An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. is an Italian luxury car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A. L. F. A. on 24 June 1910, in Milan. The brand is known for sporty vehicles and has been involved in car racing since 1911; the company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat Group. In February 2007, the Alfa Romeo brand became Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. A subsidiary of Fiat Group Automobiles, now Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy; the company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with Italian investors. In late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and the Italian partners of the company hired Giuseppe Merosi to design new cars. On 24 June 1910, a new company was founded named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Merosi.
A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged. In 1921, the Banca Italiana di Sconto. Nicola Romeo & Co, went broke and the government needed to support the industrial companies involved, among, Alfa Romeo, through the "Consorzio per Sovvenzioni sui Valori Industriali". In 1925, the railway activities were separated from the Romeo company, in 1928, Nicola Romeo left. In 1933, the state ownership was reorganized under the banner of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale by Benito Mussolini's government, which had effective control; the company struggled to return to profitability after the Second World War, turned to mass-producing small vehicles rather than hand-building luxury models.
In 1954, it developed the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, which would remain in production until 1994. During the 1960s and 1970s, Alfa Romeo produced a number of sporty cars, but struggled to make a profit, so Istituto per la Reconstruzione, the state conglomerate that controls Finmeccanica sold the marque to the Fiat Group in 1986. Alfa Romeo has competed in Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing, rallies, it has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries, private entries. The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of the company, Alfa Romeo won the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925; the race victories gave a sporty image to the marque, Enzo Ferrari founded the Scuderia Ferrari racing team in 1929 as an Alfa Romeo racing team, before becoming independent in 1939. It has had the most wins of any marque in the world; the company's name is a combination of the original name, "A. L. F.
A.", the last name of entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who took control of the company in 1915. The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. One of them, Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan, became chairman of the SAID in 1909; the firm's initial location was in Naples, but before the construction of the planned factory had started, Darracq decided late in 1906 that Milan would be more suitable and accordingly a tract of land was acquired in the Milan suburb of Portello, where a new factory of 6,700 square metres was erected. Late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and Stella, with the other Italian co-investors, founded a new company named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Giuseppe Merosi, hired in 1909 for designing new cars more suited to the Italian market. Merosi would go on to design a series of new A.
L. F. A. Cars, with more powerful engines. A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In 1914, an advanced Grand Prix car was designed and built, the GP1914, with a four-cylinder engine, double overhead camshafts, four valves per cylinder, twin ignition. However, the onset of the First World War halted automobile production at A. L. F. A. for three years. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. Munitions, aircraft engines and other components and generators based on the company's existing car engines were produced in a vastly enlarged factory during the war. After the war, Romeo invested his war profits in acquiring locomotive and railway carriage plants in Saronno and Naples, which were added to his A. L. F. A. Ownership. Car production had not been considered at first, but resumed in 1919 since parts for the completion of 105 cars had remained at the A.
L. F. A. Factory since 1915. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged, their first success came in 1920 whe
Compact car is a vehicle size class— predominantly used in North America— that sits between subcompact cars and mid-size cars. The present-day definition is equivalent to the European C-segment or the British term "small family car". However, prior to the downsizing of the United States car industry in the 1970s and 1980s, larger vehicles with wheelbases up to 110 in were considered "compact cars" in the United States. In Japan, small size passenger vehicle is a registration category that sits between kei cars and regular cars, based on overall size and engine displacement limits; the United States Environmental Protection Agency Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year includes definitions for classes of automobiles. Based on the combined passenger and cargo volume, compact cars are defined as having an interior volume index of 100–109 cu ft; the beginnings of U. S. production of compact cars were the late 1940s prototypes of economy cars, including the Chevrolet Cadet and the Ford Vedette.
Neither car reached production in the U. S. however the Vedette was produced by Ford SAF in France. The first U. S produced, it was built on a 100-inch wheelbase, nonetheless still a large car by contemporary European standards. The term "compact" was coined by a Nash executive as a euphemism for small cars with a wheelbase of 110 inches or less, it established a new market segment and the U. S. automobile industry soon adopted the "compact" term. Several competitors to the Nash Rambler arose from the ranks of America's other independent automakers, although none enjoyed the long-term success of the Rambler. Other early compact cars included the Willys Aero and the Hudson Jet. In 1954, 64,500 cars sold in the U. S. were small American cars, out of a total market of five million car. Market research indicated that five percent of those surveyed said they would consider a small car, suggesting a potential market size of 275,000 cars. By 1955, the Nash Rambler that began as a sideline convertible model became a success and was now available in station wagon and sedan body styles.
During the Recession of 1958, the only exception to the sales decline was American Motors with its compact, economy-oriented Ramblers that saw high demand among cautious consumers. By 1959, sales of small imported cars increased to 14% of the U. S. passenger car market, as consumers turned to compact cars. By this time, smaller cars appealed to people with a college education and a higher income whose families were buying more than one car. Customers expected compact cars to provide improved fuel economy compared to full-sized cars, while maintaining headroom and plenty of trunk space. Between 1958 and 1960, the major U. S. car manufacturers made a push towards compact cars, resulting in the introduction of the Studebaker Lark, Chevrolet Corvair, Ford Falcon, Plymouth Valiant. These models gave rise to compact vans built on the compact car platforms, such as the Studebaker Zip Van, Chevrolet Covair Greenbrier, Ford Econoline and Dodge A100. During the 1960s, compacts were the smallest class of North American cars, but they had evolved into only smaller versions of the 6-cylinder or V8-powered six-passenger sedan.
They were much larger than compacts by European manufacturers, which were five-passenger 4-cylinder engine cars. Adverising and road tests for the Ford Maverick and the Rambler American made comparisons with the popular Volkswagen Beetle. Compact cars were the basis for a new small car segment that became known as the pony car, named after the Ford Mustang, built on the Falcon chassis. At that time, there was a distinct difference in size between compact and full-size models, an early definition of the compact was a vehicle with an overall length of less than 200 in, much larger than European equivalents. In the early 1970s, the domestic automakers introduced smaller subcompact cars that included the AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. In 1973, the Energy Crisis started, which made small fuel efficient cars more desirable, the North American driver began exchanging their large cars for the smaller, imported compacts that cost less to fill up and were inexpensive to maintain; the 1977 model year marked the beginning of a downsizing of all vehicles, so that cars such as the AMC Concord and the Ford Fairmont that replaced the compacts were re-classified as mid-size, while cars inheriting the size of the Ford Pinto and Chevrolet Vega became classified as compact cars.
After the reclassification, mid-size American cars were still far larger than mid-size cars from other countries and were more similar in size to cars classified as "large cars" in Europe. It would not be until the 1980s that American cars were being downsized to international dimensions. In the 1985 model year, compact cars classified by the EPA included Ford's Escort and Tempo, the Chevrolet Cavalier, Toyota Corolla, Acura Legend, Mercedes-Benz 300, Nissan Maxima, Volvo DL, many others. Since the 1990s, most compact cars sold in the United States are imported models. In Japan, vehicles that are larger than kei cars, but with dimensions smaller than 4,700 mm long, 1,700 mm wide, 2,000 mm high and with engines at or under 2,000 cc are classified as "small size" cars. Small size cars are identified by a licence plate number beginning with "5". In the past, the small size category has received tax benefits stipulated by the Japanese government regulations, such as those in the 1951 Road Vehicle Act.
In 1955, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade
Front-engine, four-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an F4, or Front-engine, Four-wheel drive layout places the internal combustion engine at the front of the vehicle and drives all four roadwheels. This layout is chosen for better control on many surfaces, is an important part of rally racing as well as off-road driving. Most four-wheel-drive layouts are front-engined and are derivatives of earlier front-engine, rear-wheel-drive designs; this layout is the drive train of choice for off-road pickup trucks and SUVs. It allows these vehicles to get the most traction without sacrificing precious cargo or passenger room; the center differential is not present in these vehicles, meaning the 4WD system does not allow any difference in front and rear axle speeds. For normal road driving, these vehicles are shifted into 2WD mode, preventing damage to the transfer case.
Geneva Motor Show
The Geneva International Motor Show is an annual auto show held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Palexpo, a convention centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport; the Salon is organised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, is considered an important major international auto show. First held in 1905, the Salon has hosted all major internal combustion engined models in the history of the automobile, along with benzene- and steam-powered cars from the beginning of the century. Exotic supercars steal the spotlight during their debuts at the show. Prototypes, new equipment, technical breakthroughs, international partnerships, as well as political and social debates, have been announced at the exhibition; the show is regarded as a level playing field for the world's automakers, aided by the fact Switzerland lacks an auto industry of its own. Areas of the show: Motor cars 3 or 4 or more wheels. Electric cars and alternative powered cars.
Special bodywork for motor cars, car design, engineering. Converted cars. Accessories and parts for motor cars OEM: original equipment manufacturers Workshop installations for the repair and maintenance of motor cars Miscellaneous products and services related to the car industry Animation / Attractions; the International Advanced Mobility Forum is the Geneva Motor Show forum on the mobility of the future. The 89th Geneva Motor Show was held between 7 and 17 March 2019; the 88th Geneva Motor Show was held on 8 to 18 March 2018. The 87th Geneva Motor Show was held from 9 to 19 March 2017; the 86th Geneva Motor Show was held from 3 to 13 March 2016. The 85th Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 15 March 2015; the 84th Geneva Motor Show was held from 6 to 16 March 2014. The 83rd Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 17 March 2013; the 82nd edition was held from 8 to 18 March 2012. The 2011 edition was held from 3 to 13 March 2011; the 80th edition of the Geneva Motor Show was held from 4–14 March 2010.
Over 80 introductions were expected for the show. Press days for the show started on 2 March 2010; the 2009 Geneva Motor Show was held from 5–15 March 2009. The following vehicles were introduced: The 2008 Geneva Motor Show was held from 6–16 March 2008; the following vehicles were introduced: The following were scheduled to be introduced at the 2007 Geneva Auto Show: In addition, Subaru introduced its new boxer diesel engine, Honda showed its next generation clean diesel engine. Bolloré Bluecar Fiat Panda, hybrid petrol -natural gas. Ford Focus Turnier 2.0 Honda FCX Clarity Opel Corsa D, with optimized 100HP 1.6l natural gas engine. Serial production will be evaluated. Reva Greeny AC1 and AC1 Z Subaru R1e, small electric city car, with a battery that can be 80% recharged in just 15 minutes; the following introductions were featured at the 2006 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2005 Geneva show: The following introductions were made from 4 to 14 March 2004 at the Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2003 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2002 Geneva show: The following major introductions were made at the 2001 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2000 Geneva show: The following concepts and major launches featured at the 1999 Geneva show: The following concepts and major launches featured at the 1998 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1997 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1996 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1995 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1994 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1993 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1992 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1991 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1990 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1989 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo SZ Alpina B10 Bi-Turbo Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 Daihatsu Applause Ford Fiesta Urba Ford Via concept Lancia Delta Integrale 16v Lotus Carlton Mercedes-Benz 500SL Peugeot Agades concept Sbarro Osmos concept The following introductions were made at the 1988 Geneva show: Ford Saguaro concept Maserati Karif Sbarro Robur concept The following introductions were made at the 1987 Geneva show: Aston Martin Lagonda Sbarro Monster G concept The following introductions were made at the 1986 Geneva show: Aston Martin V8 Zagato coupe BMW 524d Citroën Eole concept Rover CCV concept Sbarro Challenge 2+2 concept Volvo 480 Zender Vision 3C concept The following introductions were made at the 1985 Geneva show: Ferrari 412 Lamborghini Countach LP5000 S Quattrovalvole Michelotti PAC Peugeot Griffe 4 concept Sbarro Challenge concept Sbarro Super Five Volvo 780 The following introductions were made at the 1984 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo 33 1.5 Giardinetta Alfa Romeo Tempo Libero concept Ferrari 288 GTO Ford APV concept Lamborghini Jalpa P350 Sbarro Super Eight concept Sbarro Mercedes Benz Biturbo Zagato Z33 "Free Time" The following introductions were made at the 1983 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo Delfino concept Alfa Romeo Zeta Sei concept Fiat Ritmo Coupe concept Ford Trio concept Lincoln Quicksilver concept Renault Gabbiano concept The following introductions were made at the 1982 Geneva show: Bentley Mulsanne Turbo Lamborghini LMA002 Michelotti CVT 58 concept Opel Corsa Spider concept Sbarro Super Twelve concept Volkswagen Golf GTD The followin
Province of Frosinone
The Province of Frosinone is a province in the Lazio region of Italy, with 91 comuni. Its capital is the city of Frosinone, it has an area of 3,247 square kilometres and a total population of 493,605. The Province was established by Royal Decree on 6 December 1926 with territories belonging to Lazio and to Campania; the Campania areas were the left valley of the Liri-Garigliano river, the district of Sora, the Comino Valley, the district of Cassino, the Gulf of Formia and Gaeta, the Pontine islands, which until had been for centuries included in the Province called Terra di Lavoro, of the Kingdom of Naples. As of 31 December 2014, the main comuni by population are: The first traces of human presence in the provincial territory date back to prehistoric times: a famous skull of Homo erectus, dating from 800,000 years ago, constitutes the most ancient finding of the Homo species in Europe. In historical times, the area occupied by the so-called Pelasgic civilization, was settled by Indo-European colonists.
This arrival is referred to in numerous legends, such as those of Saturn. The latter, ousted by Olympus, was said to come to Lazio to help the men and found seven cities whose name begins with "A". In the 7th century BC the area of what is now the province entered the orbit of Rome, which made it the so-called Latium adiectum. However, Rome needed some 300 years to obtain a definitive victory against the Volsci and the Hernici, they became Romanized after the Samnite Wars. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the northern part of the province belonged to the Papal States. In the Middle Ages, the abbey of Monte Cassino was always a major landowner and a politically renowned element of the area; the southeastern part was a frontier area, long claimed by the other major powers of the time, the Duchies of Benevento and Gaeta and the County of Aversa: annexed to the Kingdom of Naples under the Normans, from the late 14th century it became part of the county and with an independent status, of the Duchy of Sora.
Pontecorvo remained a Papal enclave from 1463. After the unification of Italy, in 1927 the Fascist government made Frosinone the capital of a province which unified different that which belonged to the Papal and Neapolitan states; this action generated criticism, as these states were considered too different in history and culture by the Bourbon-nostalgic party that maintained a strong position in southern Italy for many decades. The creation of a new province, with capitals in Cassino and Sora, comprising the former territories of the Kingdom of Naples, has been proposed. Official Website
Multijet is Fiat Chrysler Automobiles' term for its current common rail direct injection turbodiesel engine range. Most of the Fiat, Alfa Romeo, Lancia range as well as certain Chrysler, RAM Trucks and Maserati vehicles are equipped with Multijet engines. Ownership of some Fiat Multijet designs is shared with General Motors as part of a settlement of the failed merger between the two auto conglomerates. GM Powertrain Torino group in Turin, Italy manages their interest in these engines; some PSA Peugeot Citroën diesel engines are rebadged JTD units, vice versa. Fiat's common rail diesel engine is known as JTD, an initialism of Jet Turbo Diesel; the property that distinguishes the Multijet from previous generations of common rail diesel engines from FCA is the combustion of the fuel, split into multiple injections, thus allowing for a more complete, quieter combustion in the cylinder. Compared to the first-generation JTD engines which only featured a smaller pilot and a larger main injection, Multijet is capable of up to five injections per combustion cycle which enables better, more efficient cold running, better performance in the lower rev-range, quieter operation as well as lower consumptions and emissions.
The time between injections has been reduced to 150 microseconds while the minimal injection quantity has been reduced from two to less than one microlitre. This enables mid-sized sedans like the Alfa Romeo 156 and Lancia Lybra equipped with the 1.9 JTD to achieve fuel economy upwards of 45 mpgUS on country roads and highways while offering an equal amount of torque as the 3.0L 24V V6 engine. A sophisticated electronic control unit controls the injection and changes the injection logic and number of injections based on a multitude of parameters, most revolutions per minute of the engine, engine torque requested by the driver and the temperature of the coolant; the injection pressure of the diesel fuel on the second-generation Multijet is limited to between 1,400 bar on the 1.3 Multijet and 1,600 bar on the 2.4 Multijet 20V. In 2009 Fiat Powertrain introduced the third generation of this technology, called Multijet II. With its new and innovative injectors with hydraulically balanced solenoid valve and higher injection pressure of 2,000 bar it is capable of more precise controlling of the injected diesel fuel, injecting it in a quicker and more flexible manner.
It enables up to eight consecutive injections per combustion cycle and implemented Injection Rate Shaping technology, which provides two close pilot injections making the fuel delivery more continuous and modulated. This results in an engine, quiet and has a smoother operation, lower emissions, better fuel mileage and higher performance compared to the previous generation. A 1.0 L 3-cylinder variant, or Smartech Diesel, was introduced in 2011. Co-developed by GM Powertrain Torino and the GM Technical Center India for the Indian Market the engine is rated at 57 bhp of power and 150 N⋅m of torque. Applications: 2011–2017 Chevrolet Beat A small 1.3 L version introduced in February 2003 is produced in Bielsko-Biała, in Ranjangaon, India, by Fiat India Automobiles. The Multijet 75 PS version was chosen in 2005 as the International Engine of the Year in the 1-litre to 1.4-litre category. There are five versions of this engine: a 70 PS, a 75 PS, a variable inlet geometry 90 PS, a 95 PS from the Multijet II generation, a 105 PS available on the Lancia Ypsilon.
At the time of the launch this was the smallest four-cylinder diesel engine available and had a fuel consumption of 3.3 L/100 km in some applications. The engine is able to meet Euro IV pollution standards without the use of a diesel particulate filter. In January 2008, Tata Motors introduced the new Indica Vista model, which features new Quadrajet branded version of this engine; the second generation Ford Ka uses 1.3 Multijet named as Duratorq TDCi. In GM nomenclature, it is called Small Diesel Engine. During 2009, Fiat launched a new generation badged Multijet II, with a new injection management system and able to meet Euro V pollution standards, it is available with several power outputs, from 75 PS, with fixed geometry turbocharger, to 95 PS, with variable geometry turbocharger. As of 2013, more than 5 million 1.3 MultiJet engines were produced. Applications: Alfa Romeo MiTo Chevrolet Aveo Chevrolet Sail Chevrolet Spin Citroen Nemo Fiat 500L Fiat Albea Fiat Doblò Fiat Fiorino Fiat Grande Punto Fiat Idea Fiat Linea Fiat 500 Fiat Palio Fiat Panda Fiat Punto Fiat Qubo Fiat Strada Fiat Tipo Ford Ka Lancia Musa Lancia Ypsilon Opel Agila Opel Astra Opel Combo Opel Corsa Opel Meriva Opel Tigra TwinTop Premier Rio Peugeot Bipper Suzuki Ciaz Suzuki Ertiga Suzuki Ignis Suzuki Splash Suzuki Swift Suzuki SX4 Suzuki SX4 S-Cross Suzuki Vitara Brezza Suzuki Wagon R+ Tata Bolt Tata Indica Vista Tata Indigo Manza Tata Zest In 2006, Fiat Powertrain announced a downsized version of the 1.9 16V Multijet, a new 1.6L 16V Multijet with two power levels of 105 PS and 120 PS to replace the still-used 1.9L 8-valve engine.
The new 1.6 Multijet diesel with 105 PS was released in Decem