Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. Until 1871, Alsace included the area now known as the Territoire de Belfort, which formed its southernmost part. From 1982 to 2016, Alsace was the smallest administrative région in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments. Territorial reform passed by the French legislature in 2014 resulted in the merger of the Alsace administrative region with Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine to form Grand Est. Due to protests it was decided in 2019 that Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin would form the future European Collectivity of Alsace in 2021. Alsatian is an Alemannic dialect related to Swabian and Swiss German, although since World War II most Alsatians speak French. Internal and international migration since 1945 has changed the ethnolinguistic composition of Alsace. For more than 300 years, from the Thirty Years' War to World War II, the political status of Alsace was contested between France and various German states in wars and diplomatic conferences.

The economic and cultural capital of Alsace, as well as its largest city, is Strasbourg. The city is the seat of bodies; the name Alsace can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, meaning "foreign domain". An alternative explanation is from a Germanic Ell-sass, meaning "seated on the Ill", a river in Alsace. In prehistoric times, Alsace was inhabited by nomadic hunters; the presence of hominids can be traced back 600,000 years ago. By 1500 BC, Celts began to settle in Alsace and cultivating the land. Alsace is a plain surrounded by the Black Forest mountains, it creates Foehn winds which, along with natural irrigation, contribute to the fertility of the soil. In a world of agriculture, Alsace has always been a rich region which explains why it has suffered so many invasions and annexations in its history. By 58 BC, the Romans had established Alsace as a center of viticulture. To protect this valued industry, the Romans built fortifications and military camps that evolved into various communities which have been inhabited continuously to the present day.

While part of the Roman Empire, Alsace was part of Germania Superior. In 357 AD, Germanic tribes attempted to conquer Alsace but they were rebuffed by the Romans. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Alsace became the territory of the Germanic Alemanni; the Alemanni were agricultural people, their Germanic language formed the basis of modern-day dialects spoken along the Upper Rhine. Clovis and the Franks defeated the Alemanni during the 5th century AD, culminating with the Battle of Tolbiac, Alsace became part of the Kingdom of Austrasia. Under Clovis' Merovingian successors the inhabitants were Christianized. Alsace remained under Frankish control until the Frankish realm, following the Oaths of Strasbourg of 842, was formally dissolved in 843 at the Treaty of Verdun. Alsace formed part of the Middle Francia, ruled by the eldest grandson Lothar I. Lothar died early in 855 and his realm was divided into three parts; the part known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine, was given to Lothar's son. The rest was shared between Louis the German.

The Kingdom of Lotharingia was short-lived, becoming the stem duchy of Lorraine in Eastern Francia after the Treaty of Ribemont in 880. Alsace was united with the other Alemanni east of the Rhine into the stem duchy of Swabia. At about this time, the surrounding areas experienced recurring fragmentation and reincorporations among a number of feudal secular and ecclesiastical lordships, a common process in the Holy Roman Empire. Alsace experienced great prosperity during the 13th centuries under Hohenstaufen emperors. Frederick I set up Alsace as a province to be ruled by ministeriales, a non-noble class of civil servants; the idea was that such men would be more tractable and less to alienate the fief from the crown out of their own greed. The province had a central administration with its seat at Hagenau. Frederick II designated the Bishop of Strasbourg to administer Alsace, but the authority of the bishop was challenged by Count Rudolf of Habsburg, who received his rights from Frederick II's son Conrad IV.

Strasbourg began to grow to become the commercially important town in the region. In 1262, after a long struggle with the ruling bishops, its citizens gained the status of free imperial city. A stop on the Paris-Vienna-Orient trade route, as well as a port on the Rhine route linking southern Germany and Switzerland to the Netherlands and Scandinavia, it became the political and economic center of the region. Cities such as Colmar and Hagenau began to grow in economic importance and gained a kind of autonomy within the "Décapole", a federation of ten free towns. Though little is known about the early history of the Jews of Alsace, there is a lot of information from the 12th century onwards, they had the favor of the Emperor. As in much of Europe, the prosperity of Alsace was brought to an end in the 14th century by a series of harsh winters, bad harvests, the Black Death; these hardships were blamed on Jews, leading to the pogroms of 1336 and 1339. In 1349, Jews of Alsace were accused of poisoning the wells with plague, leading t

Eugenio Miccini

Eugenio Miccini was an Italian artist and writer, considered to be one of the fathers of Italian visual poetry. Eugenio Miccini is considered to be one of the fathers of Italian visual poetry. Graduated in Pedagogy, in 1963 he founded together with poets and painters Gruppo'70, creating the Italian term "poesia visiva". Visual poetry is an art research characterized by predominance of the image on the typographical text, aimed to obtain compositions where words and images and figures, are integrated without solution of continuity on the semantic plane. In Italy the 1960s have been rich of activities of Gruppo 70, starting from two meetings organized in Florence in 1963, focusing on "Art and Communication" and in 1964 "Arte and Technology", where discussion touched on interdisciplinary, this means those practices in the arts characterized by multicode or mixed-media operations, operations that could be classified as "total poetry", this means realized with the most wide synesthesia, including in the performances sounds and noise and actions, various materials and reviews, parfumes and food.

Eugenio Miccini has collaborated as expert of semiotic matter to the Cathedra Strumenti e Tecniche della comunicazione visiva of the University of Florence. He was teaching Contemporary Art History in the fine art academies of Verona e Ravenna. Miccini's work is included in the Italian Treccani Encyclopedia and was object of doctoral research at University La Sorbonne of Paris and at the University of Belgrade, he is included in anthologies and school books in Italy, such as Storia dell'Arte Italiana, by Carlo Bertelli, Giuliano Briganti, Antonio Giuliano, Electa – Bruno Mondadori. His works are in many public collections, among them: Biennale di Venezia, Museo della Pilotta of Parma, Museum of Modern Art of New York, Museum BWA of Dublin, in the public galleries of Céret, Bologna, Anversa, Warsaw and others, he participated in the most important international exhibitions, such as: Biennale di Venezia, Quadriennale of Rome, Stedelijik Museum of Amsterdam, Palazzo Forti of Verona, Palazzo Vecchio of Florence, Museums of Marseille, GAM, Palazzo dei Diamanti of Ferrara.

He published more than art books and essays. He died in Florence on 19 June 2007. Miccini Eugenio, "Une semiologie de la transgression", in "Inter", avril 1984. E in "Poesia visiva e dintorni", Firenze 1995. Miccini Eugenio, La poesia è violenza, Poesia visiva, Poesia politica, Firenze, Tèchne, 1972. Miccini Eugenio, La poesia visiva oggi, in Poesia Totale, 1897–1997: dal colpo di dadi alla poesia visuale, 2, a cura di Mascelloni, Parise, Verona,1998, p. 37–38 Miccini Eugenio, Poesia e no, 1963–1984, Campanotto, 1985 Miccini Eugenio, Poesia Visiva: 1962–1991, Parise, 1991 Libri D'artista, a cura di Eugenio Miccini, Annalisa Rimmaudo, Sometti, 2000 Vincenzo Accame, Il segno poetico. Riferimenti per una storia delle ricerca poetico-visuale e interdisciplinare, Munt Press, 1977 Caterina Davinio, Tecno-Poesia e realtà virtuali, Sometti, 2002 Lamberto Pignotti, Anni sessanta, poesia tecnologica, poesia visiva, Gruppo 70, in Poesia Totale, 1897–1997: dal colpo di dadi alla poesia visuale, II, a cura di Mascelloni, Parise, Verona,1998 Miccini Eugenio, Anche il silenzio è parola, Edizioni Meta Parole e Immagini, 2002 AAVV, Quella che vi abbiamo raccontato è una storia d'amore.

Eugenio Miccini. Meta, Mantova 2002. Visual Poetry Digital Poetry Concrete Poetry Performance Fluxus Futurism Gruppo 63 Avant-garde Approfondimenti


Cahuita is a small city located on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, in the Talamanca Canton of Limón Province. Cahuita is the capital of the Cahuita District. Due to its proximity to the Caribbean shoreline, Cahuita is renowned for Afro-Caribbean influence on dining and local culture; the city is known for its beaches, dessert crepes, variations of grilled chicken. The Playa Negra and Cahuita National Park are close to town. Limón is north of Cahuita. Puerto Viejo is the next town south; the town is home to Walter Gavitt Ferguson Byfield or Walter Ferguson, the "King of Calypso," born in 1919 and still active. His 100th birthday in 2019 was declared National Calypso Day by Costa Rica's Vice President. Cahuita is served by National Route 36. Many roads in Cahuita are composed of dirt and stone making it necessary for foreign visitors to rent a 4WD vehicle to reach local beaches and hotels on the northern fringes of town. Cahuita has a tropical climate. Temperatures remain consistent during the year.

Sunrise and sunset change little during the year. Limón International Airport has similar average temperatures and precipitation. ICARI Spanish School