Synagogue du Quai Kléber
The Synagogue du Quai Kléber was the main synagogue of Strasbourg, before World War II. It was built in the "Neustadt" when the city was part of the German Empire and destroyed by Nazi Germany after it annexed the city in 1940; the synagogue was designed by Ludwig Levy and built from 1895 until 1898 at a final cost of 800,000 Reichsmark. The imposing Romanesque Revival building was inspired by the Imperial Cathedrals of Mainz and Worms, all located in the Rhine region, like Strasbourg; the synagogue was built in pink and grey Vosges sandstone from the Phalsbourg quarries and crowned with a 54 m dome, which rivalled the neighbouring Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune Catholic Church. The main hall's nave was 46 m long and 19 m wide and had 1,639 seats on two levels: 825 for the men and 654 for the women. A lateral oratory, used on working days could accommodate 100 people; the main prayer room was equipped with a pipe organ made by Walcker Orgelbau, replaced in 1925 by an instrument by Edmond Alexandre Roethinger.
After the 1940 victory over France, the Nazis annexed Alsace. The synagogue was first plundered burnt to the ground; the destruction by arson was the work of a group of Hitler Youths from Baden and Alsace and occurred during the night from 30 September to 1 October 1940. What remained of the walls was razed in 1941. A first memorial to the synagogue was inaugurated in 1976 near the place; that memorial was expanded in 1994, the tramway station nearby was given the name Ancienne Synagogue Les Halles In 2012, the perimeter of the memorial was expanded again to include a newly created Allée des Justes-parmi-les-Nations dedicated to the Righteous Among the Nations. The 1994 memorial was vandalized in March 2019. La Synagogue Consistoriale du quai Kléber De la pose de la première pierre à sa destruction La Synagogue du quai Kléber un livre de Jean Daltroff Ancienne Synagogue - 2 Quai Kléber
Jewish prayer are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism. These prayers with instructions and commentary, are found in the siddur, the traditional Jewish prayer book. However, the term tefillah as referenced in the Talmud refers to the Shemoneh Esreh. Prayer—as a "service of the heart"—is in principle a Torah-based commandment, it is mandatory for both Jewish men and women. You shall serve God with your whole heart. However, in general, Jewish men are obligated to conduct tefillah three times a day within specific time ranges, according to some posekim, women are only required to engage in tefillah once a day, others say at least twice a day. Traditionally, since the Second Temple period, three prayer services are recited daily: Morning prayer: Shacharit or Shaharit, from the Hebrew shachar or shahar "morning light", Afternoon prayer: Mincha or Minha, the afternoon prayers named for the flour offering that accompanied sacrifices at the Temple in Jerusalem, Additional prayer: Arvit or Maariv, from "nightfall".
Further additional prayers: Musaf are recited by Orthodox and Conservative congregations on Shabbat, major Jewish holidays, Rosh Chodesh. A fifth prayer service, Ne'ila, is recited only on the Day of Atonement; the Talmud Bavli gives two reasons why there are three basic prayers de-rabbanan since the early Second Temple period on: to recall the daily sacrifices at the Temple in Jerusalem, and/or because each of the Patriarchs instituted one prayer: Abraham the morning, Isaac the afternoon and Jacob the evening prayer. The Talmud yerushalmi states that the Anshei Knesset HaGedola learned and understood the beneficial concept of regular daily prayer from personal habits of the forefathers as hinted in the Tanach, instituted the three daily prayers. A distinction is made between individual prayer and communal prayer, which requires a quorum known as a minyan, with communal prayer being preferable as it permits the inclusion of prayers that otherwise would be omitted. Maimonides relates that until the Babylonian exile, all Jews had composed their own prayers, but thereafter the sages of the Great Assembly in the early Second Temple period composed the main portions of the siddur.
Modern scholarship dating from the Wissenschaft des Judentums movement of 19th-century Germany, as well as textual analysis influenced by the 20th-century discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, suggests that dating from this period there existed "liturgical formulations of a communal nature designated for particular occasions and conducted in a centre independent of Jerusalem and the Temple, making use of terminology and theological concepts that were to become dominant in Jewish and, in some cases, Christian prayer." The language of the prayers, while from the Second Temple period employs Biblical idiom. Jewish prayerbooks emerged during the early Middle Ages during the period of the Geonim of Babylonia Over the last two thousand years traditional variations have emerged among the traditional liturgical customs of different Jewish communities, such as Ashkenazic, Yemenite, Eretz Yisrael and others, or rather recent liturgical inventions such as Hassidic and various Reform minhagim; however the differences are minor compared with the commonalities.
Halachically, Jews can switch from one nusach tefillah to an other at any time on a daily basis, are not bound to follow the nusach of their forefathers. Most of the Jewish liturgy is chanted with traditional melodies or trope. Synagogues may designate or employ a professional or lay hazzan for the purpose of leading the congregation in prayer on Shabbat or holidays. According to the Talmud Bavli, tefillah is a Biblical command: "'You shall serve God with your whole heart.' What service is performed with the heart? This is tefillah." Prayer is therefore referred to as Avodah sheba-Lev. It is mandatory for both Jewish men and women. Mentioning tefillah, the Talmud always refers to the Amidah, called Shemoneh Esreh; the noted rabbi Maimonides categorizes tefillah as a Biblical command of Written law, as the Babylon Talmud says. However, corresponding with the Jerusalem Talmud, the RaMBaM did hold that the number of tefillot and their times are not a Biblical command of Written law and that the forefathers did not institute such a Takkanah, rather it was a rabbinical command de-rabbanan based on a takkanah of the Anshei Knesset HaGedola.
The Oral law, according to the Talmud Bavli gives two reasons why there are three basic prayers: According to Rabbi Jose b. Hanina, each of the Patriarchs instituted one prayer: Abraham the morning, Isaac the afternoon and Jacob the evening prayers; this view is supported with Biblical quotes indicating that the Patriarchs prayed at the times mentioned. However according to this view, the exact times of when the services are held, moreover the entire concept of a mussaf service, are still based on the sacr
The Crimean Karaites or Krymkaraylar known as Karaims and Qarays, are an ethnic group derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Karaite Judaism in Central and Eastern Europe in the territory of the former Russian Empire. "Karaim" is a Russian, Ukrainian and Polish name for the community. Turkic-speaking Karaites have lived in Crimea for centuries, their origin is a matter of great controversy. Some regard them as descendants of Karaite Jews who settled in Crimea and adopted a form of the Kypchak tongue. Others view them as descendants of Khazar or Cuman, Kipchak converts to Karaite Judaism. Today many Crimean Karaites identify as descendants of the Khazars; some specialists in Khazar history question the Khazar theory of Karaim origins, noting the following: the Karaim language belongs to the Kipchak linguistic group, the Khazar language belongs to the Bulgar group. The tradition of Karaite Judaism ranks only the Tanakh as a holy book and does not recognize the Talmud. But, the first written mention of the Crimean Karaites was in the 14th century.
These entreaties were successful, in large part due to the czars’ wariness of the Talmud, in 1863 Karaites were granted the same rights as their Christian and Tatar neighbors. Exempted from the Pale of Settlement they were considered non Jews by Nazis; this left the community untouched by Holocaust, unlike other Turkic-speaking Jews, like the Krymchak Jews that were wiped out. Modern Karaim resist being identified as Jews, emphasizing their Turkic heritage and claiming they are Turkic practitioners of a "Mosaic religion" separate and distinct from Judaism. Miller says that Crimean Karaites did not start claiming a distinct identity apart from the Jewish people before the 19th century, that such leaders as Avraham Firkovich and Sima Babovich encouraged this position to avoid the strong anti-Semitism of the period. From the time of the Golden Horde onward, Karaites were present in many towns and villages throughout Crimea and around the Black Sea. During the period of the Crimean Khanate, they had major communities in the towns of Çufut Qale, Sudak and Bakhchisaray.
According to most opinions, the upper stratum of the Khazar society converted to Judaism in the 8th–9th centuries CE. The extent of this conversion and its scope is not known. With the collapse of the Khazar Khanate, a group of the Khazars who took part in a failed rebellion, joined the Magyars in the invasion of Hungary. An archeological relic of this Khazar settlement was discovered in Transylvania in the 20th century. Known as the Alsószentmihály Rovas inscription, it was transcribed by the archaeologist-historian Gábor Vékony. According to the transcription, the two-row inscription means the following: "His mansion is famous." "Jüedi Kür Karaite." or "Jüedi Kür the Karaite." Scholars take this as evidence. According to Karaite tradition, Grand Duke Vytautas of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania relocated one branch of the Crimean Karaites to Lithuania. There they continued to speak their own language, but the Lithuanian dialect of the Karaim language differs from the Crimean one. The Lithuanian Karaites settled in Vilnius and Trakai, as well as in Biržai, Pasvalys and Upytė – smaller settlements throughout Lithuania proper.
The Lithuanian Karaites settled in lands of modern Belarus and Ukraine, which were part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Karaite communities emerged in Halicz and Kokizow in Galicia, as well as in Łuck and Derazhne in Volhynia. Jews in Lithuanian territory were granted a measure of autonomy under Michel Ezofovich Senior's management; the Trakai Karaim refused citing differences in faith. All Jews, including Karaites, were submitted to Rabbinite "Council of Four Lands" and "Council of the Land of Lithuania" taxation; the Yiddish-speaking Rabbinites considered the Turkic-speaking Karaites to be apostates, kept them in a subordinate and depressed position. The Karaites resented this treatment. In 1646 the Karaites gained expulsion of the Rabbinites from Trakai. Despite such tensions, in 1680 Rabbinite community leaders defended the Karaites of Shaty against blood accusation. Representatives of both groups signed an agreement in 1714 to respect the mutual privileges and resolve disputes without involving the Gentile administration.
According to Crimean Karaite tradition, which developed in the 20th century inter-war Poland their forefathers were farmers and members of the community who served in the military forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, as well as in the Crimean Khanate. But according to the historical documents of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the chief occupation of the Crimean Karaites was usury, they were granted special privileges, including exemption from the military service. In the Crimean Khanate, the Karaites
History of the Jews in Georgia
Georgian Jews are one of the oldest communities in Georgia, tracing their migration into the country during the Babylonian captivity in 6th century BC. Prior to Georgia's annexation by Russia, the 2,600-year history of the Georgian Jews was marked by an total absence of antisemitism and a visible assimilation in the Georgian language and culture; the Georgian Jews were culturally distinct from neighboring Mountain Jews. They were traditionally a separate group to the Ashkenazi Jews in Georgia, who arrived following the Russian annexation of Georgia; as a result of a major emigration wave in the 1990s, the vast majority of Georgian Jews now live in Israel, with the world's largest community living in the city of Ashdod. The Georgian Jews have traditionally lived separately, not only from the surrounding Georgian people, but from the Ashkenazi Jews in Tbilisi, who had different practices and language; the community, which numbered about 80,000 as as the 1970s, has emigrated to Israel, the United States, the Russian Federation and Belgium.
As of 2004, only about 13,000 Georgian Jews remained in Georgia. According to the 2002 First General National Census of Georgia, there are 3,541 Jewish believers in the country. For example, the Lezgishvili branch of Georgian Jews have families in Israel, Baku, Düsseldorf, Cleveland, Ohio. Several hundred Georgian Jewish families live in the New York tri-state area in New York City and Long Island. Georgian-speaking Jewry is one of the oldest surviving Jewish communities in the world; the Georgian Jews have an 2,600-year history in the region. The origin of Georgian Jews known as Gurjim or kartveli ebraelebi, is debated; the most popular view is that the first Jews made their way to southern Georgia after Nebuchadnezzar's conquest of Jerusalem in 586 BCE and exile in Babylon. This claim is supported by the medieval Georgian historical account by Leonti Mroveli, who writes: Then King Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem; the Jews who fled thence come to Kartli and requested from the mamasakhlisi of Mtskheta territory in return for tribute.
He gave and settled them on the Aragvi, at spring, called Zanavi, renamed as Zanavi, the quarter of Jews.". Another version offered by Mroveli, was the settlement of the Jews in Georgia during the Roman period of Emperor Vespasian, he wrote that Jews lived in Georgia long before 1st century AD. According to Mroveli: During their reign, the emperor of the Romans, captured Jerusalem. From there refugee Jews come to Mtskheta and settled with the old Jews." The ancient Georgian historic chronicle, The Conversion of Kartli, is the oldest and only Georgian source concerning the history of the Jewish community in Georgia. The chronicle describes a version similar to that offered centuries by Leonti Mroveli, but the period of Jewish migration into Georgia is ascribed to Alexander the Great:...the warlike seed, the Honni, exiled by the Chaldeans, requested the land for tribute from the Lord of the Bun T'urks. And they settled in Zanavi, and they possessed it... Georgian sources refer to the arrival of the first Jews in Western Georgia from the Byzantine Empire during the 6th century AD.
3,000 of the Jews fled to Eastern Georgia, which by that time was controlled by the Persians, to escape severe persecution by the Byzantines. The existence of the Jews in these regions during this period is supported by the archaeological evidence, which shows that Jews lived in Mtskheta, the ancient capital of the Eastern Georgian state of Iberia-Kartli. According to the Georgian hagiography, Jewish communities existed in Georgia in the 1st century. A Georgian Jew called Elias was said to be in Jerusalem during the Crucifixion and brought Jesus' robe back with him to Georgia, he had acquired it from a Roman soldier at Golgotha. The Jews spoke Georgian, Jewish traders developed a dialect called Kivruli, or Judaeo-Georgian, which included a number of Hebrew words. In the second half of the 7th century, the Muslim Empire conquered extensive Georgian territory, which became an Arab caliph province. Arab emirs ruled in the Georgian capital Tbilisi and surrounding territory for nearly 500 years, until 1122.
Genetic studies carried out on Georgian Jews as part of a wider survey showed close genetic links with other Jews, in particular with Iraqi and Persian Jews. This seemed to prove the historical accounts of Jewish migration from Persia into Georgia. There is not much documentation about Georgian Jews under the Arab domination. In the late 9th century, Abu-Imran Musa al-Za'farani founded a Jewish Karai sect called the Tiflis Sect, which lasted for more than 300 years; the sect deviated from Rabbinic halakhah in its kashrut customs. This sect did not represent the great majority of Georgian Jews, who adhered to traditional Rabbinic Judaism while maintaining strong religious ties with Baghdad and other Jews of Iraq; the nature of Georgian Jew's observance to rabbinic law was noted by Benjamin of Tudela and Abraham ben David. The Mongols swept through Georgia in 1236, prompting many of the Jews of Eastern and Southern Georgia to move to the western region, which remained independent. There they formed small communities along the Black Sea, their poverty forced them into serfdom.
For 500 years, beginning in the end of the 14th century, the Jews of Georgia belonged to the kamani, or serf class, under the Georgian elite. Their situation worsened in the 15th and 16th centuries due
Torah has a range of meanings. It can most mean the first five books of the 24 books of the Tanakh, it is printed with the rabbinic commentaries, it can mean the continued narrative from the Book of Genesis to the end of the Tanakh, it can mean the totality of Jewish teaching and practice, whether derived from biblical texts or rabbinic writings. Common to all these meanings, Torah consists of the origin of Jewish peoplehood: their call into being by God, their trials and tribulations, their covenant with their God, which involves following a way of life embodied in a set of moral and religious obligations and civil laws. In rabbinic literature the word Torah denotes both the Oral Torah; the Oral Torah consists of interpretations and amplifications which according to rabbinic tradition have been handed down from generation to generation and are now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash. According to rabbinic tradition, all of the teachings found in the Torah, both written and oral, were given by God through the prophet Moses, some at Mount Sinai and others at the Tabernacle, all the teachings were written down by Moses, which resulted in the Torah that exists today.
According to the Midrash, the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, was used as the blueprint for Creation. The majority of Biblical scholars believe that the written books were a product of the Babylonian captivity, based on earlier written sources and oral traditions, that it was completed during the period of Achaemenid rule. Traditionally, the words of the Torah are written on a scroll by a scribe in Hebrew. A Torah portion is read publicly at least once every three days in the presence of a congregation. Reading the Torah publicly is one of the bases of Jewish communal life; the word "Torah" in Hebrew is derived from the root ירה, which in the hif'il conjugation means'to guide' or'to teach'. The meaning of the word is therefore "teaching", "doctrine", or "instruction"; the Alexandrian Jews who translated the Septuagint used the Greek word nomos, meaning norm, doctrine, "law". Greek and Latin Bibles began the custom of calling the Pentateuch The Law. Other translational contexts in the English language include custom, guidance, or system.
The term "Torah" is used in the general sense to include both Rabbinic Judaism's written law and Oral Law, serving to encompass the entire spectrum of authoritative Jewish religious teachings throughout history, including the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Midrash and more, the inaccurate rendering of "Torah" as "Law" may be an obstacle to understanding the ideal, summed up in the term talmud torah. The earliest name for the first part of the Bible seems to have been "The Torah of Moses"; this title, however, is found neither in the Torah itself, nor in the works of the pre-Exilic literary prophets. It appears in Joshua and Kings. In contrast, there is every likelihood that its use in the post-Exilic works was intended to be comprehensive. Other early titles were "The Book of Moses" and "The Book of the Torah", which seems to be a contraction of a fuller name, "The Book of the Torah of God". Christian scholars refer to the first five books of the Hebrew Bible as the'Pentateuch', a term first used in the Hellenistic Judaism of Alexandria.
The Torah starts from the beginning of God's creating the world, through the beginnings of the people of Israel, their descent into Egypt, the giving of the Torah at biblical Mount Sinai. It ends with the death of Moses, just before the people of Israel cross to the promised land of Canaan. Interspersed in the narrative are the specific teachings given explicitly or implicitly embedded in the narrative. In Hebrew, the five books of the Torah are identified by the incipits in each book, it is divisible into the Primeval history and the Ancestral history. The primeval history sets out the author's concepts of the nature of the deity and of humankind's relationship with its maker: God creates a world, good and fit for mankind, but when man corrupts it with sin God decides to destroy his creation, saving only the righteous Noah to reestablish the relationship between man and God; the Ancestral history tells of the prehistory of Israel, God's chosen people
Jewish holidays known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim, are holidays observed in Judaism and by Jews throughout the Hebrew calendar. They include religious and national elements, derived from three sources: Biblical mitzvot. Jewish holidays occur on the same dates every year in the Hebrew calendar, but the dates vary in the Gregorian; this is because the Hebrew calendar is a lunisolar calendar, whereas the Gregorian is a solar calendar. Certain terms are used commonly for groups of holidays; the Hebrew-language term Yom Tov, sometimes referred to as "festival day," refers to the six Biblically-mandated festival dates on which all activities prohibited on Shabbat are prohibited, except for some related to food preparation. These include the first and seventh days of Passover, both days of Rosh Hashanah, first day of Sukkot, Shemini Atzeret. By extension, outside the Land of Israel, the second-day holidays known under the rubric Yom tov sheni shel galuyot are included in this grouping. Colloquially, Yom Kippur, a Biblically-mandated date on which food preparation is prohibited, is included in this grouping.
The tradition of keeping two days of Yom Tov in the diaspora has existed since 300 BCE. The English-language term High Holy Days refers to Yom Kippur collectively, its Hebrew analogue, Yamim Nora'im, "Days of Awe”, is more flexible: it can refer just to those holidays, or to the Ten Days of Repentance, or to the entire penitential period, starting as early as the beginning of Elul, ending as late as Shemini Atzeret. The term Three Pilgrimage Festivals refers to Passover and Sukkot. Within this grouping Sukkot includes Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah. Certain terminology is used in referring to different categories of holidays, depending on their source and their nature: Shabbat, or Sabbath, is referred to by that name exclusively. Rosh Chodesh is referred to by that name exclusively. Yom tov: See "Groupings" above. Moed, plural moadim, refers to any of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals of Passover and Sukkot; when used in comparison to Yom Tov, it refers to Chol HaMoed, the intermediate days of Passover and Sukkot.
Ḥag or chag, plural chagim, can be used whenever yom moed is. It is used to describe Hanukkah and Purim, as well as Yom Ha'atzmaut and Yom Yerushalayim. Ta'anit, or, less tzom, refers to a fast; these terms are used to describe the rabbinic fasts, although tzom is used liturgically to refer to Yom Kippur as well. The most notable common feature of Shabbat and the Biblical festivals is the requirement to refrain from melacha on these days. Melacha is most translated as "work". Speaking, Melacha is defined in Jewish law by 39 categories of labor that were used in constructing the Tabernacle while the Jews wandered in the desert; as understood traditionally and in Orthodox Judaism: On Shabbat and Yom Kippur all melacha is prohibited. On a Yom Tov which falls on a weekday, not Shabbat, most melacha is prohibited; some melacha related to preparation of food is permitted. On weekdays during Chol HaMoed, melacha is not prohibited per se. However, melacha should be limited to that required either to enhance the enjoyment of the remainder of the festival or to avoid great financial loss.
On other days, there are no restrictions on melacha. In principle, Conservative Judaism understands the requirement to refrain from melacha in the same way as Orthodox Judaism. In practice, Conservative rabbis rule on prohibitions around melacha differently from Orthodox authorities. Still, there are a number of Conservative/Masorti communities around the world where Sabbath and Festival observance closely resembles Orthodox observance. However, many, if not most, lay members of Conservative congregations in North America do not consider themselves Sabbath-observant by Conservative standards. At the same time, adherents of Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism do not accept halacha, therefore restrictions on melacha, as binding at all. Jews fitting any of these descriptions refrain from melacha in practice only as they see fit. Shabbat and holiday work restrictions are always put aside in cases of pikuach nefesh, saving a human life. At the most fundamental level, if there is any possibility whatsoever that action must be taken to save a life, Shabbat restrictions are set aside and without reservation.
Where the danger to life is present but less immediate, there is some preference to minimize violation of Shabbat work restrictions where possible. The laws in this area are complex; the Torah specifies a single date on the Jewish calendar for observance of holidays. Festivals of Biblical origin other than Shabbat and Yom Kippur are observed for two days outside the land of Israel, Rosh Hashanah is observed for two days inside the land of Israel. Dates for holidays on the Jewish calendar are expressed in the Torah as "day x of month y." Accordingly, the beginning of month y needs to be determined before the proper date
The Bene Israel known in India as the "Shanivar Teli" caste and as the "Native Jew Caste", are a historic community of Jews in India. It has been suggested that it is made up of descendants of one of the disputed Lost Tribes and ancestors who had settled there centuries ago. In the 19th century, after the people were taught about normative Judaism, they tended to migrate from villages in the Konkan area to the nearby cities Mumbai, but to Pune and Kolkata, India. Many gained positions with the British colonial authority of the period. In the early part of the twentieth century, many Bene Israel became active in the new film industry, as actresses and actors and directors. After India gained its independence in 1947, Israel was established in 1948, most Bene Israel emigrated to Israel and other Commonwealth countries and the United States; some historians have thought their ancestors may have belonged to one of the Lost Tribes of Israel, but the Bene Israel have never been recognized by Jewish authorities as such.
According to Bene Israel tradition, their ancestors migrated to India after centuries of travel through western Asia from Israel and assimilated to the people around them, while keeping some Jewish customs. The medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides mentioned in a letter that there was a Jewish community living in India: he may have been referring to the Bene Israel. At a point in history, uncertain, an Indian Jew from Cochin named David Rahabi discovered the Bene Israel in their villages and recognized their vestigial Jewish customs. Rahabi taught the people about normative Judaism, he trained some young men among them to be the religious preceptors of the community. Known as Kajis, these men held a position, they became recognized as settlers of disputes within the community. One Bene Israel tradition places Rahabi's arrival at around 1000 or 1400, although some historians believe he was not active until the 18th century, they suggest that the "David Rahabi" of Bene Israel folklore was a man named David Ezekiel Rahabi, who lived from 1694 to 1772, resided in Cochin the center of the wealthy Malabar Jewish community.
Others suggest that the reference is to David Baruch Rahabi, who arrived in Bombay from Cochin in 1825. It is estimated. Since that time, most of the population has emigrated to Israel. Under British colonial rule, many Bene Israel rose to prominence in India, they were less affected than other Indians by the racially discriminatory policies of the British colonists, considered somewhat outside the masses. They gained higher, better paying posts in the British Army when compared with their non-Jewish neighbours; some of these enlistees with their families joined the British in the British Protectorate of Aden. In the 19th century, the Bene Israel did however meet with hostility from the newly anglicized Baghdadi Jews who considered the Bene Israel to be "Indian", they questioned the Jewishness of the community. In response, the Bene Israel educator and historian, Haeem Samuel Kehimkar, spearheaded the defence of the jewishness of the Bene Israel in the late 1800s. In his writings, he tried to portray the Bene Israel as a foreign community in India.
He divided the community into two endogamous groups and black. He claimed the whites had pure blood and the blacks were the progeny of Indian women and therefore impure. In the early twentieth century, numerous Bene Israel became leaders in the new film industry in India. In addition, men worked as producers and actors: Ezra Mir became the first chief of India's Film Division, Solomon Moses was head of the Bombay Film Lab Pvt Ltd from the 1940s to 1990s. Ennoch Isaac Satamkar was a film actor and assistant director to Mehboob Khan, a prominent director of Hindi films. Given their success under the British colonial government, many Bene Israel prepared to leave India at independence in 1947, they believed that nationalism and the emphasis on indigenous religions would mean fewer opportunities for them. Most emigrated to Israel, newly established in 1948 as a Jewish homeland. Between 1948 and 1952, some 2,300 Bene Israel immigrated to Israel. In India, the Bene Israel and other jews lived in urban areas, however in Israel they were settled into agriculture based moshavim or development towns.
Several rabbis refused to marry Bene Israel to other Jews, on grounds that they were not legitimate Jews under Orthodox law. As a result of sit-down protests and hunger strikes by Orthodox Jews, the Jewish Agency returned 337 individuals of Bene Israel in several groups to India between 1952 and 1954. Most returned to Israel after several years. In 1962, the Indian press reported that European-Jewish authorities in Israel had treated the Bene Israel with racism, they objected to the Chief Rabbi of Israel ruling that, before registering a marriage between Indian Jews and Jews not belonging to that community, the registering rabbi should investigate the lineage of the Indian applicant for possible non-Jewish descent. In case of doubt, they should require the applicant to perform formal immersion; the alleged discrimination may have been based on the belief by some religious authorities that the Bene Israel were not Jewish because of having had intermarriage in the maternal line with Indian natives during their long separation from major communities of Jews Others thought, a convenient cover for racially based bias against Jews