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Allen G. Thurman

Allen Granberry Thurman was a Democratic Representative, Ohio Supreme Court justice, Senator from Ohio. He was the Democratic Party's nominee for Vice President of the United States in 1888. Born in Lynchburg, Virginia, he and his family moved to Chillicothe, when Thurman was young. Thurman established a legal practice in Chillicothe with his uncle, William Allen, who represented Ohio in the U. S. Senate. Thurman won election to the House of Representatives in 1844, becoming the youngest member of that body, he supported the James K. Polk administration during the Mexican–American War and voted for the Wilmot Proviso, which would have banned slavery from any territory gained from Mexico, he served a single term in the House before joining the Supreme Court of Ohio. He won election to the Senate in 1869. During the disputed 1876 presidential election, Thurman helped establish the Electoral Commission. Thurman lost re-election in 1881. Thurman was a favorite son candidate for president in 1880 and 1884.

The 1888 Democratic National Convention selected him as President Grover Cleveland's running mate, as Vice President Thomas A. Hendricks had died in office; the aging Thurman did not campaign and the Democratic ticket was defeated. He was born in Virginia, to Pleasant Thurman and Mary Granberry Allen Thurman. Both of his parents were teachers. In 1815, his parents moved to Chillicothe, Ohio, he attended Chillicothe Academy, an academy run by his mother, studied law as an apprentice to his uncle, William Allen. At the age of eighteen, Thurman worked on a land survey, at twenty-one became private secretary to the Governor of Ohio, Robert Lucas. In 1835 he became his uncle's law partner. In 1837 his uncle entered the Senate. On November 14, 1844, Thurman married Mary Dun Thomplins, they were the parents of three children; the same year he was elected to the House of Representatives as its youngest member. He supported the majority of the Democrats on all issues except internal improvements, on which he tended to vote with the Whigs.

He supported the Polk Administration's conduct of the Mexican–American War, spoke in favor of the 54°40' northern limit to the Oregon territory, voted for the Wilmot Proviso, which would have banned slavery from the territory gained from Mexico. His support for the latter was due to anti-African-American prejudice, as he wanted to reserve this territory for white settlement. After a single two-year term, he left the House voluntarily to resume private law practice. In 1851 he was elected to a four-year term on the Ohio Supreme Court, the last year as the chief justice, he returned to private law practice in Columbus. Thurman spoke out against the repeal of the Missouri Compromise and opposed the pro-slavery Lecompton constitution for Kansas. In 1860 he was a supporter of Stephen A. Douglas for President, he never accepted the right of a state to secede but felt it was unwise to fight a state that had left the Union, during the American Civil War he was opposed to Lincoln's policies on emancipation.

While he supported the war effort, he encouraged a political settlement. In 1867, he ran for Governor of Ohio, on a platform opposed to extending suffrage to blacks, but lost to Rutherford B. Hayes in a close election; the Ohio voters chose a Democratic state legislature, which selected Thurman as senator for the term beginning in 1869. He there became a strong opponent of the Republicans' Reconstruction measures. In 1873 Thurman crafted a strategy that led to Ohio choosing once more a Democratic legislature, electing Thurman's uncle William Allen as governor; the legislature elected Thurman to another term in the Senate. During the twelve years he served in the Senate, he became the leader of the Democrats in that body, he was known for constant hard work, good preparation, courteous treatment of his opponents, other members ranked him among the top three senators of his time, in terms of ability. He came nearest, a Washington correspondent concluded, to "the beau ideal of a Senator of any man on his side of the House.

He has fine passing power of cutting up his political opponents, saying a word of encouragement to some Republican when he is down, scattering the caucuses of the opposite side with a pistol shot." His prepared speeches were clear and cogent, but it was in debate that he showed himself at his most picturesque. "He would wave his red bandana pocket handkerchief like a guidon, give his nose a trumpet-blast, take a fresh pinch of snuff, dash into the debate, dealing rough blows, scattering the prepared arguments of his adversaries like chaff," a Washington long-time reporter remembered. He kept up a close friendship with his chief sparring partner on the opposite side, George F. Edmunds of Vermont. Journalists told how at a given signal—a long blow of his nose—he would get ready to exit the Senate so that the two could meet in the Judiciary Committee room to share a liberal amount of Kentucky Bourbon."When I speak of the law," Senator Roscoe Conkling of New York once said, "I turn to the Senator as the Mussulman turns towards Mecca.

I look to him only as I would look to the common law of England, the world's most copious volume of human jurisprudence." In particular he made himself the critic of giveaways to the large railroad corporations and of Republicans' Reconstruction policies. "A fine juicy roast of land grants is what sends Thurman's tongue a-wagging," w

Voiceless palatal fricative

The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ç⟩, the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is C, it is the non-sibilant equivalent of the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative. The symbol ç is the letter c with a cedilla, as used to spell French and Portuguese words such as façade and ação. However, the sound represented by the letter ç in French and Portuguese orthography is not a voiceless palatal fricative but /s/, the voiceless alveolar fricative. Palatal fricatives are rare phonemes, only 5% of the world's languages have /ç/ as a phoneme; the sound occurs, however, as an allophone of /x/ in German, or, in other languages, of /h/ in the vicinity of front vowels. There is the voiceless post-palatal fricative in some languages, articulated more back compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless palatal fricative, though not as back as the prototypical voiceless velar fricative.

The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as ⟨ç̠⟩, ⟨ç˗⟩ or ⟨x̟⟩. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are C_- and x_+, respectively. In broad transcription, the voiceless post-palatal fricative may be transcribed as a palatalized voiceless velar fricative. Features of the voiceless palatal fricative: Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence, its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate. The otherwise identical post-palatal variant is articulated behind the hard palate, making it sound closer to the velar, its phonation is voiceless. In some languages the vocal cords are separated, so it is always voiceless, it is an oral consonant. It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds. Index of phonetics articles List of languages with on PHOIBLE

Mynes woodfordi

Mynes woodfordi is a medium-sized butterfly of the family Nymphalidae found in and around the Solomon Islands and Bougainville. It was described by Frederick DuCane Godman and Osbert Salvin in 1888 and named after British naturalist Charles Morris Woodford Resident Commissioner of the Solomon Islands; the subspecies M. w. shannoni is named after Ray Shannon, who collected the type specimen in Malaita on the Solomons during his military service in 1944. Mynes woodfordi woodfordi Godman & Salvin – Bougainville, Treasury Is. M. w. isabella Fruhstorfer – Santa Isabel M. w. hercyna Godman & Salvin– Guadalcanal M. w. shannoni Tennent – Malaita

Keryn Jordan

Keryn Jordan was a South African footballer who played as a striker during a fifteen-year career. He started his career in his native South Africa at Pretoria City, before transferring to Manning Rangers where he won the golden boot during the 1997–98 Premier Soccer League season with 11 goals. In the 2003/2004 season, he led with 8 goals. Jordan moved to New Zealand, intending to play for the New Zealand Knights in the newly formed Australian and New Zealand A-League, he was unsuccessful in this and signed with new New Zealand Football Championship team Waitakere United instead. In his first season with the club, he scored 15 goals in the 21 rounds, earned the Golden Boot. Jordan earned one cap for South Africa at senior international level, in 1999. In 2008, after an unexplained three months on the sideline, Jordan announced that he had been suffering from cancer for three years, he had been worried that it would interfere with his application for permanent residency and New Zealand citizenship, but was treated and given the all-clear by doctors, made his comeback in a 4–1 win against Canterbury United.

On 19 March 2010, Jordan announced his retirement from all levels of domestic and international football, citing ongoing knee injuries. Jordan had not played a full game since the 2009 Club World Cup, he felt it the right time to retire, after what he conceded was an successful career. Jordan died of cancer on 21 October 2013, aged 37, in his hometown of Pretoria; the cancer had started as a melanoma spot thirteen years earlier, spread to his brain. Auckland City FC profile Keryn Jordan – FIFA competition record

Star war

A star war was a decisive conflict between rival polities of the Maya civilization during the first millennium AD. The term comes from a specific type of glyph used in the Maya script, which depicts a star showering the earth with liquid droplets, or a star over a shell, it represents a verb but its phonemic value and specific meaning have not yet been deciphered. The name "star war" was coined by the epigrapher Linda Schele to refer to the glyph, by extension to the type of conflict that it indicates. Maya inscriptions assign episodes of Maya warfare to four distinct categories, each represented by its own glyph; those accorded the greatest significance by the Maya were described with the "star war" glyph, representing a major war resulting in the defeat of one polity by another. This represents the installation of a new dynastic line of rulers, complete dominion of one polity over another, or a successful war of independence by a dominated polity. Losing a star war could be disastrous for the defeated party.

The first recorded star war in 562, between Caracol and Tikal, resulted in a 120-year hiatus for the latter city. It saw a decline in Tikal's population, a cessation of monument erection, the destruction of certain monuments in the Great Plaza; when Calakmul defeated Naranjo in a star war on December 24, 631, it resulted in Naranjo's ruler being tortured to death and eaten. Another star war in February 744 resulted in Tikal sacking Caracol and capturing a personal god effigy of its ruler. An inscription from a monument found at Tortuguero describes the aftermath of a star war: "the blood was pooled, the skulls were piled". Mayanists have noted that the dates of recorded star wars coincide with astronomical events involving the planet Venus, either when it was first visible in the morning or night sky or during its absence at inferior conjunction. Venus was known to Mesoamerican civilizations as the bringer of war; the Maya called it Chak Ek' or "Great Star" and made it the focus of detailed astronomical observation and calculation.

The Dresden Codex, one of only four surviving Maya books, includes astronomical tables for calculating the position of Venus, which the codex depicts as spearing people as it passes overhead. Seventy percent of recorded star war dates are reported to correspond with Venus's evening phase, while 84 percent match the first appearance of the evening star. Star wars appear to have had a seasonal bias, clustering in the dry season from November through January. Few were recorded to have happened during the planting season and none at all during harvest time, between mid-September and late October. There may have been a correlation between star wars and solar eclipses; the precise nature of the proposed link between star wars and astronomical events is unclear. It is possible that events such as eclipses may have stimulated star wars, prompting the Maya to launch star wars in the belief that they had received a favorable omen for military endeavors, they may have had astronomical connections with planets other than Venus.

A number of star wars are recorded in Mayan inscriptions dating from between 562 and 781. These include

Christoph Feldegg

Baron Christoph Freiherr Fellner von Feldegg was an Austrian army officer and naturalist. Fellner was born in a noble family in Krumau, where his father was a princely forester in Schwarzenberg. Fellner went to a military academy in Vienna and in 1808, became a sub-lieutenant in an army battalion and fought in the Battle of Aspern-Essling under Archduke Karl, he served in the Regiment de Vaux in 1813 where he distinguished himself. In 1815 he was knighted in the Military Order of Maria Theresa. Feldegg fought in the Napoleonic wars and in recognition of his many gallant deeds was created a Baron in 1817, he served in Dalmatia becoming Colonel and Commanding Officer of the 6th Battalion of Chaseurs. Feldegg took a special interest in the birds of Dalmatia and accumulated a large collection of natural history specimens, he was a correspondent of C. L. Brehm, John Gould and Hermann Schlegel, served for a time with the ornithologist Dr Karl Michahelles, his collection was donated to the Natural History Museum in Prague.

Feldegg had a number of birds named after him, including a subspecies of the Lanner falcon Falco biarmicus feldeggi and the black-headed wagtail, Motacilla flava feldegg, the Balkan and Black Sea sub-species of the yellow wagtail