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Alfa Romeo 8C

The Alfa Romeo 8C was a range of Alfa Romeo road and sports cars of the 1930s. In 2004 Alfa Romeo revived the 8C name for a V8-engined concept car which made it into production for 2007, the 8C Competizione; the 8C designates 8 cylinders, a straight 8-cylinder engine. The Vittorio Jano designed 8C was Alfa Romeo's primary racing engine from its introduction in 1931 to its retirement in 1939. In addition to the two-seater sports cars it was used in the world's first genuine single-seat Grand Prix racing car, the Monoposto'Tipo B' - P3 from 1932 onwards. In its development it powered such vehicles as the twin-engined 1935 6.3-litre Bimotore, the 1935 3.8-litre Monoposto 8C 35 Type C, the Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Mille Miglia Roadster. It powered top-of-the-range coach-built production models, including a Touring Spider and Touring Berlinetta. In 1924, Vittorio Jano created his first straight-eight-cylinder engine for Alfa Romeo, the 1987 cc P2, with common crankcase and four plated-steel two-cylinder blocks, which won the first World Championship in 1925.

Although it was a straight-8, the 8C designation was not used. The 8C engine, first entered at the 1931 Mille Miglia road race through Italy, had a common crankcase, now with two alloy four-cylinder blocks, which incorporated the heads; the bore and stroke, were the same as the 6C 1750. There was no separate head, no head gasket to fail, but this made valve maintenance more difficult. A central gear tower drove the overhead camshafts and ancillaries; as far as production cars are concerned, the 8C engine powered two models, the 8C 2300 and the more rare and expensive 8C 2900, bore increased to 68 mm and stroke to 100 mm. At the same time, since racing cars were no longer required to carry a mechanic, Alfa Romeo built the first single seater race car; as a first attempt, the 1931 Monoposto Tipo A used a pair of 6-cylinder engines fitted side by side in the chassis. As the resulting car was too heavy and complex, Jano designed a more suitable and successful racer called Monoposto Tipo B for the 1932 Grand Prix season.

The Tipo B proved itself the winning car of its era, winning straight from its first outing at the 1932 Italian Grand Prix, was powered with an enlarged version of the 8C engine now at 2,665 cc, fed through a pair of superchargers instead of a single one. Alfa Romeo announced that the 8C was not to be sold to private owners, but by autumn 1931 Alfa sold it as a rolling chassis in Lungo or Corto form with prices starting at over £1000; the chassis were fitted with bodies from a selection of Italian coach-builders such as Zagato, Carrozzeria Touring, Carrozzeria Castagna, Carrozzeria Pinin Farina and Brianza though Alfa Romeo did make bodies. Some chassis were clothed by coach-builders such as Graber and Tuscher of Switzerland and Figoni of France. Alfa Romeo had a practice of rebodying cars for clients, some racing vehicles were sold rebodied as road vehicles; some of the famous first owners include Baroness Maud Thyssen of the Thyssen family, the owner of the aircraft and now scooter company Piaggio Andrea Piaggio, Raymond Sommer, Tazio Nuvolari.

The first model was the 1931'8C 2300', a reference to the car's 2.3 L engine designed as a racing car, but produced in 188 units for road use. While the racing version of the 8C 2300 Spider, driven by Tazio Nuvolari won the 1931 and 1932 Targa Florio race in Sicily, the 1931 Italian Grand Prix victory at Monza gave the "Monza" name to the twin seater GP car, a shortened version of the Spider; the Alfa Romeo factory added the name of events won to the name of a car.'8C 2300 tipo Le Mans' was the sport version of the'8C 2300' and it had a successful debut in the 1931 Eireann Cup driven by Henry Birkin. It won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1931; the 8C 2300 Le Mans model on display at the Museo Alfa Romeo was bought by Sir Henry Birkin in 1931 for competition use, but it is not the car in which Birkin and Howe won the 1931 Le Mans 24 hours. A 1933 8C 2300 Le Mans, chassis #2311201, is part of the permanent collection at the Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum in Philadelphia, PA, US; the car was owned by Lord Howe who campaigned it in the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1934 as well as in 1935 when it set the fastest lap before retiring.

In 1933 the supercharged dual overhead cam straight-8 engine, enlarged to 2.6 litres for the Tipo B, was fitted to the Scuderia Ferrari 8C Monzas. Scuderia Ferrari had become the "semi-official" racing department of Alfa Romeo, who were no longer entering races as a factory effort due to the poor economic situation of the company. With the initial 215 hp of the 2.6 engine, the Monoposto Tipo B racer could accelerate to 60 mph in less than 7 seconds and could reach 135 mph. For 1934 the race engines became 2.9 litres. Tazio Nuvolari won the 1935 German GP at the Nürburgring at the wheel of a 3.2 L Tipo B against the more powerful Silver Arrows from Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union. Eight 3.8-litre versions, sharing no castings with the earlier blocks, were individually built for racing in five months, most being used in the Alfa Romeo Monoposto 8C 35 Type C, as raced by Scuderia Ferrari. The 3.8 produced 330 bhp at 5500 rpm, had 320 lb⋅ft from 900 rpm to 5500 rpm. It had 15.5-inch drum brakes all round, using Pirelli 5.25 or 5.50 x 19 tyres at the front and 7.00 or 7.50 x 19 tyres at the rear.

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Willy Bertin

Willy Bertin is an Italian ski mountaineer and former cross-country skier and biathlete. Bertin was born in Angrogna. Together with Felice Darioli and Lino Zanon he finished fourth in the 1971, second in the 1973 Trofeo Mezzalama, together with Darioli and Fabrizio Pedranzini, he placed third in the military team category in the 1975 edition of the same competition, carried out as the first World Championship of Skimountaineering. 1970: 2nd, Italian championships of biathlon, large calibre 1971: 2nd, Italian championships of biathlon 1972: 3rd, Italian championships of biathlon, large calibre 10th, Winter Olympics 4 × 7.5 kilometres relay 16th, Winter Olympics 20 kilometres 1st, Italian men's championships of cross-country skiing, together with Felice Darioli, Serafino Guadagnini and Renzo Chiocchetti 1975: 3rd, Italian championships of biathlon, large calibre 1974: 1st, Italian championships of biathlon 3rd, Italian championships of biathlon, sprint large calibre 1975: 2nd, Italian championships of biathlon, sprint large calibre 1976: 1st, Italian championships of biathlon, sprint 2nd, Italian championships of biathlon 4th, Winter Olympics 20 kilometres 6th, Winter Olympics 4 × 7.5 kilometres relay 1977: 1st, Italian championships of biathlon 2nd, Italian championships of biathlon, sprint 1978: 1st, Italian championships of biathlon 2nd, Italian championships of biathlon, sprint 1972: 3rd, Italian men's championships of skiing, 15 km Willy Bertin at sportsreferences.com

Gōra Station

Gōra Station is a terminal railway station on the Hakone Tozan Line as well as the Hakone Tozan Cable Car, is located in Hakone, Japan. It is 15.0 km from the Hakone Tozan Line's southern terminus at Odawara Station. At an altitude of 533 metres, it is the highest railway station in Kanagawa Prefecture. Gōra Station is served by the Hakone Tozan Line and by the Hakone Tozan Cable Car. Gōra Station has two side platforms, which are staggered, so that they do not directly oppose each other. Gōra Station was opened on June 1919 as a station on the Hakone Tozan Line; the Hakone Tozan Cable Car began operations from December 1, 1921, but operations were suspended from February 11, 1944 through July 1, 1950. The present station building was opened on April 16, 1977. Hakone Tozan Bus Bus stop 1 for Hakone Open-Air Museum, Kowaki-en, Ten-yu Bus stop 2 for Gora Park, Hakone Art Museum, Pola Museum of Art, The Little Prince and Saint-Exupéry Museum, Senkyoro-mae, Hakone Venetian Glass Museum and Hakone Botanical Garden of Wetlands Bus stop 3 for Miyagino, Hakone Venetian Glass Museum, Otome Toge, Gotemba Premium Outlets, JR Gotemba Station Bus stop for Hakone Yumoto Station via Chōkoku-no-Mori Station, Kowakidani Station and Ohiradai Station Hakone Tozan Railway official website Hakone Tozan Bus official website Gora Station Map