Perugia is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, of the province of Perugia. The city is located about 164 kilometres north of 148 km southeast of Florence, it covers a high part of the valleys around the area. The region of Umbria is bordered by Tuscany and Marche; the history of Perugia goes back to the Etruscan period. The city is known as the universities town, with the University of Perugia founded in 1308, the University for Foreigners, some smaller colleges such as the Academy of Fine Arts "Pietro Vannucci" public athenaeum founded in 1573, the Perugia University Institute of Linguistic Mediation for translators and interpreters, the Music Conservatory of Perugia, founded in 1788, other institutes. Perugia is a well-known cultural and artistic centre of Italy; the city hosts multiple annual festivals and events, e.g. the Eurochocolate Festival, the Umbria Jazz Festival, the International Journalism Festival, is associated with multiple notable people in the arts.
The famous painter Pietro Vannucci, nicknamed Perugino, was a native of Città della Pieve, near Perugia. He decorated the local Sala del Cambio with a beautiful series of frescoes. Perugino was the teacher of Raphael, the great Renaissance artist who produced five paintings in Perugia and one fresco. Another famous painter, lived in Perugia. Galeazzo Alessi is the most famous architect from Perugia; the city's symbol is the griffin, which can be seen in the form of plaques and statues on buildings around the city. Perugia was an Umbrian settlement but first appears in written history as Perusia, one of the 12 confederate cities of Etruria. Fabius Pictor's account, utilized by Livy, of the expedition carried out against the Etruscan League by Fabius Maximus Rullianus in 310 or 309 BC. At that time a thirty-year indutiae was agreed upon. In 216 and 205 BC it assisted Rome in the Second Punic War but afterwards it is not mentioned until 41–40 BC, when Lucius Antonius took refuge there, was reduced by Octavian after a long siege, its senators sent to their death.
A number of lead bullets used by slingers have been found around the city. The city was burnt, we are told, with the exception of the temples of Vulcan and Juno—the massive Etruscan terrace-walls can hardly have suffered at all—and the town, with the territory for a mile round, was allowed to be occupied by whoever chose, it must have been rebuilt at once, for several bases for statues exist, inscribed Augusto sacr Perusia restituta. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus, it is hardly mentioned except by the geographers until it was the only city in Umbria to resist Totila, who captured it and laid the city waste in 547, after a long siege after the city's Byzantine garrison evacuated. Negotiations with the besieging forces fell to the city's bishop, Herculanus, as representative of the townspeople. Totila is said to have ordered the bishop to be beheaded. St. Herculanus became the city's patron saint. In the Lombard period Perugia is spoken of as one of the principal cities of Tuscia. In the 9th century, with the consent of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, it passed under the popes.
In 1186 Henry VI, rex romanorum and future emperor, granted diplomatic recognition to the consular government of the city. On various occasions the popes found asylum from the tumults of Rome within its walls, it was the meeting-place of five conclaves, including those that elected Honorius III, Clement IV, Celestine V, Clement V, but Perugia had no mind to subserve the papal interests and never accepted papal sovereignty: the city used to exercise a jurisdiction over the members of the clergy, moreover in 1282 Perugia was excommunicated due to a new military offensive against the Ghibellines regardless of a papal prohibition. On the other hand, side by side with the 13th century bronze griffin of Perugia above the door of the Palazzo dei Priori stands, as a Guelphic emblem, the lion, Perugia remained loyal for the most part to the Guelph party in the struggles of Guelphs and Ghibellines; however this dominant tendency was rather an Italian political strategy. The Angevin presence in Italy appeared to offer a counterpoise to papal powers: in 1319 Perugia declared the Angevin Saint Louis of Toulouse "Protector of the city's sovereignty and of the Palazzo of its Priors" and set his figure among the other patron saints above the rich doorway of the Palazzo dei P
Carlo Chiti was an Italian racing car and engine designer best known for his long association with Alfa Romeo's racing department. Born in Pistoia, Chiti graduated with a degree in aeronautical engineering from the University of Pisa in Italy in 1953, he designed the Alfa Romeo 3000 CM sports car. When Alfa Romeo's competition department was closed down in the late 1950s Chiti was invited to join Scuderia Ferrari. At Ferrari Chiti was involved with the design of the 1958 championship winning car Ferrari 246 F1 together with Vittorio Jano and the Ferrari 156 Sharknose car, with which Phil Hill won the 1961 championship. In 1962 Chiti walked out to join the breakaway ATS Formula One team formed by a number of disaffected ex-Ferrari personnel; the ATS project was not successful and did not last long and in 1963 Chiti re-entered competitive motor racing through a new project, Autodelta. Autodelta enabled Chiti to rekindle his association with Alfa Romeo, for whom he designed a V8 and a flat-12 engine for their Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 sportscars.
These were successful, winning the 1975 World Championship for Makes and 1977 World Championship for Sports Cars. At this time, Chiti became involved in Formula One again, through the Brabham team, who signed an agreement with Alfa Romeo to use Chiti's engines. There was some success – Niki Lauda won two races in a Brabham BT46 with the Alfa engine in the 1978 Formula One season. Brabham designer Gordon Murray persuaded Chiti to produce a V12 engine to allow ground effect to be exploited by the team. However, during the 1979 Formula One season, Brabham's owner Bernie Ecclestone announced that the team would switch to Ford for the next season, prompting Chiti to seek permission from Alfa Romeo to start developing a Formula One car on their behalf; the partnership with Brabham finished before the end of the season. The Alfa Formula One project started with some promise but was never successful; the team achieved two pole positions, with Bruno Giacomelli leading much of the 1980 United States Grand Prix before retiring with electrical trouble.
Tragedy occurred when Patrick Depailler was killed testing for the 1980 German Grand Prix at the Hockenheimring. The team's best season was 1983, when Chiti designed a turbocharged 890T V8 engine, Alfa Romeo achieved 6th place in the constructors' championship thanks to two second-place finishes for Andrea de Cesaris. In 1984 Chiti left Alfa Romeo to set up another company, Motori Moderni which concentrated on producing engines for Formula One; the company produced a V6 turbo design, used by the small Italian Minardi team. When the banning of turbos from Formula One was announced, Chiti designed a new 3.5 litre atmospheric flat-12 engine. This was taken up by Subaru, who badged it for use in their brief and unsuccessful entry into Formula One with the tiny Coloni team in the 1990 Formula One season. Carlo Chiti died in 1994 in Milan. In 1999, Koenigsegg bought blueprints, machining tools and the patent for an unused 4 litre Chiti designed Formula One flat-12 engine. Www.grandprix.com www.gpracing.net192.com www.historicracing.com FORIX.com: Grand Prix engine designers
SAI Ambrosini was an Italian aircraft manufacturer established in Passignano sul Trasimeno, Italy in 1922 as the Società Aeronautica Italiana. It became SAI Ambrosini when it was acquired by the Ambrosini group in 1934. Prior to World War II, the firm built a number of light touring and racing aircraft, the most successful of, the SAI.7. During the war, this design served as the basis for some light fighter designs, but these did not enter mass production. Ambrosini was re-formed in 1946 and continued with the development and manufacture of the SAI.7 design producing jet fighter prototypes based on it, but these were not successful. During the 1980s, the firm ventured into boat-building and into oil rigs before closing in 1992. List of Italian companies Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aircraft Manufacturers. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. Pp. 22, 265
Alfa Romeo Canguro
The Alfa Romeo Canguro is a concept car designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro at Bertone. The car was shown at the 1964 Paris Motor Show; the body is made of fiberglass rather than aluminium and it features one of the first glued in windscreens in a car. The name "Canguro" means Kangaroo in Italian; the Canguro was designed as a possible concept for a roadgoing version of the Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ, successful in racing. Alfa Romeo had given one TZ chassis each to rival design houses Pininfarina and Bertone to see who could make the better design; the Canguro was Bertone's entry, designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro. The concept was well received but Alfa Romeo never produced the design, many speculate this is because they didn't have the capacity at the time to build the bodies for the Canguro; the Canguro suffered a front end collision with the 1963 Chevrolet Testudo, another Bertone concept, while on track at the Monza circuit. The damage was deemed too great to fix by Nuccio Bertone and the car was left to sit outside Bertone's factory.
The car was restored and made its debut at the 2005 Ville d’Este Concours d’Elegance where it was voted "Best of show". Engine: 4 cylinders in-line, 2 valves per cylinder configuration: front longitudinally displacement: 1570 cc power: 112 bhp chassis: steel space frame, TZ-derived transmission: rear-wheel drive gearbox: 5-speed manual Chassis number: 10511 AR 750101
Goodwood Festival of Speed
The Goodwood Festival of Speed is an annual hill climb featuring historic motor racing vehicles held in the grounds of Goodwood House, West Sussex, England in late June or early July. In the early years of the Festival, tens of thousands attended over the weekend. A record crowd of 158,000 attended in 2003, before an advance-ticket-only admission policy came into force; the Goodwood Festival of Speed was founded in 1993 by Lord March in order to bring motor racing back to the Goodwood estate — a location steeped in British motor racing history. Shortly after taking over the estate in the early 1990s, Lord March wanted to bring back motor racing to Goodwood Circuit, but did not have the necessary permit to host a race there. Therefore, he instead hosted it on his own grounds. With a small selection of entrants made up of invited historic vehicles, the first event that took place on Sunday 13 June proved to be a success, taking in a crowd of 25,000 despite a date clash with the 24 Hours of Le Mans that year.
After the first event's date clash, Lord March would ensure that the event would never be allowed to clash with either Le Mans or Formula One races. In 1994, Saturday was added. In 1996, Friday was added. In 2010, the Moving Motor Show was added on the Thursday; the event is classified as a hill climb, visitors are accorded close access to that part of the track. The track has an elevation change of 92.7 metres, for an average gradient of 4.9%. The record time for the hillclimb was set in 1999 when Nick Heidfeld drove a McLaren MP4/13 Formula One car up the hill in 41.6 seconds. For safety reasons Formula One cars are no longer allowed to do official timed runs, will focus on demonstrations that are spectacular rather than fast. In 2016, to commemorate the 40 year anniversary of James Hunt winning the F1 World Championship, McLaren commissioned a P1 GTR which ran up the hill driven by Bruno Senna. From 2000 to 2004 this was a downhill race for gravity-powered cars. Starting from just below the hill-climb finish line, to a finish line in front of the house.
It included entries from Cosworth and other top companies. With some famous riders/drivers piloting them, including Barry Sheene. However, there were frequent accidents. Despite an official cap on the cost of cars, the unofficial costs were becoming too high, so it did not return in 2005. However, it did return in 2013. Companies such as Bentley and McLaren competed. From 2005 to present there has been a demonstration area for the rally cars at the top of the hill. In 2005, the track through the forest was widened, the rally cars ran down through the forest, turned on the tarmac section just outside the wood, returned up the same track; this meant. In 2006, a full forest stage was introduced, designed by Hannu Mikkola this was a complete circuit, with a separate start and finish line at the top of the wood; this allowed the cars to start at timed intervals. Since its inception Southern Car Club have been entrusted with the organization of the rally stage, held under an MSA permit. Since 2000, there has been a Michelin Supercar Run, for road-going supercars.
Since 2014 cars could opt to do a timed run. It is now common for specialty car manufacturers to show off their latest sports model, including newly released mass-produced sports models and working concept models. Since 1995 this is an auto show, it is a similar format to the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance. Entry is by invitation, this provides some leeway as to which type of vehicle can enter resulting in a more varied event than usual Concours d'Elegance. Unlike most concours shows, the Cartier Style et Luxe is judged by a panel of selected judges consisting of celebrities from all around the world to car designers. Since 2010, the Moving Motor Show, was added. In response to the cancellation of the British International Motor Show aimed for buyers of new cars, allowing them a chance to test the cars on the course. Following its success, it was announced the MMS would return in 2011; the 2010 event included the running of the new McLaren MP4-12C. The official website lists the Festival of speed dates as the Friday to Sunday, but the weekend tickets for the Festival include a moving motor show ticket.
So it's not part of the Festival of Speed, but it is a part of the Festival of Speed weekend. Other popular attractions at the event are the real life replicas of the Wacky Races cars, which serves to provide lunchtime entertainment for the crowds, the airshows, which include the RAF Tornado and Red Arrows, in 2004 and 2005 a low-flying Boeing 747. From the festival's beginning, poster art had been illustrated by renowned motor racing artist Peter Hearsey until his retirement in 2015. In 2016, the poster art was designed by Klaus Wagger, who rose to prominence as a racing artist when he won a competition to design the official poster for Mille Miglia in 2000. In recent years, they have put on the GAS Arena who showcase extreme stunts such as Freestyle Motorcross, BMX and Trial bike Riding In 2018 f
Alfa Romeo Giulietta (750/101)
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta was a family of automobiles made by Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1954 to 1965 which included a 2+2 coupé, four-door saloon, spider and Sprint Speciale. The 2+2 was Alfa Romeo's first successful foray into the 1.3-litre class. From 1954 to 1965 a total of 177,690 Giuliettas were made, the great majority in saloon, Sprint coupé, or Spider body styles, but as Sprint Speciale and Sprint Zagato coupés, the rare Promiscua estate; the Giulietta series was succeeded by the Giulia in 1962. The first Giulietta to be introduced was the Giulietta Sprint 2+2 coupé at the 1954 Turin Motor Show. Designed by Franco Scaglione at Bertone, it was produced at the coachbuilder's Grugliasco plant near Turin. A year at the Turin Motor Show in April 1955, the Sprint was joined by the 4-door saloon Berlina. In mid 1955, the open two-seat Giulietta Spider. In 1957, a more powerful Berlina version, called Giulietta T. I. was presented with minor cosmetic changes to the dial lights and rear lamps.
Carrozzeria Colli made the Giulietta station wagon variant called Giulietta Promiscua. Ninety-one examples of this version were built. Carrozzeria Boneschi made a few station wagon examples called Weekendina. A new version of the Giulietta Berlina debuted at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1959. Mechanical changes were limited to shifting the fuel pump from the cylinder head to a lower position below the distributor, moving the exposed fuel filler cap from the tail to the right rear wing, under a flap; the bodywork showed a revised front end, with more rounded wings, recessed head lights, new grilles with chrome frames and two horizontal bars. The rear showed changes, with new larger tail lights on vestigial fins, which replaced the earlier rounded rear wings; the interior was much more upholstered in new cloth material. I. housed water temperature gauges. The T. I. received a front side repeater mounted in a small spear, unlike the Normale which kept the earlier small round lamp with no decorations.
During 1959 the type designation for all models was changed from 750 and 753 to 101. In February 1961 the 100,001st Giulietta rolled off the Portello factory, with a celebration sponsored by Italian actress Giulietta Masina. In Autumn 1961 the Giulietta was updated a second time. Both Normale and T. I. had new exhaust systems. With this new engine the car could reach a speed of 160 km/h. At the front of the car square mesh side grilles were now pieced together with the centre shield, at the rear there were larger tail lights. Inside the T. I. had individual instead of bench seats, with storage nets on the seatbacks. June 1962 saw the introduction of the Alfa Romeo Giulia, which would replace the Giulietta; as until 1964 the Giulia only had a larger 1.6-litre engine, production of the standard Berlina ended with 1963, whilst the T. I. continued for a full year more. A last T. I. was completed in 1965. The Giulietta sport models had a different fate: Sprint, Sprint Speciale and Spider were fitted with the new 1.6-litre engine, received some updates and continued to be sold under the Giulia name until they were replaced by all-new Giulia-based models during 1965.
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta used a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout. Front suspension was with coaxial coil springs and hydraulic dampers. At the rear there was a solid axle on hydraulic dampers; the axle was located by a longitudinal link on each side, by a wishbone-shaped arm linking the top of the aluminium differential housing to the chassis. All Giuliettas had hydraulic drum brakes on all four corners; when leaving the Portello factory it fitted Pirelli Cinturato 155 HR15 tyres. The Giulietta used an Alfa Romeo Twin Cam straight-four of 1290 cc, with an aluminium alloy engine block and cast iron inserted sleeves. Bore and stroke measured 75.0 mm. The aluminium alloy cylinder head was of a crossflow design and featured hemispherical combustion chambers; the double overhead camshafts were driven by two timing chains, acted on two valves per cylinder, angled 80°. The Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale was an aerodynamic 2-door, 2-seat coupé designed by Franco Scaglione at Bertone. 1.366 were made from 1957 to 1962.
The car had a steel body, was based on a short-wheelbase Giulietta chassis. It used a 1.3-litre engine brought to 100 PS thanks to double twin-choke carburettors and a high compression ratio. The Alfa Romeo Giulietta SZ was an aluminium-bodied 2-seater berlinetta, built by Zagato for competition use on the chassis and mechanicals of the Sprint Speciale. A crashed Sprint Veloce was rebodied by Zagato in late 1956, was successful in competition. Zagato ended up building 18 rebodied Veloces, called the SVZ and the version gave rise to a full production version; the SVZ was about 120 kg lighter than the Coupé on which it was based, had the highest tuned, 118 CV version of the Giulietta engine. A production competition version of the Giulietta, with lightened bodywork designed by Franco Scaglione for Bertone was premiered at the 1960 Geneve Salon. Handbuilt by Zagato in aluminium and with p
6 Hours of Nürburgring
The 6 Hours of Nürburgring was an endurance race for sports cars held on the Nürburgring in Germany and organized by the ADAC since 1953. On the traditional 22.810 km long Nordschleife version, the competition took 44 laps and lasted about eight hours less than six hours. While the 1974 event was shortened in the wake of the oil crisis, the 1976 race was extended by 3 laps and covered 1073.245 km. The inaugural race, which counted towards the 1953 World Sportscar Championship, was won by Alberto Ascari and Giuseppe Farina in a Ferrari. Due to disappointing attendance, the race was not held in the following two years, it became quite popular in the 1960s and 1970s though, more so after Formula One decided not to race at the Nürburgring after 1976 on safety grounds. The last race on the Northern Loop in 1983 was won by Jochen Mass and Jacky Ickx in their Rothmans Porsche 956. In that year, due to the ongoing construction work, the track had been shorted to 20.832 km and provisional pits were used.
This event saw the fastest timed lap of the Nordschleife when German driver Stefan Bellof lapped his Rothmans Porsche in 6:11.13 during practice, an average of over 200 km/h. Bellof set the race lap record during that race lapping in 6:25.91. Since 1984, the 1000 km races were run on the new, much shorter Grand-Prix-Strecke, while the 24 Hours Nürburgring stayed on the legendary long track. In 1991, the 1000 km races were first shortened to 480 km discontinued overall due to the demise of the World Sportscar Championship. In 2000, the 1000 km were resumed, with new competitive cars of Audi; the race was held as a part of the European Le Mans Series, the European version of the American Le Mans Series. In a wet race, the unusual front-engined Panoz of Jan Magnussen and David Brabham won, ahead of a BMW V12 LMR, an Audi R8 and the second Panoz. On September 4, 2005, the 1000 km was held as a part of the Le Mans Endurance Series; the 500 km Nürburgring was similar event for smaller sportscars during the 1960s and 1970s.
VLN runs a six-hour endurance race, while covering only 4h in other heats. In 2010, for the first time a distance of more than 1000 km was covered by the winning Porsche 911 GT3. Current record of most wins belongs to Stirling Moss who won the race in 1956, 1958, 1959 and 1960. In 2010, the winning Porsche 911 GT3 R of the 6h ADAC Ruhr-Pokal-Rennen race was the first to cover more than 1000 km in a 6-hour VLN endurance race for GT3 and touring cars, lapping the 24,369 km long modern version of the Nordschleife 42 times for 1023.498 km in a time of 6:06:56.091. The 2012 winner, a Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3, covered the same distance in a time of only 6:01:29.541, at an average of 169.879 km/h. As a part of the Oldtimer Festival in 2010 the tradition and name of the renowned ADAC 1000 km of Nürburgring will be continued by the motor sport club DAMC 05. In contrast to former years, the race is organised for older cars and therefore the term “classic” was added to the name; the 2013 race was the first under the Blancpain Endurance Series banner of the Stephane Ratel Organisation.
1 – 1974 Race scheduled for 750 km only 2 – 1981 Race stopped after 17 laps due to fatal accident of Herbert Müller which caused track damage 3 – 1986 Race was stopped due to torrential rain and only ran 600 km. 4 – Time limit reached before 1,000 km distance was completed. Official Website Le Mans Series – 2007 1000 km of Nürburgring Story and Photos 1966-1970 Story and Photos of 2000 Story and Photos of 2004