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Granada

Granada, locally is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of four rivers, the Darro, the Genil, the Monachil and the Beiro, it sits at an average elevation of 738 m above sea level, yet is only one hour by car from the Mediterranean coast, the Costa Tropical. Nearby is the Sierra Nevada Ski Station, where the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1996 were held. In the 2005 national census, the population of the city of Granada proper was 236,982, the population of the entire urban area was estimated to be 472,638, ranking as the 13th-largest urban area of Spain. About 3.3% of the population did not hold Spanish citizenship, the largest number of these people coming from South America. Its nearest airport is Federico García Lorca Granada-Jaén Airport; the Alhambra, an Arab citadel and palace, is located in Granada. It is the most renowned building of the Islamic historical legacy with its many cultural attractions that make Granada a popular destination among the tourist cities of Spain.

The Almohad influence on architecture is preserved in the Granada neighborhood called the Albaicín with its fine examples of Moorish and Morisco construction. Granada is well-known within Spain for the University of Granada which has an estimated 82,000 students spread over five different campuses in the city; the pomegranate is the heraldic device of Granada. The region surrounding what today is Granada has been populated since at least 5500 BC and experienced Roman and Visigothic influences; the most ancient ruins found in the city belong to an Iberian oppidum called Ilturir, in the region known as Bastetania. This oppidum changed its name to Iliberri, after the Roman conquest of Iberia, to Municipium Florentinum Iliberitanum; the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, starting in AD 711, brought large parts of the Iberian Peninsula under Moorish control and established al-Andalus. Granada's historical name in the Arabic language was غرناطة; the word Gárnata means "hill of strangers". Because the city was situated on a low plain and, as a result, difficult to protect from attacks, the ruler decided to transfer his residence to the higher situated area of Gárnata.

In a short time this town was transformed into one of the most important cities of al-Andalus. In the early 11th century, after the collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate, the Berber Zawi ben Ziri established an independent kingdom for himself, the Taifa of Granada, his surviving memoirs – the only ones for the Spanish "Middle Ages" – provide considerable detail for this brief period. The Zirid Taifa of Granada was a Jewish state in all but name, it was the center of scholarship. Early Arabic writers called it "Garnata al-Yahud".... Granada was in the eleventh century the center of Sephardic civilization at its peak, from 1027 until 1066 Granada was a powerful Jewish state. Jews did not hold the foreigner status typical of Islamic rule. Samuel ibn Nagrilla, recognized by Sephardic Jews everywhere as the quasi-political ha-Nagid, was king in all but name; as vizier he made policy and—much more unusual—led the army.... It is said that Samuel's strengthening and fortification of Granada was what permitted it to survive as the last Islamic state in the Iberian peninsula.

All of the greatest figures of eleventh-century Hispano-Jewish culture are associated with Granada. Moses Ibn Ezra was from Granada. Ibn Gabirol’s patrons and hosts were the Jewish viziers of Granada, Samuel ha-Nagid and his son Joseph; when Joseph took over after his father's death, he proved to lack his father's diplomacy, bringing on the 1066 Granada massacre, which ended the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain. By the end of the 11th century, the city had spread across the Darro to reach the hill of the future Alhambra, included the Albaicín neighborhood; the Almoravids ruled Granada from 1090 and the Almohad dynasty from 1166. In 1228, with the departure of the Almohad prince Idris al-Ma'mun, who left Iberia to take the Almohad leadership, the ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the last and longest reigning Muslim dynasty in the Iberian peninsula, the Nasrids. With the Reconquista in full swing after the conquest of Córdoba in 1236, the Nasrids aligned themselves with Fernando III of Castile becoming the Emirate of Granada in 1238.

According to some historians, Granada was a tributary state to the Kingdom of Castile from that year. It provided connections with Muslim and Arab trade centers for gold from sub-Saharan Africa and the Maghreb, exported silk and dried fruits produced in the area; the Nasrids supplied troops from the Emirate and mercenaries from North Africa for service to Castile. Ibn Battuta, a famous traveller and an authentic historian, visited the Kingdom of Granada in 1350, he described it as a powerful and self-sufficient kingdom in its own right, although embroiled in skirmishes with the Kingdom of Castile. In his journal, Ibn Battuta called Granada the "metropolis of Andalusia and the bride of its cities."During the Moor rule, Granada was a city with adherents to many religions and ethnicities who lived in separate quarters. During this Nasrid period there were 137 Muslim mosques in the Medina of Granada. On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim ruler in Iberia, Emir Muhammad XII of Granada, known as "Boabdil" to the

Lone divider

The lone divider procedure is a procedure for proportional cake-cutting. It involves a heterogenous and divisible resource, such as a birthday cake, n partners with different preferences over different parts of the cake, it allows the n people to divide the cake among them such that each person receives a piece with a value of at least 1/n of the total value according to his own subjective valuation. The procedure was developed by Hugo Steinhaus for n=3 people, it was extended by Harold W. Kuhn to n>3, using the Frobenius-Konig theorem. A description of the cases n=3, n=4 appears in and the general case is described in. For convenience we normalize the valuations such that the value of the entire cake is n for all agents; the goal is to give each agent a piece with a value of at least 1. Step 1. One player chosen arbitrarily, called the divider, cuts the cake into n pieces whose value in his/her eyes is 1. Step 2; each of the other n-1 partners evaluates the resulting n pieces and says which of these pieces he considers "acceptable", i.e, worth at least 1.

Now the game proceeds according to the replies of the players in step 3. We present first the case n=3 and the general case. There are two cases. Case A: At least one of the non-dividers marks two or more pieces as acceptable; the third partner picks an acceptable piece. Case B: Both other partners mark only one piece as acceptable. There is at least one piece, acceptable only for the divider; the divider goes home. This piece is worth less than 1 for the remaining two partners, so the remaining two pieces are worth at least 2 for them, they choose. There are several ways to describe the general case. Step 3. Construct a bipartite graph G = in which each vertex in X is an agent, each vertex in Y is a piece, there is an edge between an agent x and a piece y iff x values y at least 1. Step 4. Find a maximum-cardinality envy-free matching in G. Note that the divider is adjacent to all n pieces, so |NG|= n ≥ |X|. Hence, a non-empty envy-free matching exists. Step 5. Give each matched piece to its matched agent.

Note that each matched agent has a value of at least 1, thus goes home happily. Step 6. Recursively divide the remaining cake among the remaining agents. Note that each remaining agent values each piece given away at less than 1, so he values the remaining cake at more than the number of agents, so the precondition for recursion is satisfied. For other procedures for solving the same problem, see proportional cake-cutting. One advantage of lone-divider is that it can be modified to yield a symmetric fair cake-cutting procedure

Bet-Nahrain Democratic Party

The Bet-Nahrain Democratic Party abbreviated as BNDP is an Assyrian political party in Iraq led by Romeo Nissan Hakkari. One of the party's goals is to create an autonomous Assyrian Administrative Region within the Assyrian homeland; the BNDP was founded on the 21st of March 1974 as a union between the Bet-Nahrain Organization in California headed by Sargon Dadesho, the Quest Movement in Chicago headed by notable individuals such as Gilyana Yonan. BNDP was influential in the development of the Assyrian flag in 1968 alongside the Assyrian Universal Alliance and the Assyrian National Federation. BNDP contested the 2005 Kurdistan Region parliamentary election as part of the ruling Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan and were allocated one seat for Romeo Hakkari, it contested the January 2005 Iraqi legislative election as part of the Kurdish alliance, Goriel Mineso Khamis was allocated one seat in the Council of Representatives of Iraq. It did not participate in the Iraqi legislative election of December 2005 In the Iraqi governorate elections of 2009, the BNDP allied itself with the Chaldean Syriac Assyrian Popular Council in the Ishtar Patriotic List.

The list won two seats in Ninawa, including BNDP member Giwargis Esho Sada in Baghdad. On the 6th of January 2015, the BNDP and Bet-Nahrain Patriotic Union announced the formation of the Nineveh Plain Forces to protect the people of the Nineveh Plain and maintain control of the region for people that want to return to the area; the party is active among Assyrian Americans in California, where it runs the KBSV television station, the KBES radio station. In 1983 the party set up the "Assyrian National Congress" with the "Assyrian American Leadership Council". In 2002 they entered into an alliance with the Free Officers Movement of exiled military officers led by Najib al-Salhi. Dawronoye Nineveh Plain Forces Party website