The Alhambra is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada, Spain. It was constructed as a small fortress in AD 889 on the remains of Roman fortifications, largely ignored until its ruins were renovated and rebuilt in the mid-13th century by the Nasrid emir Mohammed ben Al-Ahmar of the Emirate of Granada, who built its current palace and walls, it was converted into a royal palace in 1333 by Sultan of Granada. After the conclusion of the Christian Reconquista in 1492, the site became the Royal Court of Ferdinand and Isabella, the palaces were altered in the Renaissance style. In 1526 Charles I & V commissioned a new Renaissance palace better befitting the Holy Roman Emperor in the revolutionary Mannerist style influenced by humanist philosophy in direct juxtaposition with the Nasrid Andalusian architecture, but it was never completed due to Morisco rebellions in Granada. Alhambra's last flowering of Islamic palaces was built for the last Muslim emirs in Spain during the decline of the Nasrid dynasty, who were subject to the Christian Kings of Castile.
After being allowed to fall into disrepair for centuries, the buildings occupied by squatters, Alhambra was rediscovered following the defeat of Napoleon, who had conducted retaliatory destruction of the site. The rediscoverers were first British intellectuals and other north European Romantic travelers, it is now one of Spain's major tourist attractions, exhibiting the country's most significant and well-known Islamic architecture, together with 16th-century and Christian building and garden interventions. The Alhambra is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Moorish poets described it as "a pearl set in emeralds", an allusion to the colour of its buildings and the woods around them; the palace complex was designed with the mountainous site in mind and many forms of technology were considered. The park, overgrown with wildflowers and grass in the spring, was planted by the Moors with roses and myrtles; the park has a multitude of nightingales and is filled with the sound of running water from several fountains and cascades.
These are supplied through a conduit 8 km long, connected with the Darro at the monastery of Jesus del Valle above Granada. Despite long neglect, willful vandalism, some ill-judged restoration, the Alhambra endures as an atypical example of Muslim art in its final European stages uninfluenced by the direct Byzantine influences found in the Mezquita of Córdoba. Most of the palace buildings are quadrangular in plan, with all the rooms opening on to a central court, the whole reached its present size by the gradual addition of new quadrangles, designed on the same principle, though varying in dimensions, connected with each other by smaller rooms and passages. Alhambra was extended by the different Muslim rulers. However, each new section, added followed the consistent theme of "paradise on earth". Column arcades, fountains with running water, reflecting pools were used to add to the aesthetic and functional complexity. In every case, the exterior was left austere. Sun and wind were admitted. Blue, a golden yellow, all somewhat faded through lapse of time and exposure, are the colors chiefly employed.
The name Alhambra means the red one or the red castle, which refers to the sun-dried bricks that the outer wall is made of. The decoration consists for the upper part of the walls, as a rule, of Arabic inscriptions—mostly poems by Ibn Zamrak and others praising the palace—that are manipulated into geometrical patterns with vegetal background set onto an arabesque setting. Much of this ornament is carved stucco rather than stone. Tile mosaics, with complicated mathematical patterns, are used as panelling for the lower part. Metal was not present mainly. Similar designs are displayed on wooden ceilings. Muqarnas are the main elements for vaulting with stucco, some of the most accomplished dome examples of this kind are in the Court of the Lions halls; the palace complex is designed in the Nasrid style, the last blooming of Islamic Art in the Iberian Peninsula, that had a great influence on the Maghreb to the present day, on contemporary Mudejar Art, characteristic of western elements reinterpreted into Islamic forms and popular during the Reconquista in Spain.
Alhambra derives from the Arabic الْحَمْرَاء al-ḤB Hhjtamrāʼ, meaning "the red one", the complete form of, الْقَلْعَةُ ٱلْحَمْرَاءُ al-Qalʻat al-Ḥamrāʼ "the red fortress". The "Al-" in "Alhambra" means "the" in Arabic, but this is ignored in general usage in both English and Spanish, where the name is given the definite article. Completed towards the end of Muslim rule of Spain by Yusuf I and Muhammed V, Sultan of Granada, the Alhambra is a reflection of the culture of the last centuries of the Muslim rule of Al Andalus, reduced to the Nasrid Emirate of Granada, it is a place where artists and intellectuals had taken refuge as the Reconquista by Spanish Christians won victories over Al Andalus. The Alhambra integrates natural site qualities with constructed structures and gardens, is a testament to Moorish culture in Spain and the skills of Muslim and Christian artisans and builders of their era; the literal tra
Aaron Katz is an American independent filmmaker from Portland, Oregon. Aaron began his artistic career while attending Pacific Crest Community School in Portland from 1994 to 2000, he experimented with a super 8 mm camera. He pursued filmmaking further at the University of North Carolina School of the Arts, where he met future collaborators Brendan McFadden, Marc Ripper, Andrew Reed, Chad Hartigan, he directed a number of short films on 16 mm film. Katz's breakthrough came in 2006 when his first feature Dance Party USA, premiered at the 2006 South by Southwest Film Festival. Katz wrote and directed the film for around $2,000 and shot for two weeks in his hometown of Portland with a small crew of friends; the film went on to play at numerous festivals all over the world and was listed as a top ten film by the New York Sun. Katz followed it in 2007 with Quiet City. Using some of the same crew and a similar budget, he shot the film in eight days in Brooklyn and again premiered the film at South by Southwest.
Quiet City features fellow filmmaker Joe Swanberg in a supporting role and the two were subsequently cited as two of the founders of a new independent film movement called "mumblecore". The film was grossed $15,610 over its modest run. Katz, as well as Erin Fisher, Cris Lankenau, Brendan McFadden and Ben Stambler were nominated for the John Cassevetes Award at the 2007 Independent Spirit Awards, given to the best film produced for under $500,000, for Quiet City. Katz's third feature, Cold Weather opened as a Spotlight Premiere at the 2010 South by Southwest Film Festival and went on to play the Los Angeles Film Festival, Locarno Film Festival, BFI London Film Festival, among others. Released theatrically by IFC Films and dubbed by Indiewire as "2011's first great American indie," the genre-bending mystery garnered widespread praise from critics, including Roger Ebert and Manohla Dargis, ranked on several lists among the best films of the year. Katz went on to co-write, co-direct, edit the acclaimed Iceland-set buddy comedy Land Ho! with Martha Stephens.
The film was acquired by Sony Pictures Classics. It screened at the Tribeca Film Festival, Los Angeles Film Festival, Locarno International Film Festival, BFI London Film Festival; the film won the 2015 Independent Spirit Cassavetes Award and AARP's "Best Buddy Picture" Award, was named on several "Top 10 Films of 2014" lists including Grantland, SF Weekly, Nashville Scene. In 2017, Katz directed Gemini, starring Zoë Kravitz, John Cho, Greta Lee and Ricki Lake, it had its world premiere at South by Southwest on March 12, 2017. It was acquired by Neon for distribution. Katz counts The X-Files, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Seinfeld among his favorite shows as a teenager in the 1990s. Dance Party USA Quiet City Cold Weather Land Ho! Gemini Aaron Katz on IMDb Interview Interview Mumblecore Family Tree Benten Films website
Chik Baraik is a community found in Indian State of Jharkhand, Odisha. They were traditionally Weaver. "Chik" means cloth in Prakrit. Due to participation in battle by many weaver they were given title of "Baraik" by the Kings. Chik baraik are the weaver caste scattered throughout southern and western part of Chota Nagpur plateau, it is believed. Anthropologist Edward Tuite Dalton stated that they are remnants of hindu. In first Census of India during British Raj in 1872, Chik-Baraik were annexed in tribe list as semi-hindu aboriginal. In 1891 Census, Herbert Hope Risley has categorised Chik-Baraik as sub-caste of weaving caste Pans; the traditional occupation of Chik Baraik is making clothes such as Dhoti, Gamcha etc. They speak Nagpuri an Indo-Aryan language. There are several Vansh or clans among Chik-Baraik which are taken from various animals and places includes Baunkra, Chand, Kothi, Loha, Malua, Naurangi, Rajhans, Singhi, their deities are Devi Mai and Barpahari. They worship moon and other deities.
Snake is worshiped as ancestor of the caste. Birth pollution observed for six days, they observe death pollution for ten days. Their traditional festivals are Asari, Karam, Sohrai, Fagun etc, their folk dance are Jhumair, Fagua etc. The Chik Baraik are included in Scheduled Tribe list in Bihar and West Bengal, they are included in Scheduled Caste. Chik Baraik Welfare Society, Delhi