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Alfred Dreyfus

Alfred Dreyfus was a French artillery officer of Jewish faith and ancestry whose trial and conviction in 1894 on charges of treason became one of the most controversial and polarizing political dramas in modern French history. The incident has gone down in history as the Dreyfus affair, the reverberations from which were felt throughout Europe, it ended with Dreyfus's complete exoneration. Born in Mulhouse, Alsace in 1859, Dreyfus was the youngest of nine children born to Raphaël and Jeannette Dreyfus. Raphaël Dreyfus was a prosperous, self-made Jewish textile manufacturer who had started as a peddler. Alfred was 10 years old when the Franco-Prussian War broke out in the summer of 1870, his family moved to Paris following the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine by Germany after the war; the childhood experience of seeing his family uprooted by the war with Germany prompted Dreyfus to decide on a career in the military. Following his 18th birthday in October 1877, he enrolled in the elite École Polytechnique military school in Paris, where he received military training and an education in the sciences.

In 1880, he was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant in the French army. From 1880 to 1882, he attended the artillery school at Fontainebleau to receive more specialized training as an artillery officer. On graduation he was assigned to the Thirty-first Artillery Regiment, in garrison at Le Mans. Dreyfus was subsequently transferred to a mounted artillery battery attached to the First Cavalry Division, promoted to lieutenant in 1885. In 1889, he was made adjutant to the director of the Établissement de Bourges, a government arsenal, promoted to captain. On 18 April 1891, the 31-year-old Dreyfus married 20-year-old Lucie Eugénie Hadamard, they had two children and Jeanne. Three days after the wedding, Dreyfus learned that he had been admitted to the École Supérieure de Guerre or War College. Two years he graduated ninth in his class with honorable mention and was designated as a trainee in the French Army's General Staff headquarters, where he would be the only Jewish officer, his father Raphaël died on 13 December 1893.

At the War College examination in 1892, his friends had expected him to do well. However, one of the members of the panel, General Bonnefond, felt that "Jews were not desired" on the staff, gave Dreyfus poor marks for cote d'amour. Bonnefond's assessment lowered Dreyfus's overall grade. Learning of this injustice, the two officers lodged a protest with the director of the school, General Lebelin de Dionne, who expressed his regret for what had occurred, but said he was powerless to take any steps in the matter; the protest would count against Dreyfus. The French army of the period was open to entry and advancement by talent, with an estimated 300 Jewish officers, of whom ten were generals. However, within the Fourth Bureau of the General Staff, General Bonnefond's prejudices appear to have been shared by some of the new trainee's superiors; the personal assessments received by Dreyfus during 1893/94 acknowledged his high intelligence, but were critical of aspects of his personality. In 1894, the French Army's counter-intelligence section, led by Lieutenant Colonel Jean Sandherr, became aware that information regarding new artillery parts was being passed to the Germans by a placed spy, most on the General Staff.

Suspicion fell upon Dreyfus, arrested for treason on 15 October 1894. On 5 January 1895, Dreyfus was summarily convicted in a secret court martial, publicly stripped of his army rank, sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island in French Guiana. Following French military custom of the time, Dreyfus was formally degraded by having the rank insignia and braid cut from his uniform and his sword broken, all in the courtyard of the École Militaire before silent ranks of soldiers, while a large crowd of onlookers shouted abuse from behind railings. Dreyfus cried out: "I swear that I am innocent. I remain worthy of serving in the Army. Long live France! Long live the Army!"In August 1896, the new chief of French military intelligence, Lieutenant Colonel Georges Picquart, reported to his superiors that he had found evidence to the effect that the real traitor was the Major Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy. Picquart was silenced by being transferred to the southern desert of Tunisia in November 1896; when reports of an army cover-up and Dreyfus's possible innocence were leaked to the press, a heated debate ensued about anti-Semitism and France's identity as a Catholic nation or a republic founded on equal rights for all citizens.

Esterhazy was found not guilty before fleeing to England. Following a passionate campaign by Dreyfus's supporters, including leading artists and intellectuals such as Émile Zola, he was given a second trial in 1899 and again declared guilty of treason despite the evidence in favor of his innocence. However, due to public opinion, Dreyfus was offered and accepted a pardon by President Émile Loubet in 1899 and released from prison. Had Dreyfus refused the pardon, he would have been returned to Devil's Island, a fate he could no longer cope with, it is nothing for me without my honor. For two years, until July 1906, he lived in a state of house-arrest with one of his sisters at Carpentras, at C

First Battle of Tabasco

The First Battle of Tabasco was fought during the Mexican–American War, in October 1846, in an attempt to capture cities along the Tabasco coast. Commodore David Conner of the Home Squadron, received orders from Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft to "exercise all the rights that belong to you as commander-in-chief of a belligerent squadron" in establishing a blockade of the Mexican east coast. On 14 May 1846, Conner established his base at Anton Lizardo and placed Veracruz, Alvarado and Matamoros under blockade. Commodore Matthew C. Perry was named as Conner's replacement in the fall of 1846, suggested capturing "Tabasco", otherwise known as San Juan Bautista along the Tabasco River. On 16 Oct. Perry left Anton Lizardo with the steamboats Mississippi, Vixen and McLane and the schooners Reefer, Bonita and Forward. On 23 Oct. Perry captured Frontera and moved upriver, finding Tabasco the next morning at 9 AM. Lt. Col. Juan B. Traconis withdrew his 700 men from the town allowing Perry to occupy the town by 5 PM, capturing five Mexican vessels.

However, at night, Perry recalled his landing party and Traconis's forces returned to the city, barricading themselves inside buildings. Traconis received a delegation of U. S. Marines who requested their surrender, but responded "Tell Commodore Perry that I would sooner die with my garrison before handing over this place." Perry realized that a bombardment of the city was the only option to drive out the Mexican troops, but would harm noncombatants, so he decided to retreat to Frontera with his prizes. On the morning of October 26, the Mexicans started firing on Perry's ships; as the U. S. troops began to bombard the town, the flagpole of the Mexican headquarters was shot through and fell. The Americans, believing that this signalled a surrender, stopped firing and sent a delegation to investigate, receiving the same answer as before from Traconis, who fixed the flagpole to the tower of the Church, the battle recommenced, continuing until evening; the foreign merchants asked for a ceasefire, which Perry complied with, but when one of his prizes was grounded and fired upon, Perry once again returned fire, while continuing on to Frontera.

Perry managed to only establish a naval blockade with the Forward. After many preceding failures. Second Battle of Tabasco Nevin, David, ed.. The Old West: The Mexican War. Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books. Bauer, K. Jack; the Mexican–American War, 1846–1848. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc."Roll of Honor - U. S. Casualties of Naval Actions in the War with Mexico". Descendants of Mexican War Veterans. 2002. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013. "A Continent Divided: The U. S.-Mexico War". The Center for Greater Southwestern Studies, The University of Texas Arlington

Port of Brisbane Motorway

Port of Brisbane Motorway is a motorway, which connects the Port of Brisbane to the Gateway Motorway. Stage 1 was opened in December 2002; the motorway was built to take freight traffic off Lytton Road, with about 4,000 vehicles travelling to the Port of Brisbane in 2002. Stage 1 cost A$196 million and was finished six months ahead of schedule and A$20 million under budget; the Port of Brisbane Motorway holds the M4 motorway designation Stage 2 includes a three kilometre extension of the existing motorway through to Pritchard Street. Construction commenced in April 2011 with completion in February 2013; the project was named an A$385 million upgrade. A further stage of upgrade were completed on the connecting roads to the port; the project was named Port Drive Upgrade, an A$110 million upgrade from the eastern end of the Port of Brisbane Motorway through to Port Gate. Construction commenced in Q3 2016 and completed mid 2018, it included duplication of Port Drive, an overpass at Kite Street intersection and duplication of Lucinda Drive.

The entire motorway is in the City of Brisbane local government area. The accompanying diagram shows the interchanges with and overpasses of the Port of Brisbane Motorway. Freeways in Australia Freeways in Brisbane

Torpo Stave Church

Torpo Stave Church is a stave church located in Torpo, a small village in Ål municipality, in Buskerud County, Norway. Torpo is located along Norwegian National Road 7, the Norwegian national road which runs between Oslo and Bergen. Built in 1192, the Torpo Stave Church is the oldest building within the valley and traditional district of Hallingdal; the church was dedicated to Saint Margareta. The stave church was purchased by the municipality in 1875, it was planned to expand it with an annex to the east, but in 1879 it was decided instead to modernize the interior with new ceiling and gallery. Following protest from the Ancient Monuments Society, the municipality decided to build a new church on the adjacent property; the new church was built north of the old one with the two churches standing side by side. The Torpo Stave Church is one of two stave churches that are signed by their craftsmen, the other being the church at Ål. In both churches a runic inscription reads: Torolf built this church.

The full runic inscription in the Torpo Stave Church, listed as N 110 in the Rundata catalog, reads: §A þorolfr: gærþi: kirku þesa ÷: askrimr ÷ hakon ÷ ælikr ÷ pal ¶ æinriþi ÷ siønti ÷ þorolfr §B þorer ÷ ræist §C olafrThis translates as "Þórolfr made this church. Ásgrímr, Hákon, Erlingr, Páll, Eindriði, Sjaundi, Þórulfr. Þórir carved. Ólafr." Bugge Gunnar. Stavkirker, Stave Churches in Norway ISBN 82-504-2072-1 Christie and Haakon. Norges kirker – Buskerud ISBN 82-05-13123-6 Dietrichson, Lorentz. Norske Stavkirker: Studier Over Deres System, Oprindelse Og Historiske Udvikling New edition: ISBN 0-576-19100-0 Leif Anker The Norwegian Stave Churches ISBN 978-8291399294 Torpo Stave Church in Stavkirke.org Torpo Stave Church photo gallery

Se Acabó el Amor

"Se Acabó El Amor" is a song recorded by Spanish singer Abraham Mateo with Puerto Rican singer Yandel and American singer and entertainer Jennifer Lopez. It was released on March 2, 2018, through Sony Music, as the third single from Mateo's fifth studio album A camara lenta, it was written by Abraham Mateo and Cuban artist "El Chacal", produced by urban music producers Jumbo, I am Chino & Jorgie and Oneil. Digital download"Se Acabó el Amor" – 3:50 In June 2018, "Se Acabó el Amor" reached number one on the US Latin Airplay chart, becoming Mateo's first, Yandel's eleventh and Lopez's seventh song to top the chart; the music video for "Se Acabó El Amor" was shot on 8 March 2018 at the Universal Studios in Hollywood, Los Angeles under the direction by Daniel Durán. The music video premiered on Friday 20 April, generated 120 million views in three weeks

Faiz Mahal

The Faiz Mahal is a palace in Khairpur, Pakistan. It was built by Mir Sohrab Khan in 1798 as the principal building serving as the sovereign's court for the royal palace complex of Talpur monarchs of the Khairpur dynasty, it included the ruler's chambers along with 16 waiting rooms for courtiers and guest rooms for royal guests alongside the durbar and dining halls. Additionally there was the Hathi Khana for the royal elephant and the horses stables where today there is a mango orchard. At present, Faiz Mahal serves as the home of the last Talpur monarch, H. H. Mir Ali Murad Khan Talpur II, his sons Prince Abbas Raza Talpur and Prince Mehdi Raza Talpur. After the original Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was abolished by the Chaudry Ghulam Mohummed/General Iskander Mirza dictatorships, Khairpur state was merged with Pakistani state in 1955 using threat of military invasion in violation of the agreement Mir Ali Murad had with the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Today the former sovereign is an environmentalist and has to his credit an extraordinary flora and fauna safe haven called the Mehrano reserve, famous for its black buck, hog deer, which are now rare in Sindh