SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Algae

Algae is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms that are not closely related, is thus polyphyletic. Included organisms range from unicellular microalgae, such as Chlorella and the diatoms, to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp, a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types, such as stomata and phloem, which are found in land plants; the largest and most complex marine algae are called seaweeds, while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta, a division of green algae which includes, for example and stoneworts. No definition of algae is accepted. One definition is that algae "have chlorophyll as their primary photosynthetic pigment and lack a sterile covering of cells around their reproductive cells". Although cyanobacteria are referred to as "blue-green algae", most authorities exclude all prokaryotes from the definition of algae. Algae constitute a polyphyletic group since they do not include a common ancestor, although their plastids seem to have a single origin, from cyanobacteria, they were acquired in different ways.

Green algae are examples of algae that have primary chloroplasts derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Diatoms and brown algae are examples of algae with secondary chloroplasts derived from an endosymbiotic red alga. Algae exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies, from simple asexual cell division to complex forms of sexual reproduction. Algae lack the various structures that characterize land plants, such as the phyllids of bryophytes, rhizoids in nonvascular plants, the roots and other organs found in tracheophytes. Most are phototrophic, although some are mixotrophic, deriving energy both from photosynthesis and uptake of organic carbon either by osmotrophy, myzotrophy, or phagotrophy; some unicellular species of green algae, many golden algae, euglenids and other algae have become heterotrophs, sometimes parasitic, relying on external energy sources and have limited or no photosynthetic apparatus. Some other heterotrophic organisms, such as the apicomplexans, are derived from cells whose ancestors possessed plastids, but are not traditionally considered as algae.

Algae have photosynthetic machinery derived from cyanobacteria that produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis, unlike other photosynthetic bacteria such as purple and green sulfur bacteria. Fossilized filamentous algae from the Vindhya basin have been dated back to 1.6 to 1.7 billion years ago. The singular alga retains that meaning in English; the etymology is obscure. Although some speculate that it is related to Latin algēre, "be cold", no reason is known to associate seaweed with temperature. A more source is alliga, "binding, entwining"; the Ancient Greek word for seaweed was φῦκος, which could mean either the seaweed or a red dye derived from it. The Latinization, fūcus, meant the cosmetic rouge; the etymology is uncertain, but a strong candidate has long been some word related to the Biblical פוך, "paint", a cosmetic eye-shadow used by the ancient Egyptians and other inhabitants of the eastern Mediterranean. It could be any color: black, green, or blue. Accordingly, the modern study of marine and freshwater algae is called either phycology or algology, depending on whether the Greek or Latin root is used.

The name Fucus appears in a number of taxa. The committee on the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature has recommended certain suffixes for use in the classification of Algae; these are Phyta for division, Phyceae for class, Phycideae for subclass, ales for order, inales for sub order, aceae for family, oidease for sub family Greek name for genus and Latin name for a species. The primary classification of algae is based on certain morphological features; the chief among these are pigment constitution of the cell, chemical nature of stored food materials, number, point of insertion and relative length of the flagella on the motile cell, chemical composition of cell wall and presence or absence of a organized nucleus in the cell or any other significant details of cell structure. Although Carolus Linnaeus included Algae along with Lichens in his 25th class Cryptogamia, he did not elaborate further on the classification of Algae. Vaucher was the first to propose a system of classification of Algae and he recognized three groups, Conferves and Tremelles.

While Link classified Algae on the basis of the colour of the pigment and structure, Harvey proposed a system of classification on the basis of the habitat and the pigment. J. G. Agardh divided Algae into six orders: Diatomaceae, Confervoideae, Ulvaceae and Fucoideae. Around 1880, Algae along with Fungi were grouped under a division created by Eichler. Encouraged by this and Prantle proposed a revised scheme of classification of algae and included fungi in algae as they were of opinion that fungi have been derived from algae; the scheme proposed by Engler and Prantle is summarised as follows:- Schizophyta Phytosarcodina Flagellata Dinoflagellata Bacillariophyta Conjugatae Chlorophyceae Charophyta Phaeophyceae Rhodophyceae Eumycetes The algae contain chloroplasts that are similar in structure to cyanobacteria. Chloroplasts contain circular DNA like that in cyanobacteria and are interpreted as representing reduced endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. However, the exact origin of the chloroplasts is

Lodrö Chökyi Nyima

Lodrö Chökyi Nyima was recognized as the 4th reincarnation of the Jamgon Kongtrul in August 1996 by Ogyen Trinley Dorje, the 17th Karmapa, who gave the name Jamgon Lodro Chokyi Nyima Dronme Chok Thamced Le Nampar Gyalwe De. He was born on November 1995 in Chushur Dzong, near Chushur Dzong, in Central Tibet; this recognition was confirmed by the 14th Dalai Lama, Sakya Trizin, the head of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism, Mindroling Trichen, the now deceased head of the Nyingma tradition. All three performed bestowed names, as is traditional; as the reincarnation of Jamgon Kongtrul, Lodrö is entitled to be styled "rinpoche". His parents brought him to India from Tibet in 1997 when he was only two years old, because they feared "political misconceptions of the Chinese Government" after the 14th Dalai Lama recognized him as the 4th reincarnation of Jamgon Kongtrul, he was supported by the monks of the monastery of Rumtek in Sikkim and adopted by a couple of Tibetan origin living nearby, with the agreement of the Central Tibetan Administration.

Since he has lived in India as an Indian citizen. A passport was granted to him in 2006. However, in 2007, the Indian Ministry of Home Affairs sent a letter to the child and to his adoptive mother Kunzang L Chungyalpa, informing them that the passport was revoked because he had entered illegally in India, challenging his Indian citizenship. In late October 2013, the Delhi High Court issued a notice until the next hearing date in December, opposing Lodrö's expulsion to Tibet, in China, where his life is threatened

Knight Scoop

Knight Scoop is a Japanese television program that airs on Friday nights at 11:17 pm on the Asahi Broadcasting Corporation channel. The premise of the show is of a Detective Agency. The'detectives' on the show go on an investigation, which involves searching for people/places, street surveys, local reports, overcoming fears and experiments; the detective is accompanied by the viewer who made the request. The show is based out of the city of Osaka but involves travel to other parts of Japan. Food-related requests are brought to the professional celebrity chef Hayashi Hirohito. Koeda Katsura, a rakugo performer, was a regular comedian on the show for 25 years until an incident referred to as the "pudding affair" occurred, which involved pictures released of Katsura lying in bed covered with pudding. "Chairman" Ryūtarō Kamioka Toshiyuki Nishida Hitoshi Matsumoto "Secretary" Chiaki Matsubara Mari Okabe Erika Matsuo Saori Masuda Television in Japan Official website