The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party is a European political party composed of 60 national-level liberal parties from across Europe active in the European Union. On 26 March 1976, it was founded in Stuttgart as a confederation of national political parties under the name Federation of Liberal and Democrat Parties in Europe and renamed European Liberals and Democrats in 1977 and European Liberal Democrats and Reformists in 1986. On 30 April 2004, the ELDR was reformed as an official European party, the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party; the ALDE Party is affiliated with the Liberal International and a recognised European political party, incorporated as a non-profit association under Belgian law. On 10 November 2012, the party chose its current name of ALDE Party, taken from its then-European Parliament group, the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe, formed on 20 July 2004 in conjunction with the European Democratic Party. Prior to the 2004 European election the European party had been represented through its own group, the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party Group.
In June 2019, the ALDE group was succeeded by Renew Europe. As of 2019, ALDE is represented in European Union institutions, with 81 MEPs and four members of the European Commission. Of the 27 EU member states, there are five with ALDE-affiliated Prime Ministers: Mark Rutte in the Netherlands, Xavier Bettel in Luxembourg, Jüri Ratas in Estonia, Marjan Šarec in Slovenia, Andrej Babiš in the Czech Republic. Liberals are in government in three other EU member states: France, Croatia and Lithuania. ALDE's think; the youth wing of ALDE is the European Liberal Youth, predominantly based upon youth and student liberal organisations but contains a small number of individual members. LYMEC is led by Vedrana Gujic, elected for a two-year term as LYMEC President in May 2014, counts 200,000 members; the day-to-day management of the ALDE Party is handled by the Bureau, the members of which are: 1978–1981: Gaston Thorn 1981–1985: Willy De Clercq 1985–1990: Colette Flesch 1990–1995: Willy De Clercq 1995–2000: Uffe Ellemann-Jensen 2000–2005: Werner Hoyer 2005–2011: Annemie Neyts-Uyttebroeck 2011–2015: Graham Watson 2015–present: Hans van Baalen Pan-European liberalism has a long history dating back to the foundation of Liberal International in April 1947.
On 26 March 1976, the Federation of Liberal and Democrat Parties in Europe was established in Stuttgart. The founding parties of the federation were the Free Democratic Party of Germany, Radical Party of France, Liberal Party of Denmark, Italian Liberal Party, Dutch People's Party for Freedom and Democracy and Democratic Party of Luxembourg. Observer members joining in 1976 were the Danish Social Liberal Party, French Radical Party of the Left and Independent Republicans, British Liberal Party, Italian Republican Party. In 1977, the federation was renamed European Liberals and Democrats, in 1986, European Liberal Democrats and Reformists, it evolved into the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party in 2004, when it was founded as an official European party under that name and incorporated under Belgian law at an extraordinary Congress in Brussels, held on 30 April 2004 the day before the enlargement of the European Union. At the same time the matching group in the European Parliament, the European Liberal Democrats and Reformists Group allied with the members of the newly elected European Democratic Party, forming the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe with a matching ALDE Group in the European Parliament.
On 10 November 2012, the ELDR Party adopted the name of the alliance between the two parties, to match the parliamentary group and the alliance. On 12 June 2019, the ALDE group was succeeded by a enlarged group Renew Europe. ALDE Member Parties contribute four out of the 28 members of the European Commission: European Liberal Youth Liberal International Political parties of the world Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party official site European Liberal Youth
" Live and Die" is a song by English electronic band Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, released as the first single taken from their 1986 album, The Pacific Age. Paul Humphreys sings lead vocals on the track; the single peaked at No. 11 on the UK Singles Chart. It was a Top 10 hit in Canada and several European territories, a Top 20 hit in the United States, New Zealand, Ireland. Simon Mills in Smash Hits described the song as "limp, languid and inoffensive". Contactmusic journalist Dom Gourlay, in a 2011 piece, lauded " Live and Die" as a track that "stands the test of time." Critic Stewart Mason in AllMusic wrote that the song "sounds oddly unfinished, albeit pleasant enough". While unfavourable toward parent album The Pacific Age, OMD frontman Andy McCluskey maintains that " Live and Die" is "a good song". 7" and 7" picture disc" Live and Die" – 3:36 "This Town" – 3:44First 12"" Live and Die" – 5:45 " Live and Die" – 3:36 "This Town" – 3:44Second 12"" Live and Die" – 5:50 " Live and Die" – 3:36 "This Town" – 3:44 " Live and Die" at Discogs
Edward Eugene Loomis was President of the Lehigh Valley Railroad from 1917 to 1937. He was born on April 2, 1864 in German Flatts, New York to Lydia Esther Norton, he went to work in the law department of the Rio Grande Western Railroad. He worked in the office of the general superintendent of the Erie Railroad. In 1894 he was made superintendent of Pennsylvania division of the Erie Railroad, he was manager of the Blossburg Coal Company. In 1898 he was appointed general superintendent of the New York and Western Railway and of the Wilkes-Barre and Eastern Railroad. In 1899 the Delaware and Western Railroad under William Haynes Truesdale was reorganized and Loomis was hired, he was president of the Lehigh Valley Railroad from 1917 to 1937. He died on July 1937 at his summer home, Holiday Park, in Murray Hill, New Jersey, he was a trustee of the American Surety Company. He was director of three New York banks, Liberty National Bank, the Chatham and Phenix Bank and the Coal and Iron National Bank. An executor of the estate of Samuel L. Clemens.
He was director of the Mark Twain Company. He was director of the Temple Iron Company and of Prizma, he was treasurer and director of the Moses Taylor Hospital and director of the Playground and Recreation Association of America. He was president and director of the Harlem Transfer Company, vice-president and director of the Morris and Essex Railroad, vice-president and director of the Hoboken Ferry, he was a member of the American Institute of Mining and Petroleum Engineers, the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, the Metropolitan Club, the Recess Club, the Railroad Club of New York, the Westmoreland Club of Wilkes-Barre, the Scranton Club of Scranton, the Country Club of Scranton and of the Baltusrol Golf Club
Acid sulfate soils are occurring soils, sediments or organic substrates that are formed under waterlogged conditions. These soils contain their oxidation products. In an undisturbed state below the water table, acid sulfate soils are benign. However, if the soils are drained, excavated or exposed to air by a lowering of the water table, the sulfides react with oxygen to form sulfuric acid. Release of this sulfuric acid from the soil can in turn release iron and other heavy metals within the soil. Once mobilized in this way, the acid and metals can create a variety of adverse impacts: killing vegetation, seeping into and acidifying groundwater and surface water bodies, killing fish and other aquatic organisms, degrading concrete and steel structures to the point of failure; the soils and sediments most prone to becoming acid sulfate soils formed within the last 10,000 years, after the last major sea level rise. When the sea level rose and inundated the land, sulfate in the seawater mixed with land sediments containing iron oxides and organic matter.
Under these anaerobic conditions, lithotrophic bacteria such as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans obtain oxygen for respiration through the reduction of sulfate ions in sea or groundwater, producing hydrogen sulfide. This in turn reacts with dissolved ferrous iron, forming fine grained and reactive framboid crystals of iron sulfides such as. Up to a point, warmer temperatures are more favourable conditions for these bacteria, creating a greater potential for formation of iron sulfides. Tropical waterlogged environments, such as mangrove swamps or estuaries, may contain higher levels of pyrite than those formed in more temperate climates; the pyrite is stable until exposed to air, at which point the pyrite oxidises and produces sulfuric acid. The impacts of acid sulfate soil leachate may peak seasonally. In some areas of Australia, acid sulfate soils that drained 100 years ago are still releasing acid; when drained, pyrite- containing soils may become acidic due to the oxidation of pyrite into sulfuric acid.
In its simplest form, this chemical reaction is as follows: 2 FeS 2 + 9 O 2 + 4 H 2 O ⟶ 8 H + + 4 SO 4 2 − + 2 Fe 3 ↓ The product Fe3, iron hydroxide, precipitates as a solid, insoluble mineral by which the alkalinity component is immobilized, while the acidity remains active in the sulfuric acid. The process of acidification is accompanied by the formation of high amounts of aluminium, which are harmful to vegetation. Other products of the chemical reaction are: Hydrogen sulfide, a smelly gas Sulfur, a yellow solid Iron sulfide, a black/gray/blue solid Hematite, a red solid Goethite, a brown mineral Schwertmannite a brown mineral Iron sulfate compounds H-Clay The iron can be present in bivalent and trivalent forms; the ferrous form is soluble. The more oxidized the soil becomes, the more the ferric forms dominate. Acid sulfate soils exhibit an array of colors ranging from black, blue-gray, red and yellow; the hydrogen clay can be improved by admitting sea water: the magnesium and sodium in the sea water replaces the adsorbed hydrogen and other exchangeable acidic cations such as aluminium.
However this can create additional risks when the hydrogen ions and exchangeable metals are mobilised. Acid sulfate soils are widespread around coastal regions, are locally associated with freshwater wetlands and saline sulfate-rich groundwater in some agricultural areas. In Australia, coastal acid sulfate soils occupy an estimated 58,000 km2, underlying coastal estuaries and floodplains near where the majority of the Australian population lives. Acid sulfate soil disturbance is associated with dredging, excavation dewatering activities during canal and marina developments. Droughts can result in acid sulfate soil exposure and acidification. Acid sulfate soils that have not been disturbed are called potential acid sulfate soils. Acid sulfate soils that have been disturbed are called actual acid sulfate soils. Disturbing potential acid sulfate soils can have a destructive effect on plant and fish life, on aquatic ecosystems. Flushing of acidic leachate to groundwater and surface waters can cause a number of impacts, including: Ecological damage to aquatic and riparian ecosystems through fish kills, increased fish disease outbreaks, dominance of acid-tolerant species, precipitation of iron, etc.
Effects on estuarine fisheries and aquaculture projects. Contamination of groundwater and surface water with arsenic and other metals. Reduction in agricultural productivity through metal contamination of soils. Damage to infrastructure through the corrosion of concrete and steel pipes, bridge
Franz Herre is a German biographer and journalist. He grew up in Augsburg and studied history at the University of Munich, receiving his doctorate in 1949, supervised by Franz Schnabel and with a dissertation on the Augsburg middle-classes during the Age of Enlightenment, he worked as a journalist on the Augsburger Allgemeine and Rheinischer Merkur for several years. From 1962 to 1981 he was editor-in-chief of the Deutsche Welle in Cologne, he now works. Freiherr vom Stein: sein Leben, seine Zeit, Köln 1973. Kaiser Franz Joseph von Österreich: sein Leben, seine Zeit, Köln 1978. Kaiser Wilhelm I.: der letzte Preuße, Köln 1980. Radetzky: eine Biographie, Köln 1981. Metternich: Staatsmann des Friedens, Köln 1983. Moltke: der Mann und sein Jahrhundert, Stuttgart 1984. Ludwig II. von Bayern: sein Leben – sein Land – seine Zeit, Stuttgart 1986. Kaiser Friedrich III.: Deutschlands liberale Hoffnung, eine Biographie, Stuttgart 1987. Montgelas: Gründer des bayerischen Staates, Weilheim 1988. Napoleon Bonaparte: Wegbereiter des Jahrhunderts, München 1988.
Napoleon III.: Glanz und Elend des Zweiten Kaiserreiches, München 1990. Bismarck: der preußische Deutsche, Köln 1991. Kaiser Wilhelm II.: Monarch zwischen den Zeiten, Köln 1993. Maria Theresia: die große Habsburgerin, Köln 1994. Marie Louise: Napoleon war ihr Schicksal, Köln 1996. Prinz Eugen: Europas heimlicher Herrscher, Stuttgart 1997. George Washington: Präsident an der Wiege einer Weltmacht, Stuttgart 1999. Eugénie: Kaiserin der Franzosen, Stuttgart 2000. Joséphine: Kaiserin an Napoleons Seite, Regensburg 2003. Napoleon Bonaparte: eine Biografie, überarbeitete Neuausgabe, Regensburg 2003. Marie Antoinette: vom Königsthron zum Schafott, Stuttgart u.a. 2004. Ludwig I.: ein Romantiker auf Bayerns Thron, Stuttgart u.a. 2005. Kaiserin Friedrich: Victoria, eine Engländerin in Deutschland, Stuttgart u.a. 2005. Friedrich Wilhelm IV.: der andere Preußenkönig, Gernsbach 2007. Das Augsburger Bürgertum im Zeitalter der Aufklärung, in Reihe: Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Stadt Augsburg. 1949, Augsburg u.a. 1952.
Nation ohne Staat: Die Entstehung der deutschen Frage, Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Köln-Berlin 1967. Anno 70/71: Ein Krieg, ein Reich, ein Kaiser, Köln 1970. Die amerikanische Revolution: Geburt einer Weltmacht, Köln 1976. Deutsche und Franzosen: der lange Weg zur Freundschaft, Bergisch Gladbach 1983. Die Fugger in ihrer Zeit, Wißner Verlag, Augsburg 12. Auflage 2009 ISBN 3-89639-490-8. Die Geschichte Frankreichs. Geschrieben von Franz Herre und in Bildern erzählt von Erich Lessing, C. Bertelsmann Verlag, München 1989. Bibliographie zur Zeitgeschichte und zum zweiten Weltkrieg für die Jahre 1945–1950, München 1955. Paris: Ein historischer Führer vom Mittelalter bis zur Belle Epoque, Köln 1972. Der vollkommene Feinschmecker: Einführung in die Kunst des Geniessens, Düsseldorf 1977. Wien: historische Spaziergänge, Köln 1992. A wie Adenauer: Erinnerungen an die Anfänge der Bonner Republik, Stuttgart 1997. Jahrhundertwende 1900: Untergangsstimmung und Fortschrittsglauben, Stuttgart 1998. Rom: historische Spaziergänge, Köln 1999.
G. I. Joe was a pigeon noted for his service in the United States Army Pigeon Service; the bird is part of the homing pigeons used during World War I and World War II for communication and reconnaissance purposes. G. I. Joe had the name tag, Pigeon USA43SC6390, he was hatched in March 1943, in Algiers, North Africa and underwent a training for two-way homing pigeons perfected at Fort Monmouth, in New Jersey. During the Italian Campaign of World War II, G. I. Joe saved the lives of the inhabitants of the village of Calvi Vecchia, of the British troops of 56th Infantry Division occupying it. Air support had been requested against German positions at Calvi Vecchia on 18 October 1943. However, the 169th Infantry Brigade attacked and won back the village from the Germans ahead of schedule but they were unable to transmit a message via radio to call off the planned American air raid. G. I. Joe was dispatched as a last resort to carry the message and arrived in the air base just in time to avoid the Allied air force from bombing their own men.
G. I. Joe flew this 20-mile distance in an impressive 20 minutes, just as the planes were preparing to take off for the target. Over 100 men were saved. On 4 November 1946, G. I. Joe was presented the Dickin Medal for gallantry by Major-General Charles Keightley at the Tower of London the citation credits him with the most outstanding flight made by a United States Army homing pigeon in World War II; the award is known as the equivalent of the Victoria Cross or the Medal of Honor for animals. G. I. Joe was the first non-British recipient of the medal. After World War II, he was housed at the U. S. Army's Churchill Loft in New Jersey along with 24 other heroic pigeons, he died at the Detroit Zoological Gardens at the age of eighteen, was mounted and displayed at the U. S. Army Communications Electronics Museum at Fort Monmouth