The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times is the largest-selling British national newspaper in the "quality press" market category. It is published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News UK, in turn owned by News Corp. Times Newspapers publishes The Times; the two papers were founded independently and have been under common ownership only since 1966. They were bought by News International in 1981; the Sunday Times occupies a dominant position in the quality Sunday market. While some other national newspapers moved to a tabloid format in the early 2000s, The Sunday Times has retained the larger broadsheet format and has said that it will continue to do so, it sells more than twice as many copies as its sister paper, The Times, published Monday to Saturday. The Sunday Times has acquired a reputation for the strength of its investigative reporting – much of it by its award-winning Insight team – and for its wide-ranging foreign coverage, it has a number of popular writers and commentators including Jeremy Clarkson and Bryan Appleyard.
A. A. Gill was a prominent columnist for many years, it was Britain's first multi-section newspaper and remains larger than its rivals. A typical edition contains the equivalent of 450 to 500 tabloid pages. Besides the main news section, it has standalone News Review, Sport and Appointments sections – all broadsheet. There are two tabloid supplements, it has a website and separate digital editions configured for both the iOS operating system for the Apple iPad and the Android operating system for such devices as the Google Nexus, all of which offer video clips, extra features and multimedia and other material not found in the printed version of the newspaper. The paper publishes The Sunday Times Rich List, an annual survey of the wealthiest people in Britain and Ireland, equivalent to the Forbes 400 list in the United States, a series of league tables with reviews of private British companies, in particular The Sunday Times Fast Track 100; the paper produces an annual league table of the best-performing state and independent schools at both junior and senior level across the United Kingdom, entitled Parent Power, an annual league table of British universities and a similar one for Irish universities.
It publishes The Sunday Times Bestseller List of books in Britain, a list of the "100 Best Companies to Work For", focusing on UK companies. It organises The Sunday Times Oxford Literary Festival, held annually, The Sunday Times Festival of Education, which takes place every year at Wellington College; the paper began publication on 18 February 1821 as The New Observer, but from 21 April its title was changed to the Independent Observer. Its founder, Henry White, chose the name in an apparent attempt to take advantage of the success of The Observer, founded in 1791, although there was no connection between the two papers. On 20 October 1822 it was reborn as The Sunday Times, although it had no relationship with The Times. In January 1823, White sold the paper to a radical politician. Under its new owner, The Sunday Times notched up several firsts: a wood engraving it published of the coronation of Queen Victoria in 1838 was the largest illustration to have appeared in a British newspaper; the paper was bought in 1887 by Alice Anne Cornwell who had made a fortune in mining in Australia and floating the Midas Mine Company of the London Stock Exchange.
She bought the paper to promote her new company, The British and Australasian Mining Investment Company, as a gift to her lover Frederick Stannard Robinson. Robinson was installed as editor and she married him in 1894, she sold it in 1893 to Frederick Beer, who owned Observer. Beer appointed Rachel Sassoon Beer, as editor, she was editor of Observer – the first woman to run a national newspaper – and continued to edit both titles until 1901. There was a further change of ownership in 1903, in 1915 the paper was bought by William Berry and his brother, Gomer Berry ennobled as Lord Camrose and Viscount Kemsley respectively. Under their ownership, The Sunday Times continued its reputation for innovation: on 23 November 1930, it became the first Sunday newspaper to publish a 40-page issue and on 21 January 1940, news replaced advertising on the front page. In 1943, the Kemsley Newspapers Group was established, with The Sunday Times becoming its flagship paper. At this time, Kemsley was the largest newspaper group in Britain.
On 12 November 1945, Ian Fleming, who created James Bond, joined the paper as foreign manager and special writer. The following month, circulation reached 500,000. On 28 September 1958 the paper launched a separate Review section, becoming the first newspaper to publish two sections regularly. In 1959 the Kemsley group was bought by Lord Thomson, in October 1960 circulation reached one million for the first time. In another first, on 4 February 1962 the editor, Denis Hamilton, launched The Sunday Times Magazine; the cover picture of the first issue was of Jean Shrimpton wearing a Mary Quant outfit and was taken by David Bailey. The magazine got off to a slow start, but the advertising soon began to pick up, over time, other newspapers laun
Franz Josef Land
Franz Josef Land, Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph's Land is a Russian archipelago, inhabited only by military personnel, located in the Arctic Ocean and constituting the northernmost part of Arkhangelsk Oblast. It consists of 191 islands, which cover an area of 16,134 square kilometers, stretching 375 kilometers from east to west and 234 kilometers from north to south; the islands are categorized in three groups, a western and eastern, separated by the British Channel and the Austrian Strait. The central group is further divided into a southern section by the Markham Strait; the largest island is Prince George Land, which measures 2,741 square kilometers, followed by Wilczek Land, Graham Bell Island and Alexandra Land. Eighty-five percent of the archipelago is glaciated, with large unglaciated areas being located on the largest islands and many of the smallest islands; the islands have a combined coastline of 4,425 kilometers. Compared to other Arctic archipelagos, Franz Joseph Land has a high dissection rate of 3.6 square kilometers per coastline kilometer.
Cape Fligely on Rudolf Island is the northernmost point of the Eastern Hemisphere. The highest elevations are found in the eastern group, with the highest point located on Wilczek Land, 670 meters above mean sea level; the archipelago was first spotted by the Norwegian sealers Nils Fredrik Rønnbeck and Johan Petter Aidijärvi in 1865, although they did not report their finding. The first reported finding was in the 1873 Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition led by Julius von Payer and Karl Weyprecht, who named the area after Emperor Franz Joseph I; the islands under the name Fridtjof Nansen Land, were annexed by the Soviet Union in 1926, who settled small outposts for research and military purposes. The Kingdom of Norway rejected several private expeditions were sent to the islands. With the Cold War, the islands became off limits for foreigners and two military airfields were built; the islands have been a nature sanctuary since 1994 and became part of the Russian Arctic National Park in 2012.
There are two candidates for the discovery of Franz Josef Land. The first was the Norwegian sealing vessel Spidsbergen, with captain Nils Fredrik Rønnbeck and harpooner Johan Petter Aidijärvi, they sailed northeast from Svalbard in 1865 searching for suitable sealing sites, they found land, most Franz Josef Land. The account is believed to be factual, but an announcement of the discovery was never made, their sighting therefore remained unknown to subsequent explorers; this was at the time common to keep newly discovered areas secret, as their discovery was aimed at exploiting them for sealing and whaling, exposure would cause competitors to flock to the site. Russian scientist N. G. Schilling proposed in 1865 that the ice conditions in the Barents Sea could only be explained if there was another land mass in the area, but he never received funding for an expedition; the Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition of 1872–74 was the first to announce the discovery of the islands. Led by Julius von Payer and Karl Weyprecht of Austria–Hungary on board the schooner Tegetthoff, the expedition's primary goal was to find the Northeast Passage and its secondary goal to reach the North Pole.
Starting in July 1872, the vessel drifted from Novaya Zemlya to a new landmass, which they named in honor of Franz Joseph I, Emperor of Austria. The expedition contributed to the mapping and exploration of the islands; the next expedition to spot the archipelago was the Dutch Expedition for the Exploration of the Barents Sea, on board the schooner Willem Barents. Constrained by the ice, they never reached land. Benjamin Leigh Smith's expedition in 1880, aboard the barque Eira, followed a route from Spitsbergen to Franz Josef Land, landing on Bell Island in August. Leigh Smith explored the vicinity and set up a base at Eira Harbour, before exploring towards McClintock Island, he returned the following year in the same vessel. The explorers were stopped by ice at Cape Flora, Eira sank on 21 August, they built a cottage and stayed the winter, to be rescued by the British vessels Kara and Hope the following summer. These early expeditions concentrated their explorations on the southern and central parts of the archipelago.
Nansen's Fram expedition was an 1893–1896 attempt by the Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen to reach the geographical North Pole by harnessing the natural east–west current of the Arctic Ocean. Departing in 1893, Fram drifted from the New Siberian Islands for one and a half years before Nansen became impatient and set out to reach the North Pole on skies with Hjalmar Johansen, they gave up on reaching the pole and instead found their way to Franz Josef Land, the nearest land known to man. They were thus able to establish. In the meantime the Jackson–Harmsworth Expedition set off in 1894, set up a base on Bell Island, stayed for the winter; the following season they spent exploring. By pure chance, at Cape Flora in the spring of 1896, Nansen stumbled upon Frederick George Jackson, able to transport him back to Norway. Nansen and Jackson explored the northern and western portions of the islands. Once the basic geography of Franz Josef Land had become apparent, expeditions shifted to using the archipelago as a basis to reach the North Pole.
The first such attempt was conducted by the National Geographic Society-sponsored American journalist Walter Wellman in 1898. The two Norwegians, Paul Bjørvig og Bernt Bentsen, stayed the winter 1898-9 at Cape Heller on Wilczek Land, but insufficient fuel caused the l
The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper founded in 1903. It is owned by parent company Reach plc. From 1985 to 1987, from 1997 to 2002, the title on its masthead was The Mirror, it had an average daily print circulation of 716,923 in December 2016, dropping markedly to 587,803 the following year. Its Sunday sister paper is the Sunday Mirror. Unlike other major British tabloids such as The Sun and the Daily Mail, the Mirror has no separate Scottish edition. Pitched to the middle-class reader, it was converted into a working-class newspaper after 1934, in order to reach a larger audience; the Mirror has had a number of owners. It was founded by Alfred Harmsworth, who sold it to his brother Harold Harmsworth in 1913. In 1963 a restructuring of the media interests of the Harmsworth family led to the Mirror becoming a part of International Publishing Corporation. During the mid 1960s, daily sales exceeded 5 million copies, a feat never repeated by it or any other daily British newspaper since.
The Mirror was owned by Robert Maxwell between 1984 and 1991. The paper went through a protracted period of crisis after his death before merging with the regional newspaper group Trinity in 1999 to form Trinity Mirror. During the 1930s the paper was editorially sympathetic to Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists; the paper has supported the Labour Party since the 1945 general election. The Daily Mirror was launched on 2 November 1903 by Alfred Harmsworth as a newspaper for women, run by women. Hence the name: he said, "I intend it to be a mirror of feminine life as well on its grave as on its lighter sides... to be entertaining without being frivolous, serious without being dull". It cost one penny, it was not an immediate success and in 1904 Harmsworth decided to turn it into a pictorial newspaper with a broader focus. Harmsworth appointed all of the paper's female journalists were fired; the masthead was changed to The Daily Illustrated Mirror, which ran from 26 January to 27 April 1904, when it reverted to The Daily Mirror.
The first issue of the relaunched paper did not have advertisements on the front page as but instead news text and engraved pictures, with the promise of photographs inside. Two days the price was dropped to one halfpenny and to the masthead was added: "A paper for men and women"; this combination was more successful: by issue 92, the guaranteed circulation was 120,000 copies and by issue 269, it had grown to 200,000: by the name had reverted and the front page was photographs. Circulation grew to 466,000 making it the second-largest morning newspaper. Alfred Harmsworth sold the newspaper to his brother Harold Harmsworth in 1913. In 1917, the price was increased to one penny. Circulation continued to grow: in 1919, some issues sold more than a million copies a day, making it the largest daily picture paper. In 1924 the newspaper sponsored the 1924 Women's Olympiad held at Stamford Bridge in London. Lord Rothermere was a friend of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, directed the Mirror's editorial stance towards them in the early 1930s.
On Monday, 22 January, 1934 the Daily Mirror ran the headline "Give the Blackshirts a helping hand" urging readers to join Sir Mosley's British Union of Fascists, giving the address to which to send membership applications. By the mid-1930s, the Mirror was struggling – it and the Mail were the main casualties of the early 1930s circulation war that saw the Daily Herald and the Daily Express establish circulations of more than two million, Rothermere decided to sell his shares in it. In 1935 Rothermere sold the paper to H. G. Hugh Cudlipp. With Cecil King in charge of the paper's finances and Guy Bartholomew as editor, during the late 1930s the Mirror was transformed from a conservative, middle class newspaper into a left-wing paper for the working class. On the advice of the American advertising agency J. Walter Thompson, the Mirror became the first British paper to adopt the appearance of the New York tabloids; the headlines became bigger, the stories shorter and the illustrations more abundant.
By 1939, the publication was selling 1.4 million copies a day. In 1937, Hugh McClelland introduced his wild Western comic strip Beelzebub Jones in the Daily Mirror. After taking over as cartoon chief at the Mirror in 1945, he dropped Beelzebub Jones and moved on to a variety of new strips. During the Second World War the Mirror positioned itself as the paper of the ordinary soldier and civilian, was critical of the political leadership and the established parties. At one stage, the paper was threatened with closure following the publication of a Philip Zec cartoon, misinterpreted by Winston Churchill and Herbert Morrison. In the 1945 general election the paper supported the Labour Party in its eventual landslide victory. In doing so, the paper supported Herbert Morrison, who co-ordinated Labour's campaign, recruited his former antagonist Philip Zec to reproduce, on the front page, a popular VE Day cartoon on the morning of the election, suggesting that Labour were the only party who could maintain peace in post-war Britain.
By the late 1940s, it was selling 4.5 million copies a day. The Mirror was an influential model f
Alfred Harmsworth (barrister)
Alfred Harmsworth was a British barrister, the father of several of the United Kingdom's leading newspaper proprietors, five of whom were honoured with hereditary titles – two viscounts, one baron and two baronets. Another son designed the iconic bulbous Perrier mineral water bottle. Alfred Harmsworth was born on 3 July 1837 in Marylebone, the only son of Charles Harmsworth and Hannah Carter. On 21 September 1864, at St Stephen's Church, Dublin, he married Geraldine Mary Maffett, one of the eight children of William Maffett, a land agent in County Down, his second wife Margaret Finlayson, they lived in Dublin until 1867, when they moved to London to St John's Wood, to Hampstead when the family's fortunes declined, in part due to Harmsworth's "fondness for alcohol", although they were always short of money, in part due to having so many children. The Harmsworths had 14 children, three of whom died in infancy: Christabel was named after the suffragette Christabel Pankhurst, as Harmsworth was an ardent believer in women's suffrage.
In 1939, there were five Lady Harmsworths. Harmsworth was a barrister of the Middle Temple and one of the standing counsel for the Great Northern Railway, he has been described as an "unsuccessful" barrister. It was not until after his death that the press empire created by his sons "really took off". Harmsworth was the founder of the Sylvan Debating Club, for which he served as Secretary for a number of years. Harmsworth died on 16 July 1889, he is buried at East Finchley Cemetery. He died of cirrhosis of the liver, as did both in their 50s. Harmsworth baronets Paul; the House of Northcliffe: The Harmsworths of Fleet Street. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 978-0297993865. OCLC 281447. Media related to Harmsworth family at Wikimedia Commons
The Absent-Minded Beggar
"The Absent-Minded Beggar" is an 1899 poem by Rudyard Kipling, set to music by Sir Arthur Sullivan and accompanied by an illustration of a wounded but defiant British soldier, "A Gentleman in Kharki", by Richard Caton Woodville. The song was written as part of an appeal by the Daily Mail to raise money for soldiers fighting in the Second Boer War and their families; the fund was the first such charitable effort for a war. The chorus of the song exhorted its audience to "pass the hat for your credit's sake, pay– pay– pay!" The patriotic poem and song caused a sensation and were performed throughout the war and beyond. Kipling declined the honour. Vast numbers of copies of the poem and sheet music were published, large quantities of related merchandise were sold to aid the charity; the "Absent-Minded Beggar Fund" was an unprecedented success and raised a total of more than £250,000. In September 1899, it was clear that the crisis in South Africa was to turn into war. By 2 October, all military leave had been cancelled, urgent preparations were under way to send a large expeditionary force to the Cape, with horses and supplies being requisitioned and mobilised.
On 7 October, a proclamation was issued calling out the Army Reserve. Of 65,000 liable men, around 25,000 were intended to be called up for service; the Second Boer War broke out on 11 October. Many, if not all, of the men thus mobilised were ex-soldiers in permanent employment for whom returning to military duty meant a significant cut in their income; as a result, many families were plunged into poverty, since a lifestyle comfortably maintained on a workman's wage of twenty shillings could not be kept up on the infantryman's "shilling a day". In addition, there was no contemporary legislation protecting the permanent employment of Reservists. Employers could – and would – replace them with other workers, with no guarantee that if the soldier returned he would be able to take back his job. In addition, of course, the men faced the prospect of death. A number of charitable funds existed to support these individuals, most notably the Soldiers' and Sailors' Families Association, a number of private appeals were made.
A wave of patriotism swept the country, catered to by jingoist newspapers such as the Daily Mail. Many of these newspapers were involved in the charitable fundraising efforts to benefit the Reservists and their dependents; the Daily Mail proprietor, Alfred Harmsworth, publicised efforts to help soldiers and their families. This drew the attention of Rudyard Kipling, who produced "The Absent-Minded Beggar" on 16 October 1899 and sent the verses to Harmsworth on 22 October with a note that "they are at your service.... Turn over to any one of the ordained relief-funds, as a portion of your contribution. I don't want my name mixed up in the business except. It's catchpenny verse and I want it to catch just as many pennies as it can.... It isn't a thing. If any one wants to sing it take care that the proceeds go to our men." It was an immediate success. Maud Tree, the wife of actor-manager Herbert Beerbohm Tree, recited it at the Palace Theatre, every night before the show, for fourteen months, other performers recited it at music halls and elsewhere, giving part of the profits to the fund.
The manuscript itself was auctioned for £500, a Special Edition de Luxe was issued. Meanwhile, by 25 October, Kipling was plotting with Harmsworth on how to maximise the fundraising from the poem. In addition to having it recited at entertainments, he suggested finding a composer to set it to a "common + catchy" tune; the country's premier composer, Sir Arthur Sullivan, was asked to set the poem to music. Sullivan had written some 20 operas, including fourteen comic operas with W. S. Gilbert, a large volume of songs, orchestral pieces and other music. Although he was in the middle of composing his next opera, The Rose of Persia, Sullivan agreed. Both Kipling and Sullivan declined proffered fees for creating the song. Artist Richard Caton Woodville, within several days, provided an illustration, titled "A Gentleman in Kharki", showing a wounded but defiant British Tommy in battle; this illustration was included in "art editions" of the song. In 1897, Sullivan had agreed to compose music for Kipling's poem Recessional, but he never completed the song.
When asked to set "The Absent-Minded Beggar" to music two years Sullivan found Kipling's verses so difficult to set that he told his diary, "if it wasn't for charity's sake, I could never have undertaken the task". Still, the experienced composer completed the music in four days, on 5 November 1899, it was published by Enoch & Sons for the Daily Mail; the first public performance was sung by John Coates, under Sullivan's baton, at the Alhambra Theatre on 13 November 1899, to a "magnificent reception" of an overflowing theatre. In 1900, "Kipling travelled to South Africa to help distribute the supplies bought with the funds raised by the song." Sullivan's music captured Britain's jingoistic mood, his diary entry notes, "Wild enthusiasm. All sang chorus! I stood on the stage and conducted the encore – funny sight!" With characteristic grace, the composer wrote to Kipling, "Your splendid words went with a swing and enthusiasm which my music cannot stifle". Kipling, on the other hand, described the music as "a tune guaranteed to pull teeth out of barrel-organs".
The Daily Chronicle wrote that "It has not been that the greatest of English writers and the greatest of Engl
County Dublin is one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland. Prior to 1994 it was an administrative county covering the whole county outside of Dublin City Council. In 1994, as part of a reorganisation of local government within Dublin the boundaries of Dublin City were redrawn, Dublin County Council was abolished and three new administrative county councils were established: Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and South Dublin. While it is no longer used as an administrative division for local government but retains a strong identity in popular culture, it is in the province of Leinster, is named after the city of Dublin, the capital city of Ireland. County Dublin was one of the first parts of Ireland to be shired by John, King of England following the Norman invasion of Ireland. According to the 2016 census, the total population of County Dublin was 1,345,402; the county is a NUTS 3 region, is part of the NUTS 2 region of Eastern and Midland. There are four local authorities whose remit collectively encompasses the geographic area of the county and city of Dublin.
These are Dublin City Council, South Dublin County Council, Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council and Fingal County Council. Prior to the enactment of the Local Government Act 1993, the county was a unified whole though it was administered by two local authorities – Dublin County Council and Dublin Corporation. Since the enactment of the Local Government Act 2001 in particular, the geographic area of the county has been divided between three entities at the level of "county" and a further entity at the level of "city", they rank as first level local administrative units of the NUTS 3 Dublin Region for Eurostat purposes. There are 34 LAU 1 entities in the Republic of Ireland; each local authority is responsible for certain local services such as sanitation and development, the collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing. Dublin County Council was abolished in 1994 and the area divided among the administrative counties of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and South Dublin each with its county seat.
To these areas may be added the area of Dublin city which collectively comprise the Dublin Region and come under the remit of the Dublin Regional Authority. The area lost its administrative county status in 1994, with Section 9 Part 1 of the Local Government Act, 1993 stating that "the county shall cease to exist." In discussing the legislation to dissolve Dublin County Council, Avril Doyle TD said, "The Bill before us today abolishes County Dublin, as one born and bred in these parts of Ireland I find it rather strange that we in this House are abolishing County Dublin. I am not sure whether Dubliners realise that, what we are about today, but in effect, the case."The county is part of the Dublin constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the area of the county is divided into eleven constituencies: Dublin Bay North, Dublin Bay South, Dublin Central, Dublin Fingal, Dublin Mid-West, Dublin North-West, Dublin Rathdown, Dublin South-Central, Dublin South-West, Dublin West, Dún Laoghaire.
Together they return 44 deputies to the Dáil. Despite the legal status of the Dublin Region, the term "County Dublin" is still in common usage. Many organisations and sporting teams continue to organise on a "County Dublin" or "Dublin Region" basis; the area known as "County Dublin" is now defined in legislation as the "Dublin Region" under the Local Government Act, 1991 Order, 1993, this is the terminology used by the four Dublin administrative councils in press releases concerning the former county area. The term Greater Dublin Area, which might consist of some or all of the Dublin Region along with counties of Kildare and Wicklow, has no legal standing; the Dublin Region is a NUTS Level III region of Ireland. The region is one of eight regions of the Republic of Ireland for the purposes of Eurostat statistics, its NUTS code is IE061. It is co-extensive with the old county; the regional capital is Dublin City, the national capital. The latest Ordnance Survey Ireland "Discovery Series" 1:50,000 map of the Dublin Region, Sheet 50, shows the boundaries of the city and three surrounding counties of the region.
Extremities of the Dublin Region, in the north and south of the region, appear in other sheets of the series, 43 and 56 respectively. Local radio stations include 98FM, FM104, 103.2 Dublin City FM, Q102, SPIN 1038, Sunshine 106.8, TXFM, Raidió Na Life and Radio Nova. Local newspapers include Northside People, Southside People and the Liffey Champion. Most of the area can receive the five main UK television channels as well as the main Irish channels, along with Sky TV and Virgin Media Ireland cable television. Road: The major roads are the N2, N3, N4 and N7 national primary roads, the M1, M11 and M50 motorways. Heavy rail: The InterCity and Commuter rail services. Light rail: The Luas tram system serving Dublin City and its southern and western suburbs. Rapid transit: The DART and the proposed Dublin Metro line. Port: Dublin Port and Dún Laoghaire Harbour. Air: Dublin International Airport; the economy of County Dublin was identified as being the powerhouse behind the Celtic Tiger, a period of strong economic growth of the state.
This resulted in the economy of the county expanding by 100% between the early 1990s and 2007. This growth resulted from incoming high-value industries, such as financial services and software manufacturing, as well as low-skilled retail and domestic services, w
Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan MVO was an English composer. He is best known for 14 operatic collaborations with the dramatist W. S. Gilbert, including H. M. S. Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado, his works include 24 operas, 11 major orchestral works, ten choral works and oratorios, two ballets, incidental music to several plays, numerous church pieces and piano and chamber pieces. His hymns and songs include "Onward, Christian Soldiers" and "The Lost Chord"; the son of a military bandmaster, Sullivan composed his first anthem at the age of eight and was a soloist in the boys' choir of the Chapel Royal. In 1856, at 14, he was awarded the first Mendelssohn Scholarship by the Royal Academy of Music, which allowed him to study at the academy and at the Leipzig Conservatoire in Germany, his graduation piece, incidental music to Shakespeare's The Tempest, was received with acclaim on its first performance in London. Among his early major works were a ballet, L'Île Enchantée, a symphony, a cello concerto and his Overture di Ballo.
To supplement the income from his concert works he wrote hymns, parlour ballads and other light pieces, worked as a church organist and music teacher. In 1866 Sullivan composed a one-act comic opera and Box, still performed, he wrote his first opera with W. S. Gilbert, Thespis, in 1871. Four years the impresario Richard D'Oyly Carte engaged Gilbert and Sullivan to create a one-act piece, Trial by Jury, its box-office success led to a series of twelve full-length comic operas by the collaborators. After the extraordinary success of H. M. S. Pinafore and The Pirates of Penzance, Carte used his profits from the partnership to build the Savoy Theatre in 1881, their joint works became known as the Savoy operas. Among the best known of the operas are The Mikado and The Gondoliers. Gilbert broke from Sullivan and Carte after a quarrel over expenses at the Savoy, they reunited in the 1890s for two more operas, but these did not achieve the popularity of their earlier works. Sullivan's infrequent serious pieces during the 1880s included two cantatas, The Martyr of Antioch and The Golden Legend, his most popular choral work.
He wrote incidental music for West End productions of several Shakespeare plays and held conducting and academic appointments. Sullivan's only grand opera, though successful in 1891, has been revived. In his last decade Sullivan continued to compose comic operas with various librettists and wrote other major and minor works, he died at the age of 58, regarded as Britain's foremost composer. His comic opera style served as a model for generations of musical theatre composers that followed, his music is still performed and pastiched. Sullivan was born in Lambeth, the younger of the two children, both boys, of Thomas Sullivan and his wife, Mary Clementina née Coghlan, his father was a military bandmaster and music teacher, born in Ireland and raised in Chelsea, London. Thomas Sullivan was based from 1845 to 1857 at the Royal Military College, where he was the bandmaster and taught music to supplement his income. Young Arthur became proficient with many of the instruments in the band and composed an anthem, "By the Waters of Babylon", when he was eight.
He recalled: I was intensely interested in all that the band did, learned to play every wind instrument, with which I formed not a passing acquaintance, but a real, life-long, intimate friendship. I learned the peculiarities of each... What it could do and what it was unable to do. I learned in the best possible way. While recognising the boy's obvious talent, his father knew the insecurity of a musical career and discouraged him from pursuing it. Sullivan studied at a private school in Bayswater. In 1854 he persuaded his parents and the headmaster to allow him to apply for membership in the choir of the Chapel Royal. Despite concerns that, at nearly 12 years of age, Sullivan was too old to give much service as a treble before his voice broke, he was accepted and soon became a soloist. By 1856, he was promoted to "first boy". At this age, his health was delicate, he was fatigued. Sullivan flourished under the training of the Reverend Thomas Helmore, Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal, began to write anthems and songs.
Helmore encouraged his compositional talent and arranged for one of his pieces, "O Israel", to be published in 1855, his first published work. Helmore enlisted Sullivan's assistance in creating harmonisations for a volume of The Hymnal Noted and arranged for the boy's compositions to be performed. In 1856 the Royal Academy of Music awarded the first Mendelssohn Scholarship to the 14-year-old Sullivan, granting him a year's training at the academy, his principal teacher there was John Goss, whose own teacher, Thomas Attwood, had been a pupil of Mozart. He studied piano with William Sterndale Arthur O'Leary. During this first year at the academy Sullivan continued to sing solos with the Chapel Royal, which provided a small amount of spending money. Sullivan's scholarship was extended to a second year, in 1858, in what his biographer Arthur Jacobs calls an "extraordinary gesture of confidence", the scholarship committee extended his grant for a third year so that he could study in Germany, at the Leipzig Conservatoire.
There, Sullivan studied composition with Julius Rietz and Carl Reinecke, c