The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs, was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia. The Seljuqs established both the Seljuk Empire and the Sultanate of Rum, which at their heights stretched from Iran to Anatolia, were targets of the First Crusade; the Seljuqs originated from the Qynyk branch of the Oghuz Turks, who in the 9th century lived on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian Sea and Aral Sea in their Yabghu Khaganate of the Oghuz confederacy, in the Kazakh Steppe of Turkestan. During the 10th century, due to various events, the Oghuz had come into close contact with Muslim cities; when Seljuq, the leader of the Seljuq clan, had a falling out with Yabghu, the supreme chieftain of the Oghuz, he split his clan off from the bulk of the Tokuz-Oghuz and set up camp on the west bank of the lower Syr Darya. Around 985, Seljuq converted to Islam. In the 11th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands into mainland Persia, in the province of Khurasan, where they encountered the Ghaznavid empire.
In 1025, 40,000 families of Oghuz Turks migrated to the area of Caucasian Albania. The Seljuqs defeated the Ghaznavids at the Battle of Nasa plains in 1035. Tughril and Yabghu received the insignias of governor, grants of land, were given the title of dehqan. At the Battle of Dandanaqan they defeated a Ghaznavid army, after a successful siege of Isfahan by Tughril in 1050/51, they established an empire called the Great Seljuk Empire; the Seljuqs mixed with the local population and adopted the Persian culture and Persian language in the following decades. After arriving in Persia, the Seljuqs adopted the Persian culture and used the Persian language as the official language of the government, played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition which features "Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers." Today, they are remembered as great patrons of Persian culture, art and language. They are regarded as the partial ancestors of the Western Turks – the present-day inhabitants of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan and Turkey.
The "Great Seljuqs" were heads of the family. Turkish custom called for the senior member of the family to be the Great Seljuq, although the position was associated with the ruler of western Persia. Muhammad's son Mahmud II succeeded him in western Persia, but Ahmad Sanjar, the governor of Khurasan at the time being the senior member of the family, became the Great Seljuq Sultan; the rulers of western Persia, who maintained a loose grip on the Abbasids of Baghdad. Several Turkic emirs gained a strong level of influence in the region, such as the Eldiduzids. Mahmud II 1118–1131 1131–1134 disputed between: Dawud Mas'ud 1131 Toghrul II 1132–1134 Mas'ud 1133–1152 Malik Shah III 1152–1153 Muhammad II Suleiman Shah 1160–1161 Arslan Shah 1161–1174 Toghrul III 1174–1194In 1194, Tugrul III was killed in battle with the Khwarezm Shah, who annexed Hamadan. Kerman was a province in southern Persia. Between 1053 and 1154, the territory included Umman. Qawurd 1041–1073 Kerman Shah 1073–1074 Sultan Shah 1074–1075 Hussain Omar 1075–1084 Turan Shah I 1084–1096 Iran-Shah 1096–1101 Arslan Shah I 1101–1142 Mehmed I 1142–1156 Toğrül Shah 1156–1169 Bahram Shah 1169–1174 Arslan Shah II 1174–1176 Turan Shah II 1176–1183 Muhammad Shah 1183–1187Muhammad abandoned Kerman, which fell into the hands of the Oghuz chief Malik Dinar.
Kerman was annexed by the Khwarezmid Empire in 1196. Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1085–1086 Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah I of Great Seljuq 1086–1087 Qasim ad-Dawla Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hajib 1087–1094 Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1094–1095 Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan 1095–1113 Tadj ad-Dawla Alp Arslan al-Akhras 1113–1114 Sultan Shah 1114–1123To the Artuqids Sultans/Emirs of Damascus: Aziz ibn Abaaq al-Khwarazmi 1076–1079 Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1079–1095 Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq 1095–1104 Tutush II 1104 Muhi ad-Din Baqtash 1104Damascus seized by the Burid Toghtekin The Seljuq line having been deprived of any significant power ended in the early 14th century. Kutalmish 1060–1077 Suleyman I 1077–1086 Dawud Kilij Arslan I 1092–1107 Malik Shah 1107–1116 Rukn ad-Din Mesud I 1116–1156 Izz ad-Din Kilij Arslan II 1156–1192 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I 1192–1196 Suleyman II 1196–1204 Kilij Arslan III 1204–1205 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I 1205–1211 Izz ad-Din Kaykaus I 1211–1220 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad I 1220–1237 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw II 1237–1246 Izz ad-Din Kaykaus II 1246–1260 Rukn ad-Din Kilij Arslan IV 1248–1265 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad II 1249–1257 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw III 1265–1282 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1282–1284 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1284 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1284–1293 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1293–1294 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1294–1301 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1301–1303 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1303–1307 Seljuk Empire Sultanate of Rûm Ottoman dynasty List of Sunni Muslim dynasties Grousset, Rene.
The Empire of the Steppes: a History of Central Asia. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. P. 147. ISBN 0813506271. Peacock, A. C. S. Early Seljuq History: A New Interpretation. W.. The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Samudera Pasai Sultanate
Samudera Pasai known as Samudera or Pasai or Samudera Darussalam or Pacem, was a Muslim harbour kingdom on the north coast of Sumatra from the 13th to the 16th centuries CE. The kingdom was believed to have been founded by Merah Silu, who converted to Islam and adopted the name Malik ul Salih, in the year 1267 CE. Little evidence has been left to allow for historical study of the kingdom. Based on the local literature Hikayat Raja-raja Pasai,'Samudera' can be inferred to have come from the word'Semudera', which meant'a large ant'; the name was given by Merah Silu when he discovered an ant as large as a cat while hunting at a'high ground'. The place was cleared for the establishment of a new state and'Semudera' was adopted as its name.'Samudera' is theorised to have been derived from Samudra meaning ocean in Sanskrit and Tamil. The literature indicates the origin of the name'Pasai' which came from Si-Pasai, the hunting dog of Sultan Malik al Salleh, Merah Silu after his conversion to Islam; the legend narrates that Sultan Malik al Salleh, while hunting with the dog, encountered a deer, not afraid of the dog's barking but instead barked back.
He was bewildered by this and thought that this might be a good sign for the place to be established as a new state for his son Sultan Malik Al Tahir. The dog died. Sultan Malik al Salleh buried the dog there and he named the place after it. In the 14th century, the Italian traveller Odoric of Pordenone used the name Sumoltra for Samudra, subsequent European writers used similar forms of the name to refer to the Sumatra island itself. Pasai exported its culture, most its language — an early form of Malay written in the Jawi alphabet — to a number of islands; this language became the lingua franca among traders in what is now Indonesia and Malaysia. Arab and Indian Muslims had traded in China for many centuries. A Muslim tombstone in eastern Java bears a date corresponding to 1082, but substantial evidence of Islam in Indonesia begins only in northern Sumatra at the end of the 13th century. Two small Muslim trading kingdoms existed by that time at Peureulak or Perlak. A 1297 royal tomb at Samudra is inscribed in Arabic.
By the 15th century several harbour kingdoms developed, all ruled by local Muslim princes, from the north coast of Java and elsewhere to as far east as Ternate and Tidore in Maluku. Marco Polo spent five months here, he had Ferlec and Samara mentioned in his travel story. Another famous traveller Ibn Battuta on his way to China stayed 15 days at Samudera; the establishment of the first Muslim centres in Indonesia was a result of commercial circumstances. By the 13th century the collapse of Srivijayan power, drew foreign traders to harbours on the northern Sumatran shores of the Bay of Bengal, safe from the pirate lairs at the southern end of the Strait of Malacca. Northern Sumatra had a hinterland rich in gold and forest produce, pepper was being cultivated at the beginning of the 15th century, it was accessible to all the merchants of the archipelago who wanted to meet ships from the Indian Ocean. In the year 1345, Ibn Battuta, a Moroccan traveller visited Samudra Pasai where he notes in his travel log that the ruler of Samudera Pasai was a pious Muslim, who performed his religious duties in utmost zeal.
The madh'hab he observed was Imam Al-Shafi‘i. At that time Samudera Pasai was the end of Dar al-Islam for no territory east of this was ruled by a Muslim ruler, he praised the hospitality demonstrated by the sultan of Samudera Pasai. Here he stayed for about two weeks in the wooden walled town as a guest of the sultan, the sultan provided him with supplies and sent him on his way on one of sultan's own junks to China. By the end of the 14th century, Samudra-Pasai had become a wealthy commercial centre, giving way in the early 15th century to the better protected harbour of Malacca on the south-west coast of the Malay Peninsula. Majapahit looted the place in the middle of the 14th century. Pasai's economic and political power depended entirely on foreigners. Muslim traders and teachers participated in its administration from the beginning and were bound to introduce religious practices that made them feel at home; the first Muslim beachheads in Indonesia Pasai, were to a considerable extent genuine Muslim creations that commanded the loyalty of the local population and encouraged scholarly activities.
Similar new harbour kingdoms formed on the northern coast of Java. Tomé Pires, author of the Suma Oriental, writing not long after 1511, stresses the obscure ethnic origins of the founders of Cheribon, Demak and Gresik; these Javanese coastal states served commerce with India and China and with Malacca, an importer of Javanese rice. The rulers of Malacca, despite their prestigious Srivijayan origin, accepted Islam to attract Muslim and Javanese traders to their port; the Portuguese occupied Pasai in 10 years after their conquest of Malacca. Through the Portuguese, the place become known in Europe as Pacem; the Acehnese took control of Pasai. These are the list of rulers who ruled the Samudera Pasai Sultanate:- Malikussaleh List of Sunni Muslim dynasties Hall, Kenneth R.. "Trade and statecraft in the Western Archipelago at the dawn of the European age". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 54: 21–47. JSTOR 41492897. Hall, Kenneth R.. A History of Early Southeast Asia: Maritime Trade and Societal Development, 100–1500.
Plymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-6761-0. Hill, A. H.. "The coming of Islam to North Sumatra". Journal of Southeast Asian History. 4: 6–21. J
The Sultanate of Aceh the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam, was a Sultanate centered in the modern-day Indonesian province of Aceh. It was a major regional power in the 16th and 17th centuries, before experiencing a long period of decline, its capital was the present-day Banda Aceh. At its peak it was a formidable enemy of the Sultanate of Johor and Portuguese-controlled Malacca, both on the Malayan Peninsula, as all three attempted to control the trade through the Strait of Malacca and the regional exports of pepper and tin with fluctuating success. In addition to its considerable military strength, the court of Aceh became a noted centre of Islamic scholarship and trade. Aceh's early history is unclear; the Acehnese language is one of the 10 languages of the Aceh-Chamic language group. According to the Sejarah Melayu, the Champa king Syah Pau Kubah had a son Syah Pau Ling who escaped when the capital Vijaya was sacked by the Vietnamese Lê dynasty in 1471, who founded the Aceh kingdom; the ruler of Aceh converted to Islam in the mid-15th century.
The Sultanate was founded by Ali Mughayat Syah, who began campaigns to extend his control over northern Sumatra in 1520. His conquests included Deli and Pasai, he attacked Aru, his son Alauddin al-Kahar extended the domains farther south into Sumatra, but was less successful in his attempts to gain a foothold across the strait, though he made several attacks on both Johor and Malacca, with the support along with men and firearms from Suleiman the Magnificent's Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire sent a relief force of 15 Xebecs commanded by Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis. On 21 June 1599 a Dutch captain, Cornelius Houtman arrived at "Acheen" aboard the Lioness as the first of three planned voyages to the East Indies; the crew stayed for three months acquiring other spices. British crew member John Davis claims the party was subsequently attacked by the local warlord with the loss of 68 dead and captured. After they arrived, they were permitted by the Sultan to purchase pepper, during the same year as representatives of the English East India Company under the command of James Lancaster arrived.
He returned in 1602 bearing a letter from English Queen Elizabeth I. The Sultan from 1589 to 1604 was Alauddin Riayat Shah ibn Firman Shah. Internal dissension in the Sultanate prevented another powerful Sultan from appearing until 1607 when Iskandar Muda came to the position, he extended the Sultanate's control over most of Sumatra. He conquered Pahang, a tin-producing region of the Malayan Peninsula, was able to force the Sultans of Johor to recognise his overlordship, if temporarily. During his reign, he created a code of laws known as Adat Meukuta Alam; the strength of his formidable fleet was brought to an end with a disastrous campaign against Malacca in 1629 when the combined Portuguese and Johor forces managed to destroy all his ships and 19,000 troops according to Portuguese account. Aceh's forces were not destroyed, however, as Aceh was able to conquer Kedah within the same year and taking many of its citizens to Aceh; the Sultan's son in law, Iskandar Thani, former prince of Pahang became his successor.
During his reign, Aceh focused on religious unity. After the reign of Sultan Iskandar Thani, Aceh was ruled by a series of female Sultana. Aceh's previous policy of taking hostages from conquered kingdoms' population made them eager to seek independence, the results were Aceh's control weakened while regional rulers gained effective power; the Sultan became a symbolic title. By the 1680s, a Persian visitor could describe a northern Sumatra where "every corner shelters a separate king or governor and all the local rulers maintain themselves independently and do not pay tribute to any higher authority." Aceh saw itself as heir to Pasai, the first Islamic state in Southeast Asia, succeeded Islamic missionary work of Malacca after it was conquered by the Roman Catholic Portuguese. It was called the "porch of Mecca," and became a centre of Islamic scholarship, where the Qur'an and other Islamic texts were translated into Malay, its notable scholars included Hamzah Fansuri, Syamsuddin of Pasai, Abdurrauf of Singkil, the Indian Nuruddin ar-Raniri.
Aceh gained wealth from its export of pepper, cloves, betel nuts, once it conquered Pahang in 1617, tin. Low interest rates and the use of gold currency strengthened its economy, it was always somewhat fragile economically, because of the difficulty in providing enough surplus food to support the military and commercial adventures of the state. As Aceh lost political cohesion in the 17th century, it saw its trading importance yielded to the Dutch East India Company, who became the dominant military and economic power in the region following the successful siege of Malacca in 1641. In 1699 Sultan Badr al-alam Syarif Hasyim Jamal ad-din ascended to the throne, the first male to rule in 60 years, he was succeeded by several short-lived rulers, in 1727 a member of the Buginese dynasty, Sultan Ala ad-din Ahmad Shah took power. In the late 18th and early 19th Centuries, Koh Lay Huan – the first Kapitan Cina of Penang, had good contacts with the English-and-French-speaking Sultan of Aceh, Jauhar al-Alam.
The Sultan allowed Koh to gather pepper plants in Aceh to begin pepper cultivation in Penang. About 1819, Koh helped Sultan Jauhar al-Alam put down a rebellion by Acehnese territorial chiefs. In the 1820s, as Aceh produced over half the world's supply of pepper, a new leader, Tuanku Ibrahim, was able to restore some authority to the Sultanate and gain control over the "pepper rajas
Champa was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832. The kingdom was known variously as nagara Campa in the Chamic and Cambodian inscriptions, Chăm Pa in Vietnamese and 占城 in Chinese records; the Chams of modern Vietnam and Cambodia are the remnants of this former kingdom. They speak Chamic languages, a subfamily of Malayo-Polynesian related to the Malayic and Bali–Sasak languages. Champa was preceded in the region by a kingdom called Linyi, or Lâm Ấp, in existence since AD 192. Champa reached its apogee in the 9th and 10th centuries AD. Thereafter, it began a gradual decline under pressure from Đại Việt, the Vietnamese polity centered in the region of modern Hanoi. In 1832, the Vietnamese emperor Minh Mạng annexed the remaining Cham territories. Hinduism, adopted through conflicts and conquest of territory from neighboring Funan in the 4th century AD, shaped the art and culture of the Champa kingdom for centuries, as testified by the many Cham Hindu statues and red brick temples that dotted the landscape in Cham lands.
Mỹ Sơn, a former religious center, Hội An, one of Champa's main port cities, are now World Heritage Sites. Today, many Cham people adhere to Islam, a conversion which began in the 10th century, with the Royals having adopted the faith by the 17th century. There are, Balamon Cham who still retain and preserve their Hindu faith and festivals; the Balamon Cham are one of only two surviving non-Indic indigenous Hindu peoples in the world, with a culture dating back thousands of years. The other is the Balinese Hinduism of the Balinese of Indonesia; the name Champa derived from the Sanskrit word campaka, which refers to Magnolia champaca, a species of flowering tree known for its fragrant flowers. The historiography of Champa relies upon three types of sources: Physical remains, including brick structures and ruins, as well as stone sculptures. Modern scholarship has been guided by two competing theories in the historiography of Champa. Scholars agree that Champa was divided into several regions or principalities spread out from south to north along the coast of modern Vietnam and united by a common language and heritage.
It is acknowledged that the historical record is not rich for each of the regions in every historical period. For example, in the 10th century AD, the record is richest for Indrapura; some scholars have taken these shifts in the historical record to reflect the movement of the Cham capital from one location to another. According to such scholars, if the 10th-century record is richest for Indrapura, it is so because at that time Indrapura was the capital of Champa. Other scholars have disputed this contention, holding that Champa was never a united country, arguing that the presence of a rich historical record for a given region in a given period is no basis for claiming that the region functioned as the capital of a united Champa during that period. Through the centuries, Cham culture and society were influenced by forces emanating from Cambodia, China and India amongst others. Lin Yi, a predecessor state in the region, began its existence in AD 192 as a breakaway Chinese colony. An official revolted against Chinese rule in central Vietnam, Lin Yi was founded in AD 192.
In the 4th century AD, wars with the neighbouring Kingdom of Funan in Cambodia and the acquisition of Funanese territory led to the infusion of Indian culture into Cham society. Sanskrit was adopted as a scholarly language, Hinduism Shaivism, became the state religion. From the 10th century AD onwards, Arab maritime trade in the region brought increasing Islamic cultural and religious influences. Champa came to serve as an important link in the spice trade, which stretched from the Persian Gulf to South China, in the Arab maritime routes in Mainland Southeast Asia as a supplier of aloe. Despite the frequent wars between Champa and Cambodia, the two countries traded and cultural influences moved in both directions. Royal families of the two countries intermarried frequently. Champa had close trade and cultural relations with the powerful maritime empire of Srivijaya and with the Majapahit of the Malay Archipelago. Evidence gathered from linguistic studies around Aceh confirms that a strong Champan cultural influence existed in Indonesia.
Linguists believe the Acehnese language, a descendant of the Proto-Chamic language, separated from the Chamicic tongue sometime in the 1st millennium AD. However, scholarly views on the precise nature of Aceh-Chamic relations vary; the people of Champa descended from seafaring settlers who reached the Southeast Asian mainland from Borneo about the time of the Sa Huỳnh culture, the predecessor of the Cham kingdom. The Cham language is part of the Austronesian family. According to one study, Cham is related most to modern Acehnese in northern Sumatra. To the Han Chinese, the country of Ch
Spread of Islam in Indonesia
The history of arrival and spread of Islam in Indonesia is unclear. One theory states it arrived directly from Arabia before the 9th century, while another credits Sufi merchants and preachers for bringing Islam to Indonesian islands in the 12th or 13th century either from Gujarat in India or directly from the Middle East. Before the arrival of Islam, the predominant religions in Indonesia were Hinduism; the spread of Islam was slow and gradual. Though historical documents are incomplete, the limited evidence suggests that the spread of Islam accelerated in the 15th century, as the military power of Melaka Sultanate in Malay Peninsular today Malaysia and other Islamic Sultanates dominated the region aided by episodes of Muslim coup such as in 1446, wars and superior control of maritime trading and ultimate markets. By the time European merchants such as Portuguese and Dutch traders began trading in Indonesia in the 16th century and Hinduism were extinct in the major islands of Indonesia, except for pockets such as Bali which became the refuge for the Hindus from other Indonesian islands after Muslim Sultanates and Hindu kingdom wars in the 15th century.
The spread of Islam in eastern islands of Indonesia is recorded in 1605 when three Islamic pious men collectively known as Dato' Tallu came from Makasar, namely Dato'ri Bandang, Dato'ri Pattimang and Dato'ri Tiro (Abdul Jawad or Khatib Bungsu. According to Christian Pelras, Dato' Tallu converted King of Gowa and Tallo to Islam and changed their name to Sultan Muhammad; the spread of Islam was driven by increasing trade links outside of the archipelago. Traders and the royalty of major kingdoms were the first to convert to Islam. Dominant kingdoms included Mataram in Central Java, the sultanates of Ternate and Tidore in the Maluku Islands to the east. By the end of the 13th century, Islam had been established in North Sumatra. Although it is known that the spread of Islam began in the west of the archipelago, the fragmentary evidence does not suggest a rolling wave of conversion through adjacent areas. Despite being one of the most significant developments in Indonesian history, historical evidence is fragmentary and uninformative such that understandings of the coming of Islam to Indonesia are limited.
The primary evidence, at least of the earlier stages of the process, are gravestones and a few travellers' accounts, but these can only show that indigenous Muslims were in a certain place at a certain time. This evidence cannot explain more complicated matters such as how lifestyles were affected by the new religion or how it affected societies, it cannot be assumed, for example, that because a ruler was known to be a Muslim, that the process of Islamisation of that area was complete. A clear turning point occurred when the Hindu empire Majapahit in Java fell to the Islamised Demak Sultanate. In 1527, the Muslim ruler renamed newly conquered Sunda Kelapa as Jayakarta, contracted to Jakarta. Assimilation increased in the wake of this conquest. Both Indonesia's colonial and republican governments have favoured Hindu and Buddhist sites in Java in their allocation of resources for excavation and preservation, with less emphasis on the early history of Islam in Indonesia. Funds, both public and private, are spent on the construction of new mosques, rather than the exploration of old ones.
Before Islam was established in Indonesian communities, Muslim traders had been present for several centuries. Ricklefs identifies two overlapping processes by which the Islamisation of Indonesia occurred: Indonesians came into contact with Islam and converted, foreign Muslim Asians settled in Indonesia and mixed with local communities. Islam is thought to have been present in Southeast Asia from early in the Islamic era. From the time of the third caliph of Islam,'Uthman', Muslim emissaries and merchants were arriving in China who must have passed through Indonesia sea routes from the Islamic world, it would have been through this contact that Arabic emissaries between 904 and the mid-12th century are thought to have become involved in the Sumatran trading state of Srivijaya. The earliest accounts of the Indonesian archipelago date from the Abbasid Caliphate. According to those early accounts, the Indonesian archipelago was famous among early Muslim sailors due to its abundance of precious spice trade commodities such as nutmeg, cloves and many other spices.
The presence of foreign Muslims in Indonesia does not, demonstrate a significant level of local conversion or the establishment of local Islamic states. The most reliable evidence of the early spread of Islam in Indonesia comes from inscriptions on tombstones and a limited number of travellers’ accounts; the earliest legibly inscribed tombstone is dated AH 475, although as it belongs to a non-Indonesian Muslim, there is doubt as to whether it was transported to Java at a time. The first evidence of Indonesian Muslims comes from northern Sumatra.
Pidie Regency is a regency of Aceh Special region, in Indonesia. It is located in the north of the island of Sumatra, in Western Indonesia, bordered by the Malacca Strait and Pidie Jaya Regency in the north, Aceh Besar Regency in the west, Bireuen Regency in the northeast, Aceh Jaya Regency in the south; the regency covers an area of 3,086.95 square kilometres and according to the 2012 census had a population of 443,718 people. Pidie was the largest rice-producing area of Aceh province, producing some 20% of its total output. People from pidie control the various market in aceh province neighboring province of North Sumatra its Medan City and neighboring country of Malaysia; the regency is divided administratively into 22 districts: Batee Delima Geumpang Glumpang Baro Glumpang Tiga Grong Grong Indrajaya Kembang Tanjong Kota Sigli Mane Mila Muara Tiga Mutiara Mutiara Timur Padang Tiji Peukan Baro Pidie Sakti Simpang Tiga Tangse Tiro Titeua Zaini Abdullah. Teungku Chik di Tiro. Daud Beureueh. Teuku Mohammad Hasan.
Ibrahim Hasan. Hasballah M Saad. Hasan Tiro. Sanusi Juned. Ismail Hassan Metareum. Ibrahim Risjad or Richard
Aceh is a province of Indonesia, located at the northern end of Sumatra. Its capital and largest city is Banda Aceh, it is close to the Nicobar Islands of India and separated from them by the Andaman Sea. Granted a special autonomous status, Aceh is a religiously conservative territory and the only Indonesian province practicing Sharia law officially. There are ten indigenous ethnic groups in this region, the largest being the Acehnese people, accounting for 80% to 90% of the region's population. Aceh is the place where the spread of Islam in Indonesia began, was a key factor of the spread of Islam in Southeast Asia. Islam reached Aceh around 1250 AD. In the early seventeenth century the Sultanate of Aceh was the most wealthy and cultivated state in the Malacca Straits region. Aceh has a history of political independence and resistance to control by outsiders, including the former Dutch colonists and the Indonesian government. Aceh has substantial natural resources of oil and natural gas with some estimates that Aceh gas reserves are one of the largest in the world.
Aceh was the closest point of land to the epicenter of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, which devastated much of the western coast of the province. 170,000 Indonesians were killed or went missing in the disaster. The disaster helped precipitate the peace agreement between the government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement. Aceh was first known as Aceh Darussalam and later as the Daerah Istimewa Aceh, Nanggroë Aceh Darussalam and Aceh. Past spellings of Aceh include Acheh and Achin. According to several archaeological findings, the first evidence of human habitation in Aceh is from a site near the Tamiang River where shell middens are present. Stone tools and faunal remains were found on the site. Archeologists believe the site was first occupied around 10,000 BC. Not much has been uncovered about the pre-Islamic history of Aceh, however there are several artifacts that linked pre-Islamic era with Buddhism and Dharmic culture came from Srivijaya or Indochina region, as well as pre-Islamic Old Malay custom.
For example, the discovery of severed head of stone sculpture of Avalokiteshvara Boddhisattva, discovered in Aceh. The images of Amitabha Buddhas are adorned his crown. Srivijayan art estimated 9th century CE. Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta. Historic names such as Indrapurba, Indrapurwa and Indrapuri, which refer to Hindu god Indra, gave some hint of Indian influence on this region. However, unlike Jambi and South Sumatra, there are no significant archaeological sites and findings such as temples, that link this region with Hindu-Buddhist culture. Evidence concerning the initial coming and subsequent establishment of Islam in Southeast Asia is thin and inconclusive; the historian Anthony Reid has argued that the region of the Cham people on the south-central coast of Vietnam was one of the earliest Islamic centers in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, as the Cham people fled the Vietnamese, one of the earliest locations that they established a relationship with was Aceh. Furthermore, it is thought.
When Venetian traveller Marco Polo passed by Sumatra on his way home from China in 1292 he found that Peureulak was a Muslim town while nearby'Basma' and'Samara' were not.'Basma' and'Samara' are said to be Pasai and Samudra but evidence is inconclusive. The gravestone of Sultan Malik as-Salih, the first Muslim ruler of Samudra, has been found and is dated AH 696; this is the earliest clear evidence of a Muslim dynasty in the Indonesia-Malay area and more gravestones from the thirteenth century show that this region continued under Muslim rule. Ibn Batutah, a Moroccan traveller, passing through on his way to China in 1345 and 1346, found that the ruler of Samudra was a follower of the Shafi'i school of Islam; the Portuguese apothecary Tome Pires reported in his early 16th-century book Suma Oriental that most of the kings of Sumatra from Aceh through Palembang were Muslim. At Pasai, in what is now the North Aceh Regency, there was a thriving international port. Pires attributed the establishment of Islam in Pasai to the'cunning' of the Muslim merchants.
The ruler of Pasai, had not been able to convert the people of the interior. The Sultanate of Aceh was established by Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah in 1511. In 1584–88 the Bishop of Malacca, D. João Ribeiro Gaio, based on information provided by a former captive called Diogo Gil, wrote the "Roteiro das Cousas do Achem" – a description of the Sultanate. During its golden era, in the 17th century, its territory and political influence expanded as far as Satun in southern Thailand, Johor in Malay Peninsula, Siak in what is today the province of Riau; as was the case with most non-Javan pre-colonial states, Acehnese power expanded outward by sea rather than inland. As it expanded down the Sumatran coast, its main competitors were Johor and Portuguese Malacca on the other side of the Straits of Malacca, it was this seaborne trade focus that saw Aceh rely on rice imports from north Java rather than develop self sufficiency in rice production. After the Portuguese occupation of Malacca in 1511, many Islamic traders passing the Malacca Straits shifted their trade to Banda Aceh and increased the Acehnese rulers' wealth.
During the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda in the 17th century, Aceh's influence extended to most of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. Aceh allied itself with the Ottoman Empire and the Dutch East India Company in their struggle against the Portuguese and the Johor Sultanate. Acehnese military power waned graduall