC, people from Euboea in Greece, known as Cumaeans, began to establish colonies in the area around the modern day province of Naples. Another Oscan tribe, the Samnites, moved down from central Italy into Campania. Since the Samnites were more warlike than the Campanians, they took over the cities of Capua and Cumae, in an area, one of the most prosperous and fertile in the Italian Peninsula at the time. During the 340s BC, the Samnites were engaged in a war with the Roman Republic in a dispute known as the Samnite Wars, with the Romans securing rich pastures of northern Campania during the First Samnite War; the major remaining independent Greek settlement was Neapolis, when the town was captured by the Samnites, the Neapolitans were left with no other option than to call on the Romans, with whom they established an alliance, setting off the Second Samnite War. The Roman consul Quintus Publilius Filo recaptured Neapolis by 326 BC and allowed it to remain a Greek city with some autonomy as a civitas foederata while aligned with Rome.
The Second Samnite War ended with the Romans controlling southern Campania and additional regions further to the south. Campania was a full-fledged part of the Roman Republic by the end of the 4th century BC, valued for its pastures and rich countryside, its Greek language and customs made it a centre of Hellenistic civilization, creating the first traces of Greco-Roman culture. During the Pyrrhic War the battle took place in Campania at Maleventum in which the Romans, led by consul Curius Dentatus, were victorious, they renamed the city Beneventum, which grew in stature until it was second only to Capua in southern Italy. During the Second Punic War in 216 BC, Capua, in a bid for equality with Rome, allied with Carthage; the rebellious Capuans were isolated from the rest of Campania. Naples resisted Hannibal due to the imposing walls. Capua was starved into submission in the Roman retaking of 211 BC, the Romans were victorious; the rest of Campania, with the exception of Naples, adopted the Latin language as official and was Romanised.
As part of the Roman Empire, with Latium, formed the most important region of the Augustan divisions of Italia. In ancient times Misenum, at the extreme northern end of the bay of Naples, was the largest base of the Roman navy, since its port was the base of the Classis Misenensis, the most important Roman fleet, it was first established as a naval base in 27 BC by Marcus Agrippa, the right-hand man of the emperor Augustus. Roman Emperors chose Campania as a holiday destination, among them Claudius and Tiberius, the latter of whom is infamously linked to the island of Capri, it was during this period that Christianity came to Campania. Two of the apostles, St. Peter and St. Paul, are said to have preached in the city of Naples, there were several martyrs during this time; the period of relative calm was violently interrupted by the epic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 which buried the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. With the Decline of the Roman Empire, its last emperor, Romulus Augustus, was put in a manor house prison near Castel dell'Ovo, Naples, in 476, ushering in the beginning of the Middle Ages and a period of uncertainty in regard to the future of the area.
The area had many duchies and principalities during the Middle Ages, in the hands of the Byzantine Empire and the Lombards. Under the Normans, the smaller independent states were brought together as part of the Kingdom of Sicily, before the mainland broke away to form the Kingdom of Naples, it was during this period that elements of Spanish and Aragonese culture were introduced to Campania. After a period as a Norman kingdom, the Kingdom of Sicily passed to the Hohenstaufens, who were a powerful Germanic royal house of Swabian origins; the University of Naples Federico II was founded by Frederick II in the city, the oldest state university in the world, making Naples the intellectual centre of the kingdom. Conflict between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy, led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IV crowning Angevin Dynasty duke Charles I as the king. Charles moved the capital from Palermo to Naples where he resided at the Castel Nuovo. During this period, much Gothic architec