Kingdom of Italy
The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866, Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. Fascist Italy is the era of National Fascist Party rule from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government, according to Payne, Fascist regime passed through several relatively distinct phases. The first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, came the second phase, the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper from 1925 to 1929. The third phase, with activism, was 1929–34. The war itself was the phase with its disasters and defeats. Italy was allied with Nazi Germany in World War II until 1943 and it switched sides to the Allies after ousting Mussolini and shutting down the Fascist party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders.
Shortly after the war, civil discontent led to the referendum of 1946 on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which is modern-day Italy. The development of the Kingdoms territory progressed under Italian re-unification until 1870, the state for a long period of time did not include Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which are in Italy today, and only annexed them in 1919. After the Second World War, the borders of present-day Italy were founded, the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch, as executed through appointed ministers, two chambers of parliament restricted the monarchs power—an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdoms constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king.
However, in practice, it was impossible for an Italian government to stay in office without the support of Parliament, members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected by plurality voting system elections in uninominal districts. A candidate needed the support of 50% of those voting, and of 25% of all enrolled voters, if not all seats were filled on the first ballot, a runoff was held shortly afterwards for the remaining vacancies. After a brief multinominal experimentation in 1882, proportional representation into large, Socialists became the major party, but they were unable to form a government in a parliament split into three different factions, with Christian Populists and classical liberals
Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. One of Ferraris cars, the 360 Modena, was named after the town itself, the University of Modena, founded in 1175 and expanded by Francesco II dEste in 1686, has traditional strengths in economics and law and is the second oldest athenaeum in Italy. Italian military officers are trained at the Military Academy of Modena, the Biblioteca Estense houses historical volumes and 3,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Modena, the Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997, Modena is known in culinary circles for its production of balsamic vinegar. Modena lies on the Pianura Padana, and is bounded by the two rivers Secchia and Panaro, both affluents of the Po River and their presence is symbolized by the Two Rivers Fountain in the citys center, by Giuseppe Graziosi. The city is connected to the Panaro by the Naviglio channel, the Apennines begin some 10 kilometres from the city, to the south.
The commune is divided into four circoscrizioni and these are, Centro storico Crocetta Buon Pastore San Faustino Modena has a humid subtropical climate, with an average annual precipitation of 809 millimetres. Summers are warm and winters are chilly and wetter, with the possibility of snowfall and this climate is described by the Köppen climate classification as Cfa. From 1945 to 1992, Modena had a consecutive series of Communist mayors. From the 1990s, the city has been governed by center-left coalitions, at the April 2006 elections, the city of Modena gave about 50% of its votes to the Democratic Party. The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council which is composed by 35 members elected every five years, Modenas executive body is the City Committee composed by 9 assessors, the deputy-mayor and the mayor. The current mayor of Modena is Giancarlo Muzzarelli, member of the Democratic Party of Italy, the territory around Modena was inhabited by the Villanovans in the Iron Age, and by Ligurian tribes and the Gaulish Boii.
Livy described it as a fortified citadel where Roman magistrates took shelter, the outcome of the siege is not known, but the city was most likely abandoned after Hannibals arrival. Mutina was refounded as a Roman colony in 183 BC, to be used as a base by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. In the 1st century BC Mutina was besieged twice, the first siege was by Pompey in 78 BC, when Mutina was defended by Marcus Junius Brutus. The city eventually surrendered out of hunger, and Brutus fled, in the civil war following Caesars assassination, the city was besieged again, this time by Mark Antony, in 44 BC, and defended by Decimus Junius Brutus. Octavian relieved the city with the help of the Senate, cicero called it Mutina splendidissima in his Philippics. It is said that Mutina was never sacked by Attila, for a dense fog hid it, as of December 2008, Italian researchers have discovered the pottery center where the oil lamps that lit the ancient Roman empire were made
Alfa Romeo in motorsport
During its history, Alfa Romeo has competed successfully in many different categories of motorsport, including Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing and rallies. They have competed both as a constructor and a supplier, via works entries and private entries. The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of A. L. F. A, the 40-60HP had 6 liter straight-4 engine. Alfa Romeo quickly gained a name in motorsport and gave a sporty image to the whole marque. Alfa Romeo started motor racing almost immediately after it was founded, ventured into motor racing in 1911, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the Targa Florio with two 24 HP models. The marques first success came in 1913 when Nino Franchini finished second in Parma-Poggio Berceto race with a 40-60HP, Giuseppe Merosi built a very advanced racing car in 1914, which was named Grand Prix. In 1920 Giuseppe Campari won the race at Mugello with a 40-60HP, a year Giuseppe Campari won at Mugello again.
Ugo Sivocci won the 1923 Targa Florio with an RL and Antonio Ascari took second, sivoccis car was painted with the green cloverleaf on a white background that was to become Alfas good luck token. In 1923 Vittorio Jano was lured to Alfa from Fiat, designing the motors that gave Alfa racing success into the late 1930s, in 1925 Alfa Romeo won the first Automobile World Championship in the history of automobile racing. Over 4 rounds the Alfa Romeo P2 won the European Grand Prix at Spa and the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, and hence incorporated the laurel wreath in their logo. For 1932 Jano produced the sensational P3 which won its first race driven by Tazio Nuvolari at the Italian Grand Prix,5 more Grands Prix that year were shared by Nuvolari and Rudolf Caracciola. Alfa Corse closed for 1933 and locked the cars in the factory, P3s won six of the final 11 events of the season including the final 2 major Grands Prix in Italy and Spain. In 1934 Louis Chiron won the French Grand Prix in the P3 whilst the German Silver Arrows dominated the other 4 championship events, however the P3s won 18 of the 35 Grands Prix held throughout Europe.
The P3 managed 16 victories in 1935, in the 1930s Tazio Nuvolari won the Mille Miglia in a 6C1750, crossing the finishing line after having incredibly overtaken Achille Varzi without lights. Alfa Romeos won the Targa Florio six times in row in the 1930s, and the Mille Miglia every year from 1928 to 1938 except for 1931. In 1935 Alfa Romeo won the German Grand Prix with Nuvolari, in 1938 Biondetti won the Mille Miglia in an 8C 2900B Corto Spider, thereafter referred to as the Mille Miglia model. Alfa Romeo participated in Formula One, both as a constructor and engine supplier, from 1950 to 1988. The works Alfa Romeo team dominated the first two years of the Formula One World Championship, using the pre-war Alfetta, but withdrew from Formula One at the end of 1951
Alfredo Baldomir Ferrari was an Uruguayan soldier and politician. He served as President of Uruguay from 1938 to 1943 and is most notable for leading Uruguay to support the Allies during World War II and he joined the army in 1900 and studied architecture and engineering. He designed many buildings in Uruguay, eventually directed the army corps of engineers. By 1930, Baldomir was becoming involved in politics and he was elected President of Uruguay in 1938 as a member of the long-ruling Colorado Party. He took office as President on June 19,1938, the Vice President of Uruguay during his period of Presidential office was Alfredo Navarro, Baldomir set a high priority in involving Uruguay in international affairs, and appointed the famous diplomat Alberto Guani as foreign minister. As World War II broke out, Baldomir discouraged support for the Axis within the country, in 1942, now a general in the army, expanded his powers through a military coup dissolving parliament and declaring an emergency.
His term, which was soon to expire, was extended for a year, soon a new Constitution came into force. In 1943, Baldomir voluntarily held elections and gave up power, Baldomir retired from office on March 1,1943. Five years he died of an illness in Montevideo, baldomirs actions to identity Uruguay with the Allied cause in World War II have lessened his reputation as a controversial historical figure. It may be noted that he was a supporter of the previous President of Uruguay Gabriel Terra. Constitution of Uruguay of 1942 Politics of Uruguay
A V6 engine is a V engine with six cylinders mounted on the crankshaft in two banks of three cylinders, usually set at either a 60 or 90 degree angle to each other. The V6 is one of the most compact engine configurations, usually ranging from 2.0 L to 4.3 L displacement, shorter than the inline 4, because of its short length, the V6 fits well in the widely used transverse engine front-wheel drive layout. The V6 engine has become widely adopted for medium-sized cars, often as an engine where an inline 4 is standard. Modern V6 engines commonly range in displacement from 2.0 to 4.3 L, though larger and smaller examples have been produced, such as the 1991 Mazda MX3, some of the first V6-powered automobiles were built in 1905 by Marmon. This firm became something of a V-engine specialist, beginning with V2 engines, V4s, V6s, V8s, and, in the 1930s, Marmon was one of the few automakers of the world to offer a V16-powered automobile. From 1908 to 1913 the Deutz Gasmotoren Fabrik produced benzene electric train sets used a V6 as generator engine.
Another V6-powered car was designed in 1918 by Leo Goosen for Buick Chief Engineer Walter L. Marr, only one prototype Buick V6 car was built in 1918, it was long used by the Marr family. The first series-production V6 was introduced by Lancia in 1950 with the Lancia Aurelia model, Lancia sought a smoother and more powerful engine that would fit into an existing narrow engine bay. A Lancia engineer, Francesco De Virgilio, began analyzing the vibration of alternative V-angles for a V6 engine in 1943 and he found that a V6 with its cylinders positioned at a 60° V-angle could be made uniquely smooth-running in comparison with other possible V-angles. There was resistance to his conclusion, because the V6 was a virtually unknown engine type in the 1950s and his design featured four main bearings and six crankpins, resulting in evenly spaced firing intervals and low vibrations. Other manufacturers took note and soon other V6 engines were designed, the use of the sweet spot of 60 degrees V-angle maximized power while minimizing vibration and exterior dimensions of the engine.
In short, GMC introduced a compact V6 design at a time when the engine was considered the pinnacle of 6-cylinder design. To save design time and expense, it was much like a V8 that had two cylinders chopped off. This uneven firing caused harmonic vibrations in the train that were perceived as a rough-running engine by the buyers. GM sold the tooling to Kaiser-Jeep in 1967, later, as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. In 1977, Buick introduced a split pin crankshaft to implement a version of this engine in which cylinders fired consistently every 120°. The V6 does not have the inherent freedom from vibration that the inline-six and flat-six have, counterweights on the crankshaft and a counter rotating balance shaft are required to compensate for the first order rocking motions. This causes an end-to-end rocking motion at crankshaft speed in a straight-three engine and this results in an engine which is short and relatively smooth, but too wide for most engine compartments
Dino was a marque for mid-engined, rear-drive sports cars produced by Ferrari from 1968 to 1976. Used for models with engines with fewer than 12 cylinders, it was an attempt by the company to offer a relatively low-cost sports car. The Ferrari name remained reserved for its premium V-12 and flat 12 models until 1976,246 being a 2. 4-litre 6-cylinder and 308 being a 3. 0-litre 8-cylinder. The Dino marque was created to market a lower priced, affordable sports car capable of taking on the Porsche 911, Ferraris expensive V12s well exceeded the 911 in both performance and price. Enzo did not want to diminish his exclusive brand with a cheaper car, the name Dino honours the founders late son, Alfredo Dino Ferrari, credited with designing the V6 engine used by the marque. Along with famed engineer Vittorio Jano, Dino influenced Enzo Ferraris decision to produce a line of racing cars in the 1950s, with V6, history shows that Alfredo Ferrari did not have a hand in the actual design of the V6 motor that made its way into the Dino.
Ferrari wished to race in the new 1.6 L Formula 2 category in 1967 with the Dino V6 engine, the company could not meet the homologation rules which called for 500 production vehicles using the engine to be produced. Enzo Ferrari therefore asked Fiat to co-produce a sports car using the V6, and it used a 2.0 L version of the Dino V6, allowing Ferrari to compete in the category. At the time, the thought of using a layout in a production car was quite daring. A mid-engined layout placed more of the weight over the driven wheels, and allowed for a streamlined nose. Lamborghini created a stir in 1966 with its mid-engined Miura, eventually he relented, and allowed designer Sergio Pininfarina to build a mid-engined concept for the 1965 Paris Motor Show, but demanded that it wear the Dino badge alone. The 1966 Turin car show featured a refined Dino 206S, the Turin 206S was a closer prototype to the actual production version. Response to the radically styled car was positive, so Ferrari allowed it to go into production, the Dino 246 was the first Ferrari model produced in high numbers.
The first road-going Dino as well as the first Ferrari-built road car was the 1968 Dino 206 GT, the 206 GT used a transverse-mounted 2.0 L all-aluminium 65-degree V6 engine, with 180 PS at 8,000 rpm, the same used in the Fiat Dino. The 206 GT frame featured a body, full independent suspension. 152 were built in total during 1968 and 1969, in left hand drive only, in 1969 the 206 GT was superseded by the more powerful Dino 246 GT. The 246 GT was powered by an enlarged 2.4 L V6 engine, initially available as a fixed-top GT coupé, a targa topped GTS was offered after 1971. Other notable changes from the 206 were the body, now made of steel instead of aluminium, three series of the Dino 246 GT were built, with differences in wheels, windshield wiper coverage, and engine ventilation
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database that is similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the placed on the Compact Disc Database. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become an open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their works, and the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, and these entries are maintained by volunteer editors who follow community written style guidelines. Recorded works can store information about the date and country. As of 26 July 2016, MusicBrainz contained information about roughly 1.1 million artists,1.6 million releases, end-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC. As with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge for maintaining and reviewing the data, besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint.
A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this, in 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatables patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching. This feature attracted many users and allowed the database to grow quickly, however, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions. This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, tRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND, some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought. The Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský, while AcoustID and Chromaprint are not officially MusicBrainz projects, they are closely tied with each other and both are open source.
Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second, additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns. The AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity, since 2003, MusicBrainzs core data are in the public domain, and additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL, the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, in December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Vittorio Jano was an Italian automobile designer of Hungarian descent from the 1920s through 1960s. Jano was born Viktor János in San Giorgio Canavese, in Piedmont, to Hungarian immigrants and he began at the car and truck company Società Torinese Automobili Rapid owned by G. B. In 1911 he moved to Fiat under Luigi Bazzi and he moved with Bazzi to Alfa Romeo in 1923 to replace Giuseppe Merosi as chief engineer. At Alfa Romeo his first design was the 8-cylinder in-line mounted P2 Grand Prix car, in 1932, he produced the sensational P3 model which was raced with great success by Enzo Ferrari when he began Scuderia Ferrari in 1933. Among his designs at Lancia was the Grand Prix effort, the car, the Lancia D50, was introduced in 1954, but 1955s loss of Alberto Ascari and the 1955 Le Mans disaster soured the company to GP racing. Ferrari took over the effort and inherited Jano that same year, Janos contribution to Ferrari was significant. With the encouragement of Enzos son, Janos V6 and V8 engines pushed the older Lampredi, after Dinos death, Janos Dino V6 became the basis for the companys first mid-engined road car, the 1966206 Dino.
The V6 and V8 went on to displace Ferraris V12 focus, like Enzo Ferrari, Jano lost his own son in 1965. He became gravely ill that year and committed suicide in Turin. Grand Prix History – Hall of Fame, Vittorio Jano
A Ferrari Monza is one of a series of cars built by Ferrari. Inspired by the success of the light and reliable 2.5 L553 F1 car, one important stylistic difference between most four-cylinder Ferraris is that they lacked the hood scoops common on V12 models. The V12 cars used downdraft carburettors located centrally in the valley of the engine, while the inline-engined fours used side-draft units,1953 was a breakout year for Ferrari, beginning with the new World Sportscar Championship series. The company augmented their traditional V12-powered 250 MM with the new 340 MM and 375 MM, with this profusion of cars, Ferrari was able to sweep the first running of the sportscar championship. The first four-cylinder closed-wheel sports racer from Ferrari was the 625 TF of 1953, resembling the Vignale-designed 250 MM barchetta in most respects, the 625 TF used a 2.5 L straight-4 lifted from the 625 F1 car instead of the 250s 3.0 L V12. It was a car, with the same 2250 mm wheelbase as the 250. The engine produced 220 hp at 7000 rpm and could push the little roadster to over 240 km/h, the lightweight car debuted at the hands of Mike Hawthorn at Monza on June 29,1953.
Although it could not keep up on the long straights at that track, a single closed 625 TF coupe, one of the last Ferraris designed and built by Vignale, was created in the Spring of 1953. The same day that the 625 TF debuted, another car was fielded for Alberto Ascari, sporting an enlarged 2.9 L engine, Ascaris 735 S was more capable at Monza, leading the race until he collided with a 250 MM. The 735 S was a barchetta bodied by Carrozzeria Autodromo with recessed headlights, a drooping grille, the 1954 and 1955 seasons were the heyday of the four-cylinder Ferrari sports racer. The company hit its stride, earning the World Sportscar Championship in 1954, the Ferrari sports car lineup at the beginning of 1954 was made up of the 2.0 L500 Mondial and 3.0 L750 Monza. The team replaced the Mondial with the 500 TR that year, the planned V12 sports racer family, including the 250 Monza of 1954 and planned 410 S of 1955, were less notable. The early experiments with Lampredis four-cylinder engine led to the creation of the famed 500 Mondial.
Named to mark the world championships won by Alberto Ascari, the 500 Mondial featured a 2.0 L version of Lampredis four-cylinder engine in a small and light body with an advanced suspension. The car debuted on December 20,1953 at the 12 Hours of Casablanca driven by Ascari and Luigi Villoresi, the 500 Mondials 2.0 L engine was taken from the 500 F2 which won the world championship but was detuned to produce 170 hp. It was extremely light at 720 kg and handled well with a modern de Dion tube rear suspension, the first 500 Mondials were coupes bodied by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, but Pinin Farina created a series of barchettas. The Mondial remained competitive through the end of the decade, including an entry in the 1957 Mille Miglia, the car won the prestigious Gran Turismo Trophy at the 2012 Pebble Beach Concours dElegance, meaning it will eventually be re-created for use in Gran Turismo 6. 1954 saw the introduction of a new sports racer, the 750 Monza
Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari
The Autodromo Internazionale Enzo e Dino Ferrari is an auto racing circuit near the Italian town of Imola,40 kilometres east of Bologna and 80 kilometres east of the Ferrari factory in Maranello. The circuit is named after Ferraris late founder Enzo and his son Dino who had died in the 1950s, before Enzo Ferraris death in 1988 it was called Autodromo Dino Ferrari. The circuit has FIA Grade 1 license and it was the venue for the Formula One San Marino Grand Prix and it hosted the 1980 edition of the Italian Grand Prix, which usually takes place in Monza. When Formula One visits Imola, it is seen as the circuit of Ferrari. Imola, as it is known, is one of the few major international circuits to run in an anti-clockwise direction. In April 1953, the first motorcycle races took place, while the first car took place in June 1954. In April 1963, the circuit hosted its first Formula One race, as a non-championship event, a further non-championship event took place at Imola in 1979, which was won by Niki Lauda for Brabham-Alfa Romeo.
In 1980 Imola officially debuted in the Formula One calendar by hosting the 50th Italian Grand Prix and it was the first time since the 1948 Edition held at Parco del Valentino that the Autodromo Nazionale Monza did not host the Italian Grand Prix. The race was won by Nelson Piquet and it was such a success that a new race, the race was held over 60 laps of the 5 kilometre circuit for a total race distance of 300 kilometres. In addition Adornis countryman Michele Dancelli took the bronze and five of the top six finishers were Italian, the circuit was used for stage 11 of the 2015 Giro dItalia, which was won by Ilnur Zakarin. In 1987, Nelson Piquet had an accident there during practice, in the 1989 San Marino Grand Prix, Gerhard Berger crashed his Ferrari at Tamburello after a front wing failure. The car caught fire after the impact but thanks to the quick work of the firefighters. Michele Alboreto had an accident at the Tamburello corner testing his Footwork Arrows at the circuit in 1991. Riccardo Patrese had an accident at the Tamburello corner in 1992 while testing for the Williams team, and of course the death of Ayrton Senna on May 1,1994 sealed the fate of the corner being run flat out ever again.
The tragedy continued the day, when the three-time World Champion Ayrton Senna lost control of his car. He succumbed shortly after impact as a piece of the car had pierced his helmet, in two unrelated incidents, several spectators and mechanics were injured during the event. In the aftermath, the continued to host Grands Prix. The flat-out Tamburello corner was reduced to a 4th gear left-right sweeper, Villeneuve corner, previously an innocuous 6th gear right-hander into Tosa, was made a complementary 4th gear sweeper, with a gravel trap on the outside of the corner
He was widely known as il Commendatore or il Drake. In his final years he was referred to as lIngegnere or il Grande Vecchio. Ferrari was born on 18 February 1898 in Modena and his birth certificate had recorded his birth date on 20 February because a heavy snowstorm had prevented his father from reporting the birth at the local registry office. He was the younger of two children to Alfredo and Adalgisa Ferrari, after his elder sibling Alfredo Junior, Alfredo Senior was the son of a grocer from Carpi and started a workshop fabricating metal parts at the family home. Enzo grew up with formal education. At the age of 10 he witnessed Felice Nazzaros win at the 1908 Circuit di Bologna, during World War I he served in the 3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment of the Italian Army. His father Alfredo, and his brother, Alfredo Jr. died in 1916 as a result of a widespread Italian flu outbreak. Ferrari became severely sick himself in the 1918 flu pandemic and was discharged from Italian service. Following the familys carpentry business collapse, Ferrari started searching for a job in the car industry and he unsuccessfully volunteered his services to FIAT in Turin, eventually settling for a job as test-driver for C. M. N.
A car manufacturer in Milan, which rebuilt used truck bodies into small passenger cars, on November 23 of the same year, he took part in the Targa Florio but had to retire after his cars fuel tank developed a leak. The prancing horse emblem was created when Italian fighter pilot Francesco Baracca was shot down during World War I, Baracca gave Enzo Ferrari a necklace with the prancing horse on it prior to takeoff. Baracca was tragically shot down and killed, in memory of his death, Enzo Ferrari used the prancing horse to create the emblem that would become the world famous Ferrari shield. However the world first saw this emblem on an Alfa Romeo as Ferrari was still tied up with Alfa Romeo and it was not until 1947 that the shield was first seen on a Ferrari. This was the birth of Ferrari, in 1924 Ferrari won the Coppa Acerbo at Pescara, a success that encouraged Alfa Romeo to offer him a chance to race in much more prestigious competitions. Ferrari himself continued racing until 1932, before he left Alfa Romeo to found Scuderia Ferrari, despite the quality of the Scuderia drivers, the team struggled to compete with Auto Union and Mercedes.
In 1937 Alfa Romeo decided to regain control of its racing division. Unhappy with the arrangement, Ferrari left and founded Auto-Avio Costruzioni, with the outbreak of World War II in 1943, Ferraris factory was forced to undertake war production for Mussolinis fascist government. Following Allied bombing of the factory, Ferrari relocated from Modena to Maranello, at the end of the conflict, Ferrari decided to start making cars bearing his name, and founded Ferrari S. p. A. in 1947