SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Alfred Russel Wallace

Alfred Russel Wallace was a British naturalist, geographer, anthropologist and illustrator. He is best known for independently conceiving the theory of evolution through natural selection; this prompted Darwin to publish his own ideas in On the Origin of Species. Like Darwin, Wallace did extensive fieldwork, he was considered the 19th century's leading expert on the geographical distribution of animal species and is sometimes called the "father of biogeography". Wallace was one of the leading evolutionary thinkers of the 19th century and made many other contributions to the development of evolutionary theory besides being co-discoverer of natural selection; these included the concept of warning colouration in animals, the Wallace effect, a hypothesis on how natural selection could contribute to speciation by encouraging the development of barriers against hybridisation. Wallace's 1904 book Man's Place in the Universe was the first serious attempt by a biologist to evaluate the likelihood of life on other planets.

He was one of the first scientists to write a serious exploration of the subject of whether there was life on Mars. Wallace was attracted to unconventional ideas, his advocacy of spiritualism and his belief in a non-material origin for the higher mental faculties of humans strained his relationship with some members of the scientific establishment. Aside from scientific work, he was a social activist, critical of what he considered to be an unjust social and economic system in 19th-century Britain, his interest in natural history resulted in his being one of the first prominent scientists to raise concerns over the environmental impact of human activity. He was a prolific author who wrote on both scientific and social issues. Since its publication in 1869, it has never been out of print. Wallace had financial difficulties throughout much of his life, his Amazon and Far Eastern trips were supported by the sale of specimens he collected and, after he lost most of the considerable money he made from those sales in unsuccessful investments, he had to support himself from the publications he produced.

Unlike some of his contemporaries in the British scientific community, such as Darwin and Charles Lyell, he had no family wealth to fall back on, he was unsuccessful in finding a long-term salaried position, receiving no regular income until he was awarded a small government pension, through Darwin's efforts, in 1881. Alfred Wallace was born in the Welsh village near Usk, Monmouthshire, he was the eighth of nine children of Mary Anne Greenell. Mary Anne was English, his family, like many Wallaces, claimed a connection to William Wallace, a leader of Scottish forces during the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 13th century. Thomas Wallace never practised law, he owned some income-generating property, but bad investments and failed business ventures resulted in a steady deterioration of the family's financial position. His mother was from a middle-class English family from Hertford, north of London; when Wallace was five years old, his family moved to Hertford. There he attended Hertford Grammar School until financial difficulties forced his family to withdraw him in 1836 when he was aged 14.

Wallace moved to London to board with his older brother John, a 19-year-old apprentice builder. This was a stopgap measure until William, his oldest brother, was ready to take him on as an apprentice surveyor. While in London, Alfred attended lectures and read books at the London Mechanics Institute. Here he was exposed to the radical political ideas of the Welsh social reformer Robert Owen and of Thomas Paine, he left London in 1837 to work as his apprentice for six years. At the end of 1839, they moved to Kington, near the Welsh border, before settling at Neath in Glamorgan in Wales. Between 1840 and 1843, Wallace did land surveying work in the countryside of the west of England and Wales. By the end of 1843, William's business had declined due to difficult economic conditions, Wallace, at the age of 20, left in January. One result of Wallace's early travels is a modern controversy about his nationality. Since Wallace was born in Monmouthshire, some sources have considered him to be Welsh. However, some historians have questioned this because neither of his parents was Welsh, his family only lived in Monmouthshire, the Welsh people Wallace knew in his childhood considered him to be English, because Wallace himself referred to himself as English rather than Welsh.

One Wallace scholar has stated that the most reasonable interpretation is therefore that he was an Englishman born in Wales. After a brief period of unemployment, he was hired as a master at the Collegiate School in Leicester to teach drawing and surveying. Wallace spent many hours at the library in Leicester: he read An Essay on the Principle of Population by Thomas Robert Malthus, one evening he met the entomologist Henry Bates. Bates was 19

August 1978 papal conclave

The papal conclave of August 1978, the first of the two conclaves held that year, was convoked after the death of Pope Paul VI on 6 August 1978 at Castel Gandolfo. After the cardinal electors assembled in Rome, they elected Cardinal Albino Luciani, Patriarch of Venice, as the new pope on the fourth ballot, he took the name of John Paul. It was the first conclave since the promulgation of Ingravescentem aetatem, which made cardinals who had reached the age of 80 by the day the conclave began ineligible to participate in the balloting. There were 15 cardinals excluded by that rule; the number of votes cast for Luciani on the final ballot was so great that the uniform opposition of these cardinals would not have changed the outcome. Among the papabili, or top candidates, were Sergio Pignedoli, President of the Secretariat for non Christians, Giuseppe Siri of Genoa, Corrado Ursi of Naples. Others named Giovanni Benelli of Florence, until Vatican Secretary of State, Sebastiano Baggio, Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops, non-cardinal Anastasio Ballestrero, Archbishop of Turin.

The non-Italian most mentioned was Johannes Willebrands, Archbishop of Utrecht. Aloísio Lorscheider of Brazil, head of the Episcopal Conference of Latin America, favored Albino Luciani, the Patriarch of Venice, while Luciani is believed to have favoured Lorscheider. Time reported that the Dean of the College, Carlo Confalonieri, excluded from participating because of age, had been the first to suggest Luciani; the conclave was held for two days from 25 August 1978 to 26 August 1978 at the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. Cardinal John Wright, an official of the Roman Curia, was in the U. S. for medical treatments and unable to attend. Proceedings on 25 August 1978 included a Mass celebrated at St. Peter's Basilica by the cardinal electors for divine guidance in their task to elect Pope Paul's successor. Six hours the cardinals processed into the Sistine Chapel whilst the chapel choir sang the hymn Veni Creator Spiritus. Monsignor Virgilio Noè, the Papal Master of Ceremonies, gave the traditional command of Extra omnes, the doors were locked, the actual conclave began, with Cardinal Villot presiding due to being the senior Cardinal bishop in attendance.

The chapel windows remained closed, some sealed, the summer heat was oppressive. Belgian Cardinal Leo Suenens wrote: "My room was an oven. My cell was a kind of sauna." The conclave of August 1978 was the largest assembled. To accommodate the electors, the traditional canopied thrones were replaced with twelve long tables. Karol Wojtyła, Aloísio Lorscheider, Bernardin Gantin served as scrutineers during the balloting. Luciani had told his secretary. During the third ballot, Johannes Willebrands and António Ribeiro, who sat on either side of Luciani, whispered words of encouragement to him as he continued to receive more votes. Jaime Sin told Luciani "You will be the new pope". Luciani was elected on the fourth ballot and when Jean-Marie Villot asked Luciani whether he accepted his election he said, "May God forgive you for what you have done" and accepted his election. In honor of his two immediate predecessors, he took John Paul as his regnal name. After the election when Cardinal Sin paid him homage, the new pope said: "You were a prophet, but my reign will be a short one".

On 26 August 1978 at 6:24 p.m. local time, the first signs of smoke appeared from the chimney of the Sistine Chapel. It was unclear for over an hour whether the smoke was white to indicate a pope had been elected or black to indicate that balloting would continue; some of the cardinals had deposited their notes and tally sheets in the stove, darkening what should have been white smoke. Pericle Felici, as the ranking Cardinal Deacon stepped onto the balcony of St. Peter's Basilica and delivered the Habemus Papam in Latin, announcing Luciani's election. At 7:31 p.m. John Paul I gave his blessing; when he appeared about to address the crowd, he was reminded, not traditional, he withdrew without speaking further. He invited the cardinal electors to remain in conclave for another night and dined with them, occupying the same chair as he had at their earlier group dinners; this was the first conclave since 1721 in which three future popes participated–John Paul I, John Paul II, Benedict XVI–and the first since 1829 in which two did so.

Several authors have provided. Cardinals were not required to destroy notes. Yallop tallyAs presented by David Yallop. First Ballot: Siri 25, Luciani 23, Pignedoli 18, Lorscheider 12, Baggio 9, scattered 24. Second Ballot: Siri 35, Luciani 30, Pignedoli 15, Lorscheider 12, scattered 19. Third Ballot: Luciani 68, Siri 15, Pignedoli 10, scattered 18. Fourth Ballot: Luciani 99, Siri 11, Lorscheider 1. Burkle-Young tallyAs presented by Francis A. Burkle-Young, based on the notes of Cardinal Mario Casariego, Archbishop of Guatemala City. First Ballot: Siri 25, Luciani 23, Pignedoli 18, Baggio 9, König 8, Bertoli 5, Pironio 4, Felici 2, Lorscheider 2, 15 others one each. Second Ballot: Luciani 53, Siri 24, Pignedoli 15, Baggio, Wojtyła 4 each, Felici 3. Third Ballot: Luciani 92, Pignedoli 17, Lorscheider 2. Fourth Ballot: Luciani 102, Lorscheider 1, Nemini 8. Thomas-Witts tallyAs presented by Max Morgan-Witts. First Ballot: same as Burkle-Young's count except 5 votes for Pironio, fourteen candidates with 1.

Second Ballot: Luciani 46, Pignedoli 19, Lorscheider 14, Baggio 11, Bertoli 4

Spellbound (Tygers of Pan Tang album)

Spellbound is the second album by British heavy metal band Tygers of Pan Tang, produced in 1981 on MCA. Spellbound is the first of two full length Tygers of Pan Tang albums to feature as second guitarist John Sykes, who joined Thin Lizzy and Whitesnake, it is the first album with vocalist Jon Deverill. The album was re-issued in 1989 in a double-LP package with Wild Cat and on CD in 1997 with bonus tracks."Hellbound" was covered by American thrash metal band Heathen as a bonus track for the album Victims of Deception as well as German NWOBHM tribute act Roxxcalibur on their 2011 sophomore release, Lords of the NWOBHM, while "Gangland" was covered by German thrash metal band Kreator in 1987 on their "Behind the Mirror" single and on 1988 EP Out of the Dark... Into the Light. "Gangland" was covered by Belgian combat metal band Fireforce in 2014 on their "Deathbringer" album. All songs written by Tygers of Pan Tang except. Side one"Gangland" - 3:43 "Take It" - 4:27 "Minotaur" - 0:22 "Hellbound" - 3:30 "Mirror" - 4:34Side two"Silver and Gold" - 3:35 "Blackjack" - 3:15 * "The Story So Far" - 3:29 "Tyger Bay" - 3:28 * "Don't Stop By" - 4:04Tracks 7 and 9 were switched on the 1989 Double LP vinyl re-issue and 1989 CD re-issue.1997 CD re-issue bonus tracks"All or Nothing" - 2:44 "Don't Give a Damn" - 4:32 "Bad Times" - 2:41 "It Ain't Easy" - 4:03 "Don't Take Nothing" - 2:46 Band membersJon Deverill – lead and backing vocals Robb Weir – lead guitar, backing vocals John Sykes – lead guitar, backing vocals Richard "Rocky" Laws – bass, backing vocals Brian "Big" Dick – drumsProductionChris Tsangarides – producer, engineer Andrew Warwick – assistant engineer