Giorgetto Giugiaro is an Italian automobile designer. He has worked on popular everyday vehicles, he was born in Garessio, Piedmont. Giugiaro was named Car Designer of the Century in 1999 and inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 2002. In addition to cars, Giugiaro designed camera bodies for Nikon, computer prototypes for Apple, Navigation promenade of Porto Santo Stefano, developed a new pasta shape "Marille", as well as office furniture for Okamura Corporation. Giugiaro's earliest cars, like the Alfa Romeo 105/115 Series Coupés featured tastefully arched and curving shapes, such as the De Tomaso Mangusta, Iso Grifo, Maserati Ghibli. However, as the 1970s approached, Giugiaro's designs became angular, culminating in the "folded paper" era of the 1970s. Straight-lined designs such as the BMW M1, Lotus Esprit S1, Maserati Bora followed before a softer approach returned in the Maserati Merak, Lamborghini Calà, Maserati Spyder, Ferrari GG50. Giugiaro is known for the DMC DeLorean, featured prominently in the Hollywood blockbuster series Back to the Future.
His most commercially successful design was the Volkswagen Golf Mk1. In 1976, Giugiaro explored a new taxi concept with the Museum of Modern Art, which became the 1978 Lancia Megagamma concept. Fiat had commissioned the 1978 concept from Italdesign, asking for a 4-meter, high roof, high h-point, monospace design — but found the concept too risky for production. In retrospect the Megagamma was more influential than it was itself successful, becoming the "conceptual birth mother of the MPV/minivan movement" — giving rise to such mini/compact MPV's as the Nissan Prairie and Fiat 500L as well as larger MPV's including the Renault Espace and Chrysler minivans. Bertone Ghia Italdesign Giugiaro GFG Style Alfa Romeo 2600 Sprint Giulia Sprint GT/GTV Canguro concept car Iguana concept car Caimano concept car Alfasud Alfetta GT/GTV Sprint Brera concept car 156 facelift second series Visconti concept car 159/159 SW Brera American Motors Eagle Premier ASA 1000 GT Aston Martin DB4 GT Bertone'Jet' Audi 80 BMW 3200 CS BMW Spicup concept car M1 Nazca M12 concept car Nazca C2 concept car Nazca C2 Spider concept car M1 Homage Concept Bugatti ID 90 Concept EB 112 EB 118 EB 218 Buick Park Avenue Ultra Cadillac Sixty Special Chevrolet Testudo concept car Daewoo Lanos Matiz Leganza Magnus Kalos hatchback Lacetti hatchback De Tomaso Mangusta DeLorean Motor Company DeLorean Ferrari 250 GT SWB Bertone Ferrari GG50 Fiat 850 Spider Dino Coupé Panda Uno Croma Punto Palio/Siena Idea Croma Grande Punto Sedici Strada Ford Ford Mustang concept car GreenTech Automotive GreenTech MyCar My car NEV Gordon-Keeble GT Hyundai Pony Excel Sonata Stellar Innocenti Innocenti 186 GT Iso Rivolta Rivolta IR 300 Grifo Fidia Alfa Romeo 2600 Sprint Giulia Sprint GT/GTV Canguro concept car Iguana concept car Caimano concept car Alfasud Alfetta GT/GTV Sprint Brera concept car 156 facelift second series Visconti concept car 159/159 SW Brera American Motors Eagle Premier ASA 1000 GT Aston Martin DB4 GT Bertone'Jet' Audi 80 BMW 3200 CS BMW Spicup concept car M1 Nazca M12 concept car Nazca C2 concept car Nazca C2 Spider concept car M1 Homage Concept Bugatti ID 90 Concept EB 112 EB 118 EB 218 Buick Park Avenue Ultra Cadillac Sixty Special Chevrolet Testudo concept car Daewoo Lanos Matiz Leganza Magnus Kalos hatchback Lacetti hatchback De Tomaso Mangusta DeLorean Motor Company DeLorean Ferrari 250 GT SWB Bertone Ferrari GG50 Fiat 850 Spider Dino Coupé Panda Uno Croma Punto Palio/Siena Idea Croma Grande Punto Sedici Ford Ford Mustang concept car GreenTech Automotive GreenTech MyCar My car NEV Gordon-Keeble GT Hyundai Pony Excel Sonata Stellar Innocenti Innocenti 186 GT Iso Rivolta Rivolta IR 300 Grifo Fidia Nikon EM F3 L35-AF F4 F5 D2H F6 D3 D4 D800 Handguns Beretta Neos Submachine Guns Beretta CX4 Storm ShotgunsBeretta UGB25 Xcel Trap 12 GA, 30" Ducati 860 GT Suzuki RE5 Derbi Predator 1990s TOMOS Colibri moped MV Agusta 350s Ipotesi FIAT Ferroviaria/Alstom ETR 460 train Nitro concept tractor Seiko Speedmaster wrist watch Seiko Macchina Sportiva wrist watch Deutz Fahr 6215 RCSHIFT tractor Italdesign, Giugiaro's industrial design group Coachbuild.com Encyclopedia: Giugiaro Bontempi Minstrel BMW Designers An overview of automotive designers working for BMW
Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, trucks, buses and vans. The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design; the task of the design team is split into three main aspects: exterior design, interior design, color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of automotive design.
Design focuses not only on the isolated outer shape of automobile parts, but concentrates on the combination of form and function, starting from the vehicle package. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic utility features as well. In particular, vehicular electronic components and parts will give more challenges to automotive designers who are required to update on the latest information and knowledge associated with emerging vehicular gadgetry dashtop mobile devices, like GPS navigation, satellite radio, HD radio, mobile TV, MP3 players, video playback, smartphone interfaces. Though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models; the designer responsible for the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions and surfaces of the vehicle. Exterior design is first done by a series of manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management.
Industrial plasticine and or digital models are developed from, along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full-sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the clay model is first designed in a computer program and "carved" using the machine and large amounts of clay. In times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, the clay model is still the most important tool to evaluate the design of a car and, therefore, is used throughout the industry; the designer responsible for the vehicles' interior develops the proportions, shape and surfaces for the instrument panel, door trim panels, pillar trims, etc. Here the emphasis is on the comfort of the passengers; the procedure here is the same as with exterior design. The color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle; these include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, so on.
Color, contrast and pattern must be combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience. Designers work with the exterior and interior designers. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for projects two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry; the designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models. The design team develops graphics for items such as: badges, dials, kick or tread strips, liveries; the sketches and rendering are transformed into 3D Digital surface modelling and rendering for real-time evaluation with Math data in initial stages. During the development process succeeding phases will require the 3D model developed to meet the aesthetic requirements of a designer and well as all engineering and manufacturing requirements.
The developed CAS digital model will be re-developed for manufacturing meeting the Class-A surface standards that involves both technical as well as aesthetics. This data will be further developed by Product Engineering team; these modelers have a background in Industrial design or sometimes tooling engineering in case of some Class-A modelers. Autodesk Alias and ICEM Surf are the two most used software tools for Class-A development. Several manufacturers have varied development cycles for designing an Automobile, but in practice these are the following. Design and User Research Concept Development sketching CAS Clay modeling Interior Buck Model Vehicle ergonomics Class-A Surface Development Colour and Trim Vehicle GraphicsThe design process occurs concurrently with other product Engineers who will be engineering the styling data for meeting performance and safety regulations. From mid-phase and forth interactions between the designers and product engineers culminates into a finished product be manufacturing ready.
Apart from this the Engineering team parallelly works in the following areas. Product Engineering, NVH Development team, Prototype
A drum brake is a brake that uses friction caused by a set of shoes or pads that press outward against a rotating cylinder-shaped part called a brake drum. The term drum brake means a brake in which shoes press on the inner surface of the drum; when shoes press on the outside of the drum, it is called a clasp brake. Where the drum is pinched between two shoes, similar to a conventional disc brake, it is sometimes called a pinch drum brake, though such brakes are rare. A related type called a band brake uses a flexible belt or "band" wrapping around the outside of a drum; the modern automobile drum brake was first used in a car made by Maybach in 1900, although the principle was only patented in 1902 by Louis Renault. He used woven asbestos lining for the drum brake lining, as no alternative dissipated heat like the asbestos lining, though Maybach had used a less sophisticated drum brake. In the first drum brakes and rods or cables operated the shoes mechanically. From the mid-1930s, oil pressure in a small wheel cylinder and pistons operated the brakes, though some vehicles continued with purely mechanical systems for decades.
Some designs have two wheel cylinders. As the shoes in drum brakes wear, brakes required regular manual adjustment until the introduction of self-adjusting drum brakes in the 1950s. Drums are prone to brake fading with repeated use. In 1953, Jaguar fielded three cars equipped with disc brakes at Le Mans, where they won, in large part due to their superior braking over drum-equipped rivals; this spelled the beginning of the crossover of drum brakes to disc brakes in passenger cars. From the 1960s to the 1980s, disc brakes replaced drum brakes on the front wheels of cars. Now all cars use disc brakes on the front wheels, many use disc brakes on all four wheels. In the United States, the Jeep CJ-5 was the final automobile to use front drum brakes when it was phased out in 1984. However, drum brakes are still used for handbrakes, as it has proven difficult to design a disc brake suitable for holding a parked car. Moreover, it is easy to fit a drum handbrake inside a disc brake so that one unit serves as both service brake and handbrake.
Early brake shoes contained asbestos. When working on brake systems of older cars, care must be taken not to inhale any dust present in the brake assembly; the United States Federal Government began to regulate asbestos production, brake manufacturers had to switch to non-asbestos linings. Owners complained of poor braking with the replacements. A majority of daily-driven older vehicles have been fitted with asbestos-free linings. Many other countries limit the use of asbestos in brakes. Drum brake components include the backing plate, brake drum, wheel cylinder, various springs and pins; the backing plate provides a base for the other components. The back plate increases the rigidity of whole set-up, supports the housing, protects it from foreign materials like dust and other road debris, it absorbs the torque from the braking action, and, why back plate is called the "Torque Plate". Since all braking operations exert pressure on the backing plate, it must be strong and wear-resistant. Levers for emergency or parking brakes, automatic brake-shoe adjuster were added in recent years.
The brake drum is made of a special type of cast iron, heat-conductive and wear-resistant. It rotates with the axle; when a driver applies the brakes, the lining pushes radially against the inner surface of the drum, the ensuing friction slows or stops rotation of the wheel and axle, thus the vehicle. This friction generates substantial heat. One wheel cylinder operates the brake on each wheel. Two pistons operate one at each end of the wheel cylinder; the leading shoe is known as the primary shoe. The trailing shoe is known as the secondary shoe. Hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder acts on the piston cup, pushing the pistons toward the shoes, forcing them against the drum; when the driver releases the brakes, the brake shoe springs restore the shoes to their original position. The parts of the wheel cylinder are shown to the right. Brake shoes are made of two pieces of steel welded together; the friction material is either attached with adhesive. The crescent-shaped piece is called the Web and contains holes and slots in different shapes for return springs, hold-down hardware, parking brake linkage and self-adjusting components.
All the application force of the wheel cylinder is applied through the web to the lining table and brake lining. The edge of the lining table has three “V"-shaped notches or tabs on each side called nibs; the nibs rest against the support pads of the backing plate. Each brake assembly has a primary and secondary; the primary shoe is located toward the front of the vehicle and has the lining positioned differently from the secondary shoe. Quite the two shoes are interchangeable, so close inspection for any variation is important. Linings must be resistant to heat and wear and have a high friction coefficient unaffected by fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Materials that make up the brake shoe include, friction modifiers, powdered metal such as lead, brass and other metals that resist heat fade, curing agents and fillers such as rubber chips to reduce brake noise. In the UK two common grades of brake shoe material used to be available. DON 202 was a hig
In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It closes in the top of the cylinder; this joint is sealed by a head gasket. In most engines, the head provides space for the passages that feed air and fuel to the cylinder, that allow the exhaust to escape; the head can be a place to mount the valves, spark plugs, fuel injectors. In a flathead or sidevalve engine, the mechanical parts of the valve train are all contained within the block, a'poultice head' may be used, a simple metal plate bolted to the top of the block. Keeping all moving parts within the block has an advantage for physically large engines in that the camshaft drive gear is small and so suffers less from the effects of thermal expansion in the cylinder block. With a chain drive to an overhead camshaft, the extra length of chain needed for an overhead cam design could give trouble from wear and slop in the chain without frequent maintenance. Early sidevalve engines were in use at a time of simple fuel chemistry, low octane ratings and so required low compression ratios.
This made their combustion chamber design less critical and there was less need to design their ports and airflow carefully. One difficulty experienced at this time was that the low compression ratio implied a low expansion ratio during the power stroke. Exhaust gases were thus still hot, hotter than a contemporary engine, this led to frequent trouble with burnt exhaust valves. A major improvement to the sidevalve engine was the advent of Ricardo's turbulent head design; this reduced the space within the combustion chamber and the ports, but by careful thought about the airflow paths within them it allowed a more efficient flow in and out of the chamber. Most it used turbulence within the chamber to mix the fuel and air mixture. This, of itself, allowed the use of higher compression ratios and more efficient engine operation; the limit on sidevalve performance is not the gas flow through the valves, but rather the shape of the combustion chamber. With high speed engines and high compression, the limiting difficulty becomes that of achieving complete and efficient combustion, whilst avoiding the problems of unwanted pre-detonation.
The shape of a sidevalve combustion chamber, being wider than the cylinder to reach the valve ports, conflicts with achieving both an ideal shape for combustion and the small volume needed for high compression. Modern, efficient engines thus tend towards the pent roof or hemi designs, where the valves are brought close in to the centre of the space. Where fuel quality is low and octane rating is poor, compression ratios will be restricted. In these cases, the sidevalve engine still has much to offer. In the case of the developed IOE engine for a market with poor fuels, engines such as Rolls-Royce B series or the Land-Rover use a complicated arrangement of inclined valves, a cylinder head line at an angle to the bore and corresponding angled pistons to provide a compact combustion chamber approaching the near-hemispherical ideal; such engines remained in production into the 1990s, only being replaced when the fuels available'in the field' became more to be diesel than petrol. Internally, the cylinder head has passages called ports or tracts for the fuel/air mixture to travel to the inlet valves from the intake manifold, for exhaust gases to travel from the exhaust valves to the exhaust manifold.
In a water-cooled engine, the cylinder head contains integral ducts and passages for the engines' coolant—usually a mixture of water and antifreeze—to facilitate the transfer of excess heat away from the head, therefore the engine in general. In the overhead valve design, the cylinder head contains the poppet valves and the spark plugs, along with tracts or'ports' for the inlet and exhaust gases; the operation of the valves is initiated by the engine's camshaft, sited within the cylinder block, its moment of operation is transmitted to the valves' pushrods, rocker arms mounted on a rocker shaft—the rocker arms and shaft being located within the cylinder head. In the overhead camshaft design, the cylinder head contains the valves, spark plugs and inlet/exhaust tracts just like the OHV engine, but the camshaft is now contained within the cylinder head; the camshaft may be seated centrally between each offset row of inlet and exhaust valves, still utilizing rocker arms, or the camshaft may be seated directly above the valves eliminating the rocker arms and utilizing'bucket' tappets.
The number of cylinder heads in an engine is a function of the engine configuration. All inline engines today use a single cylinder head that serves all the cylinders. A V engine has two cylinder heads, one for each cylinder bank of the'V'. For a few compact'narrow angle' V engines, such as the Volkswagen VR6, the angle between the cylinder banks is so narrow that it uses a single head spanning the two banks. A flat engine has two heads. Most radial engines have one head for each cylinder, although this is of the monobloc form wherein the head is made as an integral part of the cylinder; this is common for motorcycles, such head/cylinder components are referred-to as barrels. Some engines medium- and large-capacity diesel engines built for industrial, power generation, heavy traction purposes have individual cylinder heads for each cylinder; this reduces repair costs as a single failed head on a
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; the chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames; the oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium. Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals; because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, studies continue.
Of aluminium isotopes, only 27Al is stable. This is consistent with aluminium having an odd atomic number, it is the only aluminium isotope that has existed on Earth in its current form since the creation of the planet. Nearly all the element on Earth is present as this isotope, which makes aluminium a mononuclidic element and means that its standard atomic weight equates to that of the isotope; the standard atomic weight of aluminium is low in comparison with many other metals, which has consequences for the element's properties. All other isotopes of aluminium are radioactive; the most stable of these is 26Al and therefore could not have survived since the formation of the planet. However, 26Al is produced from argon in the atmosphere by spallation caused by cosmic ray protons; the ratio of 26Al to 10Be has been used for radiodating of geological processes over 105 to 106 year time scales, in particular transport, sediment storage, burial times, erosion. Most meteorite scientists believe that the energy released by the decay of 26Al was responsible for the melting and differentiation of some asteroids after their formation 4.55 billion years ago.
The remaining isotopes of aluminium, with mass numbers ranging from 21 to 43, all have half-lives well under an hour. Three metastable states are known, all with half-lives under a minute. An aluminium atom has 13 electrons, arranged in an electron configuration of 3s23p1, with three electrons beyond a stable noble gas configuration. Accordingly, the combined first three ionization energies of aluminium are far lower than the fourth ionization energy alone. Aluminium can easily surrender its three outermost electrons in many chemical reactions; the electronegativity of aluminium is 1.61. A free aluminium atom has a radius of 143 pm. With the three outermost electrons removed, the radius shrinks to 39 pm for a 4-coordinated atom or 53.5 pm for a 6-coordinated atom. At standard temperature and pressure, aluminium atoms form a face-centered cubic crystal system bound by metallic bonding provided by atoms' outermost electrons; this crystal system is shared by some other metals, such as copper. Aluminium metal, when in quantity, is shiny and resembles silver because it preferentially absorbs far ultraviolet radiation while reflecting all visible light so it does not impart any color to reflected light, unlike the reflectance spectra of copper and gold.
Another important characteristic of aluminium is its low density, 2.70 g/cm3. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight and malleable with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness, it is nonmagnetic and does not ignite. A fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation; the yield strength of pure aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has stiffness of steel, it is machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a face-centered cubic structure. Aluminium has a stacking-fault energy of 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a good thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper, both thermal and electrical, while having only 30% of copper's density. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a superconducting critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin and a critical magnetic field of about 100 gauss.
Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits. Aluminium's corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the bare metal is exposed to air preventing further oxidation, in a process termed passivation; the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts in the presence of dissimilar metals. In acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, in alkaline ones to form aluminates—protective passivation under these conditions is negligible; because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium. However, because
Turin Auto Show
The Turin Motor Show was an auto show held annually in Turin, Italy. The first official show took place between 21 and 24 April 1900, at the Castle of Valentino, becoming a permanent fixture in Turin from 1938 having shared it with Milan and Rome until that time. From 1972, the show was held biannually and in 1984, it moved into Fiat's shuttered Lingotto factory; the event was last held in Turin in June 2000, cancelled from 2002, resulting in the Bologna Motor Show taking over the role of Italy's International Motor Show. Since 2015, Turin again now holds a Motor Show, albeit as an open air festival to keep exhibitors' costs down and provide free access to the public, it is held in the precinct of the Parco del Valentino. Adami Rondini Motoruota Garavaglia Aquila Italiana Cappa SPA 28/40HP Lancia Alfa-12HP Fiat Zero Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8 Fiat 501 OM 665 "Superba" Fiat 519 Itala 56 Chiribiri Monza Lancia Lambda Itala 61 Alfa Romeo 6C Fiat 509 Grand Prix racing car prototype designed by Porsche Ferrari 166 MM Lancia Ardea Maserati A6 cabriolet Fiat 500 Giardinetta Belvedere Porsche-Cisitalia racing cars Lancia Aurelia Alfa Romeo 1900 Fiat 1400 Panhard Dyna X86 Berlinetta Abarth 1500 Biposto Coupé Siata 208 CS Alfa Romeo BAT 5 concept Lancia Appia The 1954 36th Salone dell'Automobile was inaugurated by Italian President Luigi Einaudi on 21 April and closed on 2 May.
The exhibitors were 450 from 11 countries, including 66 car manufacturers and 22 coachbuilders. Alfa Romeo 1900 Super Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Fiat 1100 Familiare Fiat 1400 A Fiat 1900 A Lancia Aurelia series II Alfa Romeo BAT 7 by Bertone Fiat Turbina Fibreglass-bodied Fiat 8V At least 30 vehicle models from different manufacturers designed by Michelotti Abarth 750 Zagato Alfa Romeo BAT 9 concept Alfa Romeo Giulietta Lancia Florida I Italian President Giovanni Gronchi, escorted by a troop of Corazzieri, inaugurated the 38th Salone Internazionale dell'Automobile on 21 April 1956; the motor show closed on 2 May. The exhibitors were 450 from 13 countries, including 64 car manufacturers, 35 truck and bus manufacturers, 18 coachbuilders. Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Veloce Fiat 1400 B Fiat 1900 B Fiat 600 Taxi Lancia Flaminia Berlina Alfa Romeo 2000 Sportiva Alfa Romeo Superflow by Pininfarina Lancia Appia Cammello Alfa Romeo 2000 Berlina Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale by Bertone Alfa Romeo Mille Fiat 1200 Granluce Abarth 750 Zagato Spyder Lancia Appia Convertibile Lancia Florida II by Pininfarina Ferrari 4.9-Litre Superfast by Pininfarina Abarth 750 GT Bialbero Lancia Appia GTE Lancia Appia Lusso The 1959 41st Salone dell'Automobile was inaugurated by President of the Italian Republic Giovanni Gronchi on 31 October and closed on 11 November.
There were 490 exhibitors including 65 car manufacturers. Abarth 700S Fiat Abarth 2200 Coupé and Spider Allemano Chrysler Valiant Lancia Appia Giardinetta Viotti Maserati 5000 GT "Shah of Persia" BMW 3200 Michelotti Vignale Ghia Selene Pininfarina X concept Lancia Flavia Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ 1 Iso Rivolta IR 300 The 1963 45th Salone dell'Automobile was inaugurated by Italian President Antonio Segni on 30 October and closed on 10 November; the exhibitors were 524 from 13 countries, including 21 coachbuilders. Autobianchi Stellina Iso Grifo Lancia Superjolly Maserati Quattroporte Simca-Abarth 1150 Ghia-Fiat G230S Due Posti Daihatsu Sport Vignale De Tomaso Vallelunga Fiat 2300 S Lausanne Lamborghini 350GTV Lancia Flaminia Coupé Speciale OSI 1200 S Spider Fiat Moretti Sportiva Fiat 124 Spider Fiat 500 Ferves Ranger Ferrari Dino concept Lamborghini Flying Star II concept Maserati Ghibli prototype The 49th Salone dell'Automobile was held between 1 and 12 November 1967, it saw the presence of 580 exhibitors from 15 countries, including 70 car manufacturers and 13 coachbuilders.
Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale Lamborghini Marzal concept Fiat Dino Coupé The 50th Salone dell'Automobile was held between 30 October and 10 November 1968. Lancia Fulvia Berlina GTE, Coupé 1.3 S, Sport 1.3 S and Coupé 1.6 HF Fiat 124 Special and 125 Special Lamborghini Miura S Autobianchi coupé prototype Alfa Romeo P33 Roadster Pininfarina Bandini Saloncino Bizzarrini Manta Ferrari P6 Berlinetta Speciale Pininfarina Fiat 850 City Taxi LMX Sirex Maserati Simun by Ghia Maserati Indy prototype by Vignale The 51st Salone dell'Automobile was held between 29 October and 9 November 1969. Autobianchi A112 Alfa Romeo Spider series II Alfa Romeo Junior Z Fiat 124 Sport Coupé and Sport Spider 1600 Fiat 128 Familiare Fiat Dino 2400 Coupé and Spider Lancia Fulvia Berlina series II Alfa Romeo Iguana by Italdesign Autobianchi Runabout by Bertone Caprera LEM Ferrari 512 S Speciale by Pininfarina Fiat 128 Coupé by Bertone Fiat 128 coupé and roadster by Moretti Fiat 128 Teenager by Pininfarina Fissore Mongo Ikenga MK III McLaren Lancia Marica by Ghia Volvo GTZ by Zagato The 52nd Salone dell'Automobile was held between 28 October and 8 November 1970.
A vehicle frame known as its chassis, is the main supporting structure of a motor vehicle, to which all other components are attached, comparable to the skeleton of an organism. Until the 1930s every car had a structural frame, separate from its body; this construction design is known as body-on-frame. Over time, nearly all passenger cars have migrated to unibody construction, meaning their chassis and bodywork have been integrated into one another. Nearly all trucks and most pickups continue to use a separate frame as their chassis; the main functions of a frame in motor vehicles are: To support the vehicle's mechanical components and body To deal with static and dynamic loads, without undue deflection or distortion. These include: Weight of the body and cargo loads. Vertical and torsional twisting transmitted by going over uneven surfaces. Transverse lateral forces caused by road conditions, side wind, steering the vehicle. Torque from the engine and transmission. Longitudinal tensile forces from acceleration, as well as compression from braking.
Sudden impacts from collisions. Types of frame according to the construction: Ladder type frame X-Type frame Off set frame Off set with cross member frame Perimeter Frame Typically the material used to construct vehicle chassis and frames is carbon steel. In the case of a separate chassis, the frame is made up of structural elements called the rails or beams; these are ordinarily made of steel channel sections, made by folding, rolling or pressing steel plate. There are three main designs for these. If the material is folded twice, an open-ended cross-section, either C-shaped or hat-shaped results. "Boxed" frames contain chassis rails that are closed, either by somehow welding them up, or by using premanufactured metal tubing. C-shape By far the most common, the C-channel rail has been used on nearly every type of vehicle at one time or another, it is made by taking a flat piece of steel and rolling both sides over to form a c-shaped beam running the length of the vehicle. Hat Hat frames resemble a "U" and may be either right-side-up or inverted with the open area facing down.
Not used due to weakness and a propensity to rust, however they can be found on 1936–1954 Chevrolet cars and some Studebakers. Abandoned for a while, the hat frame gained popularity again when companies started welding it to the bottom of unibody cars, in effect creating a boxed frame. Boxed Originally, boxed frames were made by welding two matching C-rails together to form a rectangular tube. Modern techniques, use a process similar to making C-rails in that a piece of steel is bent into four sides and welded where both ends meet. In the 1960s, the boxed frames of conventional American cars were spot-welded here and there down the seam. While appearing at first glance as a simple form made of metal, frames encounter great amounts of stress and are built accordingly; the first issue addressed is the height of the vertical side of a frame. The taller the frame, the better it is able to resist vertical flex when force is applied to the top of the frame; this is the reason semi-trucks have taller frame rails than other vehicles instead of just being thicker.
As looks, ride quality, handling became more important to consumers, new shapes were incorporated into frames. The most visible of these are kick-ups. Instead of running straight over both axles, arched frames sit lower—roughly level with their axles—and curve up over the axles and back down on the other side for bumper placement. Kick-ups do the same thing, but don't curve down on the other side, are more common on front ends. Another feature seen are tapered rails that narrow vertically and/or horizontally in front of a vehicle's cabin; this is done on trucks to save weight and increase room for the engine since the front of the vehicle does not bear as much of a load as the back. Design developments include frames. For example, some pickup trucks have a boxed frame in front of the cab, narrower rails underneath the cab, regular C-rails under the bed. On perimeter frames, the areas where the rails connect from front to center and center to rear are weak compared to regular frames, so that section is boxed in, creating what is known as torque boxes.
So named for its resemblance to a ladder, the ladder frame is one of the simplest and oldest of all designs. It consists of two symmetrical beams, rails, or channels running the length of the vehicle, several transverse cross-members connecting them. Seen on all vehicles, the ladder frame was phased out on cars in favor of perimeter frames and unitized body construction, it is now seen on trucks. This design offers good beam resistance because of its continuous rails from front to rear, but poor resistance to torsion or warping if simple, perpendicular cross-members are used; the vehicle's overall height will be greater due to the floor pan sitting above the frame instead of inside it. The term unibody or unit body is short for unitized body, or alternatively unitary construction design, it is A type of body/frame construction in which the body of the vehicle, its floor plan and chassis form a single structure. Such a design is lighter and more rigid than a vehicle having a separate body and frame.
Traditional body-on-frame architecture has shifted to the lighter unitized body structure, now used on most cars. The last UK mass-produced car with a separate chassis was the Triumph Herald