Algiers is the capital and largest city of Algeria. The city's population at the 2008 Census was 2,988,145 and in 2011 was estimated to be around 3,500,000. An estimate puts the population of the larger metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000. Algiers is located in the north-central portion of Algeria. Algiers is situated on the west side of a bay of the Mediterranean Sea; the modern part of the city is built on the level ground by the seashore. The casbah and the two quays form a triangle; the city's name is derived via French and Catalan Alger from the Arabic name al-Jazāʾir, "The Islands". This name refers to the four former islands which lay off the city's coast before becoming part of the mainland in 1525. Al-Jazāʾir is itself a truncated form of the city's older name Jazaʾir Banī Mazghanna, "The Islands of the Sons of Mazghana", used by early medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi and Yaqut al-Hamawi. In antiquity, the Greeks knew the town as Ikósion, Latinized as Icosium under Roman rule.
The Greeks explained the name as coming from their word for "twenty" because it had been founded by 20 companions of Hercules when he visited the Atlas Mountains during his labors. Algiers is known as el-Behdja or "Algiers the White" for its whitewashed buildings, seen rising from the sea. A small Phoenician colony on Algiers's former islands was established and taken over by the Carthaginians sometime before the 3rd century BC. After the Punic Wars, the Romans took over administration of the town, which they called Icosium, its ruins now form part of the modern city's marine quarter, with the Rue de la Marine following a former Roman road. Roman cemeteries existed near Bab Azoun; the city was given Latin rights by the emperor Vespasian. The bishops of Icosium are mentioned as late as the 5th century, but the ancient town fell into obscurity during the Muslim conquest of North Africa; the present city was founded in 944 by Bologhine ibn Ziri, the founder of the Berber Zirid–Sanhaja dynasty. He had earlier built a Sanhaja center at Ashir, just south of Algiers.
Although his Zirid dynasty was overthrown by Roger II of Sicily in 1148, the Zirids had lost control of Algiers to their cousins the Hammadids in 1014. The city was wrested from the Hammadids by the Almohads in 1159, in the 13th century came under the dominion of the Ziyanid sultans of Tlemcen. Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a large measure of independence under amirs of its own due to Oran being the chief seaport of the Ziyanids; the Peñón of Algiers, an islet in front of Algiers harbour had been occupied by the Spaniards as early as 1302. Thereafter, a considerable amount of trade began to flow between Spain. However, Algiers continued to be of comparatively little importance until after the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, many of whom sought asylum in the city. In 1510, following their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa, the Spaniards fortified the islet of Peñon and imposed a levy intended to suppress corsair activity. In 1516, the amir of Algiers, Selim b.
Teumi, invited the corsair brothers Aruj and Hayreddin Barbarossa to expel the Spaniards. Aruj came to Algiers, ordered the assassination of Selim, seized the town and ousted the Spanish in the Capture of Algiers. Hayreddin, succeeding Aruj after the latter was killed in battle against the Spaniards in the Fall of Tlemcen, was the founder of the pashaluk, which subsequently became the beylik, of Algeria. Barbarossa lost Algiers in 1524 but regained it with the Capture of Algiers, formally invited the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent to accept sovereignty over the territory and to annex Algiers to the Ottoman Empire. Algiers from this time became the chief seat of the Barbary pirates. In October 1541 in the Algiers expedition, the King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sought to capture the city, but a storm destroyed a great number of his ships, his army of some 30,000, chiefly made up of Spaniards, was defeated by the Algerians under their Pasha, Hassan. Formally part of the Ottoman Empire but free from Ottoman control, starting in the 16th century Algiers turned to piracy and ransoming.
Due to its location on the periphery of both the Ottoman and European economic spheres, depending for its existence on a Mediterranean, controlled by European shipping, backed by European navies, piracy became the primary economic activity. Repeated attempts were made by various nations to subdue the pirates that disturbed shipping in the western Mediterranean and engaged in slave raids as far north as Iceland; the United States fought two wars over Algiers' attacks on shipping. Among the notable people held for ransom was the future Spanish novelist Miguel de Cervantes, captive in Algiers five years, who wrote two plays set in Algiers of the period; the primary source for knowledge of Algiers of this period, since there are no contemporary local sources, is the Topografía e historia general de Argel, published by Diego de Haedo, but whose authorship is disputed. This work describes in detail the city, the behavior of its inhabitants, its military defenses, with the unsuccessful hope of facilitating an attack by Spain so as to end the piracy.
A significant number of renegades lived in Algiers at the time, Ch
Pewamo-Westphalia High School is a public high school in Westphalia, United States. It is part of the Pewamo-Westphalia Community Schools district and was established in September 1961. In 2019, Pewamo-Westphalia High School was ranked among the top 15 best high schools in Michigan by U. S. News & World Report, 615th in the nation. In 2017-2018, the school led Clinton County with the highest 11th grade M-STEP scores in science and social studies, had the highest average SAT score in the county, ranked in the top 50 highest SAT scores in the state of Michigan; the Pewamo-Westphalia athletic teams are known as the Pirates and the school colors are blue and gold. The Pirates compete in the Central Michigan Athletic Conference; the following Michigan High School Athletic Association-sanctioned sports are offered at Pewamo-Westphalia High School: On January 29, 2019, the Pirates were the subject of an article in the Lansing State Journal about the athletic success and strong community support. Official website
Margarete Böhme was, one of the most read German writers of the early 20th century. Böhme authored 40 novels – as well as short stories, autobiographical sketches, articles; the Diary of a Lost Girl, first published in 1905 as Tagebuch einer Verlorenen, is her best known and bestselling book. By the end of the 1920s, it had sold more than a million copies, ranking it among the bestselling books of its time. One contemporary scholar has called it “Perhaps the most notorious and the commercially most successful autobiographical narrative of the early twentieth century.” Böhme was born Wilhelmina Margarete Susanna Feddersen in 1867. The future writer grew up in a small town in Northern Germany. Husum was dubbed “the grey town by the grey sea” by its best known resident, the novelist and poet Theodor Storm, her mother's aunt was Lena Wies, a storyteller and longtime friend of Storm who furnished the novelist with legends and tales for his work. Böhme began writing early. At age 17, she published her first story, “The Secret of the Rose Passage,” in a Hamburg newspaper.
She went on to place her work in weekly magazines, both under her own name and under the pseudonym, Ormanos Sandor. While living in Hamburg and Vienna, Böhme worked as a correspondent for North German and Austrian newspapers. In 1894, the author married a newspaper publisher 20 years her senior. After six years, the marriage ended in divorce. Böhme moved to Berlin, where she attempted to make her living as an author. Böhme wrote prolifically, she wrote essays as well as short stories for the newspapers and magazines of the time. Some of her early novels were serialized in periodicals, others were issued in book form by German publishers. At first, Böhme wrote what would today be termed popular fiction – but as her work matured, she turned to more serious themes. Beginning in 1903, Böhme wrote six novels in the span of two years. Few of them, met with much success. With the publication of Tagebuch einer Verlorenen in 1905, the author's fortunes changed; the book was an overnight success, Böhme's reputation was secured.
Her succeeding books were met with serious consideration, translated into other languages, reviewed. At the time, Böhme's work was favorably compared to that of the French writer Émile Zola. An American literary review, The Bookman, described Böhme as “One of the leading novelists of the younger realistic school in Germany.” Tagebuch einer Verlorenen was a literary sensation. It purportedly tells the true story of Thymian, a young woman forced by circumstance into a life of prostitution; when it was first published, it was believed to be a genuine diary, Böhme claimed only to be its editor. The book's publication and subsequent success led to speculation as to its authorship. Tagebuch einer Verlorenen was translated into 14 languages. There was such demand for the book; the book brought about not only a popular sequel, a controversial stage play banned in some German cities, a parody, two silent films - but a score of imitators as well. Lawsuits arose around its publication, the book discussed, had some small influence on social reform in Germany.
Due in part to its sensational subject matter, as well as its contested nature, the book proved popular. More than 30,000 copies were sold within the first four months of publication. Less than two years in 1907, a deluxe edition was issued marking more than 100,000 copies in print. By 1929, more than 1,200,000 copies had been published; the book remained in circulation for more than 25 years, until deliberately being driven out-of-print at the beginning of the Nazi era. Dida Ibsens Geschichte, is a kind of sequel to Tagebuch einer Verlorenen; as Böhme states in the forward, the book was written in response to a flood of letters she received regarding the earlier book. Dida Ibsens Geschichte was made into a film of the same name in 1918. W. A. G. M. U. S. is considered by some critics to be Bohme's best work. It is the story of a department store; the novel chronicles the growth of a colossal business which crushes its smaller competitors by systematically underselling them. It was published in America, where one leading review called it “a distinctly remarkable book.”Much of Böhme's fiction has a strong social message.
Christine Immersen, concerns the harsh working conditions faced by women telephone operators. Sarah von Lindholm, puts forth progressive ideas on the role of the worker. Kriegsbriefe der Familie Wimmel, written during the early days of the First World War, reflects the realities of that conflict. Rheinzauber, focuses on a family feud which ends after three generations when a child brings its hostile branches together, it gained Böhme one of her few American notices when it was reviewed in The Nation in a round-up of German-language books. Only two of Böhme's books were translated into English, they are Tagebuch einer Verlorenen, as The Diary of a Lost One in 1907 - and W. A. G. M. U. S. as The Department Store in 1912. Each was first issued in Great Britain and the United States; the Department Store was published in Canada. British editions of The Diary of a Lost One and The Department Store are known to have circulated throughout the countries of the British commonwealth. For example, in 1909, the Nelson Evening Mail in New Zealand described The Diary of a Lost One as "one of the saddest of modern books."Böhme continued to publish throughout the 1910s and 1920s.
By 1937, her name no longer appeared in annuals devoted to German literature. The author died on May 23, 1939 at the age of 72