Lugano is a city in southern Switzerland in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino bordering Italy. It has a population of 63,494, an urban agglomeration of over 145,000; the 9th largest Swiss city, it is the largest in Ticino and largest with an Italian speaking majority outside of Italy. The city lies on Lake Lugano, surrounded by the mountains of the Lugano Prealps; the eastern part of the city shares a border with Italy. The toponym is first recorded in 804, in the form Luanasco, in 874 as Luano, from 1189 as Lugano. German-language variants of the name were Lowens, Lauwis, Louwerz; the local Lombard form of the name is rendered Lügàn. The etymology of the name is uncertain, suggestions include derivation from lucus, from a vulgar Latin lakvannus and from the god Lugus; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules, a cross throughout argent, between the upper case serif letters "L", "V", "G" and "A". The coat of arms dates from around 1200; the four letters on the coat of arms are an abbreviation of the name Lugano.
The shores of Lake Lugano have been inhabited since the Stone Age. Within the modern city limits a number of ground stones or quern-stones have been found. In the area surrounding Lugano, items from the Copper Age and the Iron Age have been found. There are Etruscan monuments at Davesco-Soragno and Viganello. Graves with jewelry and household items have been found in Aldesago, Davesco and Pregassona along with Celtic money in Viganello; the region around Lake Lugano was settled by the Romans by the 1st century BC. There was an important Roman city north of Lugano at Bioggio. There are fewer traces of the Romans in Lugano, but several inscriptions and coins indicate that some Romans lived in what would become Lugano; the first written mention of a settlement at Lugano can be found in documents, which are of disputed authenticity, with which the Longobard king Liutprand ceded various assets located in Lugano to the Church of Saint Carpophorus in Como in 724. Other documents, dating from 804 and 844 refer to Lake Lugano as Laco Luanasco, an act of 984 indicates Lugano as a market town.
During the fighting between Guelphs and Ghibellines and the new disputes between Como and Milan, during the 14th and 15th centuries, Lugano was the scene of clashes between opposing forces. After a long rule by the Rusca family, Lugano was freed from the domination of Como, taken over in 1335 by the Visconti. At the same time the link between town and the valley strengthened. By 1405–06 documents attest to a vallis comunitas Lugani et, a governing body, independent of Como; the new community included the parishes of Lugano, Riva San Vitale and Capriasca. In 1416 the Duke of Milan, Filippo Maria Visconti, conquered the region of Lugano and the Rusca valley and made it a fief. A year Lugano's freedoms were first documented in a series of statutes modeled on those of Como; the town was able to secure complete independence. Between 1433 and 1438 the Duke of Milan, Aloisio Sanseverino sat as a feudal lord over Lugano, he compensated the Rusca family with the ownership of Locarno. Under the reign of his heirs in the following decades rebellions and riots broke out, which lasted until the French invasion of 1499.
It was the object of continuous disputes between the Dukes of Como and Milan until it became a Swiss dominion in 1513. Swiss control lasted until 1798 when Napoleon conquered the Old Swiss Confederation and created the Helvetic Republic. In 1746, the Agnelli brothers opened the first printing bookshop in Lugano, they began publishing the newspaper Nuove di diverse corti e paesi in 1748 and changed its name to Gazzetta di Lugano in 1797. The newspaper was read in north and central Italy, it supported the cause of the Jansenists against the Jesuits and therefore was banned in 1768 in the territory of the Papal States. It was open to the themes of the American Revolutionary War, it was the first newspaper in the Italian language to publish an excerpt from the Declaration of Independence of 1776. After the death of Abbot Gian Battista Agnelli in 1788, the editor for more than 40 years, Abbot Giuseppe Lodovico Maria Vanelli took over the paper. Under Abbot Vanelli, it supported the revolutionary ideas from France, which drew protests from the Austrian government in Lombardy.
The publication of the magazine ceased abruptly after edition number 17 of 29 April 1799, following the anti-French riots in Lugano during which the Agnelli printing house was sacked and Abbot Vanelli was shot. Under the Helvetic Republic, Lugano became the capital of the Canton of Lugano; the canton of Lugano unified the former Landvogteien of Lugano, Mendrisio and Valmaggia. However, as with the other cantons of the Helvetic Republic, the autonomy of Lugano was limited, the republic having been founded by Napoleon in order further to centralise power in Switzerland; the canton was led by a Directory of five members, who appointed a "national préfet". The canton was divided between "patriots" supporting the Cisalpine Republic, traditionalist "aristocrats". By 1799 riots broke out in Lugano, the second préfet, Francesco Capra, fled the city. Power passed to a provisional government sympathetic to the Habsburgs. However, French occupation was restored in 1800. Discontent continued and in early 1802 a revolt in Capriasca led to the autumn pronunciamento of Pian Povrò, which declared the independence of Lugano from the Helvetic client republic.
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Alfa Romeo Matta
The Alfa Romeo 1900 M is a four-wheel drive utility vehicle produced by Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1951 to 1954. Developed on request of the Italian Ministry of Defence, it was made in both military and civilian versions; the AR 51 was the result of the request of a light reconnaissance vehicle for use on paved and mountain roads. A civilian version, the AR 52, was developed from the military AR 51; the Matta was built from 1952 to 1954, with 2,007 military AR 51s for the Italian Army and 154 civilian AR 52 units produced. In 1954, the Italian army abandoned the AR 51 and switched to the Fiat Campagnola, mechanically simpler; the Matta was powered by 8-valve inline-four engine with dry sump lubrication. The cylinder head was aluminium and featured hemispherical combustion chambers, while the engine block was cast iron. Output was 65 PS at 4,400 rpm. http://www.alfamatta.co.uk/ Italian registry website
A coupé or coupe is a two-door car with a fixed roof. In the 21st century there are four-door cars with a coupé-like roofline sold as "four door coupés" or "quad coupés". Coupé was first applied to horse-drawn carriages for two passengers without rear-facing seats; the coupé name is a French language word, the past participle of the verb couper, translating as cut. There are two common pronunciations in English: koo-PAY, the anglicized version of the French pronunciation of coupé. KOOP in American English, due to people spelling the word without the acute accent, which resulted in them pronouncing it as one syllable; this change occurred and before World War II. This pronunciation is more common in the United States, for example the hot rodders' term Deuce Coupe used to refer to a 1932 Ford; the origin of the coupé body style come from the berline horse-drawn carriage. In the 18th century, the coupé version of the berline was introduced, a shortened version with no rear-facing seat. A coupé had a fixed glass window in the front of the passenger compartment.
The term "berline coupé" was shortened to "coupé". The coupé was considered to be an ideal vehicle for women to use to go shopping or to make social visits; the early coupé automobile's passenger compartment followed in general conception the design of horse-drawn coupés, with the driver in the open at the front and an enclosure behind him for two passengers on one bench seat. The French variant for this word thus denoted a car with a small passenger compartment. By the 1910s, the term had evolved to denote a two-door car with the driver and up to two passengers in an enclosure with a single bench seat; the coupé de ville, or coupé chauffeur, was an exception, retaining the open driver's section at front. In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers suggested nomenclature for car bodies that included the following: Coupe: An enclosed car operated from the inside with seats for two or three and sometimes a backward-facing fourth seat. Coupelet: A small car seating two or three with a folding top and full height doors with retractable windows.
Convertible coupe: A roadster with a removable coupé roof. During the 20th century, the term coupé was applied to various close-coupled cars. Since the 1960s the term coupé has referred to a two-door car with a fixed roof. Since 2005, several models with four doors have been marketed as "four-door coupés", however reactions are mixed about whether these models are sedans instead of coupés. According to Edmunds, the American online resource for automotive information, "the four-door coupe category doesn't exist." A coupé is a two-door fixed roof car but some manufacturers manage to fit four doors beneath coupe roofs and now describe these cars as four-door coupes. In 1977, International Standard ISO 3833-1977 defined a coupé as having a closed body with limited rear volume, a fixed roof of which a portion may be openable, at least two seats in at least one row, two side doors and a rear opening, at least two side windows. Coupés have been described as "any two-door other than a two-door sedan, smaller than a related four-door in the same model line", "shorter than a sedan of the same model" and that "all two-door two-seaters with a solid roof are coupes."Today, coupé is sometimes used by manufacturers as a marketing term, rather than a technical description of a body style.
This is because coupés in general are seen as more streamlined and sportier overall lines than those of comparable four-door sedans. Automobile manufacturers have therefore begun to use the term loosely, marketing sporty four-door models that feature sloping rooflines as coupés. Manufacturers have used the term "coupé" with reference to several varieties, including: A Berlinetta is a lightweight sporty two-door car with two-seats but including 2+2 cars. A two-door car with no rear seat or with a removable rear seat intended for travelling salespeople and other vendors carrying their wares with them. American manufacturers developed this style of coupe in the late 1930s. A two-door car with a larger rear-seat passenger area, compared with the smaller rear-seat area in a 2+2 body style. Saab uses the term combi coupé for a car body similar to the liftback. A four-door car with a coupé-like roofline at the rear; the low-roof design reduces headroom. The designation, first applied to a low-roof model of the Rover P5 from 1962 until 1973, was revived with the 1985 Toyota Carina ED, the 1992 Infiniti J30 and most with the first model 2005 Mercedes-Benz CLS.
The term originated for marketing reasons. The German press accepted the concept of a four-door coupé and applied it to similar models from other manufacturers such as the 2009 Jaguar XJ. Other manufacturers accepted it, producing recent competing models like Volkswagen Passat CC, BMW F06 and a five-door coupé, the Audi A7; the German automobile club ADAC on its website adopted this concept. In Germany, the definition of the coupé was divided into the classic coupé and 4-door coupé. A two-door designed for driving to the opera with easy access to the rear seats. Features sometimes included a folding front seat next to the driver or a compartment to store top hats, they would have solid rear-quarter panels, with small, circular windows, to enable the occupants to see out without being seen. These opera windows were revived on many U. S. automobiles during the 1970s and early 1980s. A quad coupé is two small rear doors and no B pillar; the three window coupé (commonly jus
Gruppo Bertone known as Bertone, was an Italian automobile company, which specialized in car styling and manufacturing. Bertone styling is distinctive, with most cars having a strong "family resemblance" if they are badged by different manufacturers. Bertone has styled cars for Abarth, Alfa Romeo, Aston Martin, Citroën, Ferrari, FIAT, Lancia, Mercedes-Benz and Volvo, among others. In addition, the Bertone studio was responsible for two of the designs of the Lambretta motorscooter. In the late 1980s, Bertone styled the K20 motorcycle helmet for Swiss bicycle and motorcycle helmet manufacturer Kiwi; the company was based in Grugliasco in northern Italy. Gruppo Bertone was founded as Carrozzeria Bertone in 1912 by Giovanni Bertone. Designer Nuccio Bertone took charge of the company after World War II and the company was divided into two units: Carrozzeria for manufacturing and Stile Bertone for styling; until its bankruptcy in 2014, the company was headed by the widow of Lilli Bertone. After its bankruptcy, the Bertone name was retained by some of its former employees who continued as a Milan-based design company, Bertone Design.
Giovanni Bertone started a carriage manufacturing business in Turin, at the age of 28. Along with three workers, he built horse-drawn vehicles. In the first decades of the 20th century, cars were not common; the road traffic was dominated by horse-drawn carriages and the coaches built by the young Bertone were regarded for their accuracy and solidity. In 1914, Giuseppe Bertone, nicknamed "Nuccio", the second son of Giovanni Bertone, was born; this nickname became known as the signature to Nuccio, one of the greatest Italian style masters in the world. The outbreak of the first world war triggered a major crisis of the young Italian industrial sector and affected Giovanni Bertone, forced to close his company. At the end of the First World War, Bertone's business restarted and expanded its activities, began focusing on the automotive sector. In 1920, a new plant was opened near the Monginevro 119 in Turin. Twenty people were on the payroll. One year the first important contract was signed to the company.
This was a torpedo styled body based on the SPA 23S chassis. The FIAT "501 Sport Siluro Corsa," the first of a family of models that would characterize the brand in the years to come, was designed. With that, the high performance sport car was born. During the 1920s, Turin was represented as one of the worldwide centers of excellence of the car industry. Bertone was sitting on the hub of it and formed partnerships with all the manufacturers of the day. Giovanni Bertone began doing bodywork on the Fast, Aurea, SCAT and Diatto chassis; the most important and long lasting relationships were those with the two biggest Turin manufacturers: FIAT and Lancia. Vincenzo Lancia realised straight away that Giovanni Bertone was an outstanding skilled craftsman with a great future ahead of him. Affectionately nicknaming him "Bertunot", he commissioned Bertone to create complete car bodies, above all for the limited series that the companies of the day were not always equipped to manufacture; this was Bertone's first opportunity to carry out limited production of special cars on standard mechanical bases, was the beginning of a great industrial experience.
These are exciting years for Bertone himself, for the evolution of industrial style and design. The car body shapes are but continuously changing, angular shapes begin to fade, wings start to be joined together. Giovanni Bertone produced torpedo and saloon bodies for FIAT and Lancia, for Itala, Diatto and SPA, he worked on commissions for private customers eager for exclusivity. Alongside sports models like the 1928 Ansaldo 6BS, Giovanni Bertone designed luxury cars like the Fiat 505 limousine and the Itala 51S, both in 1924, he designed the Lancia Lambda VIII Series in 1928. Despite the fact that the depression of 1929 had brought many Turin carmakers to their knees, Giovanni Bertone's shrewd management allowed the company to carry on creating cars with great appeal. In 1932, Giovanni designed the imposingly elegant Lancia Artena, produced until 1936. In 1933; this was that Nuccio Bertone, nineteen at the time began working in his father's company. In the same period, Bertone began working on commercial vehicles, as the business grew, new premises were needed.
The company moved to Corso Peschiera 225. Gruppo Bertone now had fifty members of staff. In 1934, Bertone created the Fiat 527S Ardita 2500, a turning point in car design, with some incredible new details such as the stunning front headlights with fairing along the bonnet. With the Ardita a new kind of style was created, destined to take off towards the end of the decade, with FIAT and Lancia models astounding for their day. Examples were the'six window' FIAT 1500 Aerodinamica, the opulent Lancia Aprilia Cabriolet and the novel Fiat 1500 Torpedo, with structural features that had never been seen before, such as the fold-away hood which stowed away inside the car. With Giovanni's bold innovations and elegant creations, he was appreciated by car experts and fans. With the outbreak of the Second World War, the car market experienced a drastic downturn. All the bodywork manufacturers, including Bertone, reacted to the crisis by turning to military vehicles of various kinds; the company created vehicles such as the Bertone ambulance on a Lancia Artena base.
It was a hard time. The demand was scarce. Raw materials and labour was lacking. Military orders where difficult to fulfill, but production did not stop in the Corso Peschier
Alfa Romeo 6C
The Alfa Romeo 6C name was used on road and sports cars produced between 1927 and 1954 by Alfa Romeo. Bodies for these cars were made by coachbuilders such as James Young, Touring and Pininfarina. Starting from 1933 there was a 6C version with a factory Alfa body, built in Portello. In the early 1920s Vittorio Jano received a commission to create a lightweight, high performance vehicle to replace the Giuseppe Merosi designed RL and RM models; the car was introduced in April 1925 at the Salone dell' Automobile di Milano as the 6C 1500. It was based on the P2 racing car, using single overhead cam 1,487 cc in-line six-cylinder motor producing 44 horsepower, in 1928 the 1500 Sport was presented, the first Alfa Romeo road car with double overhead camshafts. In the mid-1920s, Alfa's RL was considered too large and heavy, so a new development began; the 2-liter formula that had led to Alfa Romeo winning the Automobile World Championship in 1925, changed to 1.5-liter for the 1926 season. The 6C 1500 was introduced in 1925 at the Milan Motor Show, production started 1927, with the P2 Grand Prix car as a starting point.
Engine capacity was now 1487 cc, against the P2's 1987 cc. First versions were bodied by Touring. In 1928, a 6C Sport was released, with a dual overhead camshafts engine, its sport version won many races, including the 1928 Mille Miglia. Total production was 3000. Ten copies of a supercharged Super Sport variant were made; the more powerful 6C 1750 was introduced in 1929 in Rome. The car featured a top speed of 95 mph, a chassis designed to flex and undulate over wavy surfaces, as well as sensitive geared-up steering, it was produced in six series between 1929 and 1933. The base model had a single overhead cam. Super Sport and Gran Sport versions had a double overhead cam engine. Again, a supercharger was available. Most of the cars were sold as rolling chassis and bodied by coachbuilders such as Zagato, Touring. Additionally, there were 3 examples built with James Young bodywork, one of, a part of the permanent collection at the Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum in Philadelphia, PA, USA in original, unrestored condition.
In 1929, it won every major racing event it was entered in, including the Grands Prix of Belgium, Spain and Monza, the Mille Miglia was won with Giuseppe Campari and Giulio Ramponi. The Brooklands Double Twelve and the Ulster TT were won, in 1930 it won again at the Mille Miglia and Spa 24 Hours. Total production was 2635; the 1931 6C 1750 with license plate number "3710 SV" and chassis/engine number #10814331, owned by notorious rare car collector Corrado Lopresto, is a unique exemplar, which's story is told in Lopresto's bilingual 2015 Skira book Best in Show – Capolavori dell'auto italiana dalla collezione Lopresto – Italian Cars Masterpieces from the Lopresto Collection. The English-language section about this car tells: Born with a spider body by Zagato, this car is a 6C 1750 Gran Sport with compressor, the sportiest version of the Milanese 6-cylinder, is sold new to Giovanni Battista Aldo Barabini of Genova in 1931. After several changes of ownership the car goes back to Alfa Romeo, to be resold in 1933 to Dino Carabba, who in 1934 enrolls in the Varese-Campo dei Fiori, coming in fourth in class and eleventh overall.
In those years, the 6C runs in minor races, changing hands three times before being sold to the body shop Giuseppe Aprile of Savona, in August 1938. Less than a year after, the car is purchased by Brunello Feltri of Altare, province of Savona, but meanwhile, Aprile has rebuilt the body of the car with a new modern and elegant look; the design, so well executed, indicates the work of the most famous designer of that time: Mario Revelli di Beaumont, father of this and many other beautiful bodies. The car so transformed survives the war unscathed and changes ownership again in 1956, in Liguria, where it remains still today, rediscovery yet in order, although with some modifications; the painstaking restoration work has restored it to its original splendor, as well conceived by Revelli: a unique car that blends the great elegance to the sporty temperament of mechanics. A plush version of the car, manufactured by Vitale Barberis Canonico, was given, together with the book, to some of Lopresto's friends.
The Alfa Romeo 6C 1900 was the last derivative of the original 6C 1500, produced in 197 examples during 1933, as a transitional model before the new 6C 2300 was introduced the following year. Only made in Gran Turismo guise with a 2,920 mm wheelbase, the 6C 1900 replaced the corresponding 6C 1750 model. Besides the larger displacement, other notable mechanical changes were aluminium cylinder heads, an improved frame and a new transmission; the same upgrades were applied to the 1933 model 6C 1750 Gran Sport, which together with the 6C 1900 forms the sixth series of the 6C. Alfa Romeo offered the 6C 1900 with an in-house 4-door saloon body, while bespoke coachbuilt body styles included 4-seat cabriolets; the double overhead camshaft aspirated straight-six engine was bored out from 66 mm to 68 mm, bringing displacement to 1,917 cc. For the first time on a 6C the cylinder head was aluminium. With 68 bhp at 4,500 rpm the 6C 1900 could achieve a top speed of 130 km/h; the improved frame consisted of boxed rails and crossmembers, instead of the 1750s C-shaped sec
The layout of a car is defined by the location of the engine and drive wheels. Layouts can be divided into three categories: front-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive and four-wheel drive. Many different combinations of engine location and driven wheels are found in practice, the location of each is dependent on the application for which the car will be used; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven wheels at the front of the vehicle. This is the most common layout for cars since the late 20th century; some early front-wheel drive cars from the 1930s had the engine located in the middle of the car. A rear-engine, front-wheel-drive layout is one in which the engine is between or behind the rear wheels, drives the front wheels via a driveshaft, the complete reverse of a conventional front-engine, rear-wheel-drive vehicle layout; this layout has only been used on concept cars. The front-engine, rear-wheel drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear.
This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century, remains the most common layout for rear-wheel drive cars. The mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout is one where the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle; this layout is chosen for its low moment of inertia and favorable weight distribution. The rear-engine, rear-wheel drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. In contrast to the MR layout, the center of mass of the engine is between the rear axle and the rear bumper. Although common in transit buses and coaches due to the elimination of the drive shaft with low-floor bus, this layout has become rare in passenger cars; the Porsche 911 is notable for its continuous use of the RR layout since 1963. Car drivetrains where power can be sent to all four wheels are referred to as either four-wheel drive or all-wheel drive.
The front-engine, four-wheel drive layout places the engine at the front of the vehicle and drives all four roadwheels. This layout is chosen for better control on many surfaces, is an important part of rally racing as well as off-road driving. Most four-wheel-drive layouts are front-engined and are derivatives of earlier front-engine, rear-wheel-drive designs; the mid-engine, four-wheel drive layout places the engine in the middle of the vehicle, between both axles and drives all four road wheels. Although the term "mid-engine" can mean the engine is placed anywhere in the car such that the centre of gravity of the engine lies between the front and rear axles, it is used for sports cars and racing cars where the engine is behind the passenger compartment; the motive output is sent down a shaft to a differential in the centre of the car, which in the case of an M4 layout, distributes power to both front and rear axles. The rear-engine, four-wheel drive layout places the engine at the rear of the vehicle, drives all four wheels.
This layout is chosen to improve the traction or the handling of existing vehicle designs using the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout. For example, the Porsche 911 added all-wheel drive to the existing line-up of rear-wheel drive models in 1989. Automobile handling Car classification Drivetrain layout
Liège is the easternmost province of Wallonia and Belgium. It borders Limburg in the Netherlands, North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany, Diekirch in Luxembourg, in Belgium the provinces of Luxembourg, Walloon Brabant, as well as those of Flemish Brabant and Limburg; the province is divided into a Belgo-German area. The capital of the province is the city of Liège; the modern borders of the province of Liège date from 1795, which saw the unification of the Principality of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège with the revolutionary French Department of the Ourthe. The province of Ourthe, as it was known was under French control during the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon visited the city during one of his campaigns and ordered the destruction of its vineyards in order to prevent the Liege wine industry from competing with its French counterpart. Following Napoleon’s fall from power in 1815, Liege became part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, while eastern half of modern Verviers became part of the Kingdom of Prussia.
Liege University scholars helped to write the new Dutch constitution after the Napoleonic Wars. Despite these contributions there was a widespread perception among the people of Liege that they were discriminated against by the Dutch government due to religious and language differences. In September 1830, rumors spread. Liege intellectuals responded to these events by contacting Walloon scholars living in Paris to discuss Belgian independence. A militia was formed to press these demands led by Charlier "Wooden Leg" leading to the formation of an independent Kingdom of Belgium. In the 19th Century, the province was an early center of the Industrial Revolution, its rich coal deposits and steel factories helped Belgium to form the basis of the region's increasing economic power. During the 20th century, due to Liège's borders with Germany, it saw fierce fighting in both World Wars. In World War I, Liege’s strong line of reinforced concrete military forts temporarily halted the German advance through Belgium, giving time to construct trenches in Flanders which subsequently saw some of the worst fighting of that war.
In world War II, Liège was the site of major fighting during the Battle of the Bulge. There, the Germans orchestrated their final offensive move against the combined Allied armies. Malmedy and Saint-Vith in particular saw intense battles against the Nazis. Liège’s heavy industry thrived in the 1950s and 1960sbut this has been in steady decline since that time. Liege is the last city of Wallonia. Liège continues to be the economic and cultural capital of Wallonia, with its university, medieval heritage and heavy industry; the province has an area of 3,844 square kilometres, divided into four administrative districts containing a total of 84 municipalities. The Province of Liège is divided into four administrative arrondissements: Municipalities that have city status have a behind their name. Nine municipalities of Liège form the German-speaking Community of Belgium. From north to south they are: Kelmis, Raeren, Eupen, Bütgenbach, Büllingen, Sankt Vith, Burg-Reuland municipalities. Malmedy and Waimes are municipalities with language facilities for German speakers.
The other municipalities of Liège are part of the French Community of Belgium. Official web site of the Liège province Bureau des Relations Extérieures de la Province de Liège