De Havilland Ghost
The de Havilland Ghost was the de Havilland Engine Company's second turbojet engine design to enter production and the world's first gas turbine engine to enter airline service. A scaled-up development of the Goblin, the Ghost powered the de Havilland Venom, de Havilland Comet and SAAB 29 Tunnan. On 23 March 1948, John Cunningham, flying a modified Vampire Mk I, furnished with extended wing tips, powered by a Ghost engine, achieved a new world altitude record, having attained a maximum altitude of 59,446 ft; the Ghost originated when de Havilland started work on what was to become the Comet in 1943. Frank Halford's first design, the H-1, was just entering production and he was able to meet the power requirements of the Comet by scaling up the H-1; the resulting H-2 used ten larger combustion chambers in place of the Goblin's sixteen smaller ones, using bifurcated "split intakes" which were fed by each diffuser duct. While the prototype was being built, de Havilland bought Halford's firm and reformed it as the de Havilland Engine Company, renaming the H-1 and H-2 as the Goblin and Ghost respectively.
The Ghost was running in 1944, flew in 1945. This was long before the Venom was ready for flight. By this point the Ghost had been selected for the Swedish "JxR" fighter project, which turned into the Tunnan. During the design of the Tunnan, Sweden received German data on swept wing designs via Switzerland and redesigned the plane to incorporate this planform; the Tunnan first flew in this form in 1948. For production versions of the Tunnan, the Ghost was built under licence by Svenska Flygmotor as the RM2; the Ghost was licence built in Italy by Fiat and in Switzerland by Sulzer Brothers. The Ghost would next be seen when the Comet I first took to the air on 27 July 1949, it was powered by the 5,000 lbf Ghost 50, the interim powerplant, pending the availability of the Avon engine, to be used in the Comet 2. Several versions of the Ghost 50 were produced, ending with the Ghost 50-Mk.4 installed in the Comet 1XB, built to test new fuselage construction techniques introduced to address problems with the Comet 1.
During development, the Royal Air Force asked for an improved version of the de Havilland Vampire with greater load-carrying capacity and thus a larger engine. The resulting design was known as the Venom, shared many features with the earlier Vampire; the Ghost first flew in the Venom on 2 September 1949. By this point the engine had been running for some time and was at the Mk.103 model of 4,850 lbf. The Venom was used as a fighter bomber, although some were produced as night fighters; the Venom was selected by the Fleet Air Arm for their interceptor needs, was used as the Sea Venom. Ghost 45 rated at 4,400 lbf Ghost 48 Mk.1 rated at 4,850 lbf Ghost 48 Mk.2 Ghost 50 Mk 1 rated at 5,000 lbf at 10,000 rpm with a weight of 2,011 lb Ghost 50 Mk 2 rated at 5,125 lbf Ghost 53 Mk 1 Ghost 103 rated at 4,850 lbf Ghost 104 rated at 4,950 lbf Ghost 105 rated at 5,150 lbf Svenska Flygmotor RM2 Licence production and development 5,000 lbf at 10,250 rpm Svenska Flygmotor RM2B RM2 with afterburner 6,200 lbf wet at 10,250 rpm.
Fiat 4001 Fiat licence production. De Havilland Comet de Havilland Venom de Havilland Sea Venom "Ghost-Lancastrian" Saab Tunnan Crusader Data from Aircraft engines of the World 1957 Type: Turbojet Length: 129 in Diameter: 52.7 in Frontal area: 15.2 sq ft Dry weight: 2,135 lb Compressor: Single-stage centrifugal flow Combustors: 10 chambers Turbine: Single-stage axial flow Fuel type: Kerosene / JP-4 Maximum thrust: 5,300 lbf at 10,350 rpm for take-off Overall pressure ratio: 4.6 Turbine inlet temperature: JPT 1,033.15 K Specific fuel consumption: 1.02 lb/lbf/h Thrust-to-weight ratio: 2.5 lbf/lb Related development de Havilland Goblin Comparable engines Allison J33 Rolls-Royce NeneRelated lists List of aircraft engines Smith, Geoffrey G.. SGas Turbines and Jet Propulsion for Aircraft. London S. E.1: Flight Publishing Co. Ltd. Kay, Anthony L.. Turbojet History and Development 1930-1960. Vol.1. Ramsbury: The Crowood Press. ISBN 978-1-86126-912-6. SHEFFIELD, F. C.. "THE de HAVILLAND GHOST New Jet Unit Developing 5,000lb Thrust at 10,000 r.p.m.
By F. C. SHEFFIELD". Flight and Aircraft Engineer. LI: 142–145. Retrieved 17 March 2019. "de Havilland Ghost 50". Rafmuseum.org.uk. Archived from the original on 27 March 2005. Retrieved 17 March 2019. Giverin, Paul. "DE HAVILLAND". British Jet Engine Website. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2019
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The SSM-N-8A Regulus or the Regulus I was a United States Navy-developed ship-and-submarine-launched, nuclear-capable turbojet-powered second generation cruise missile, deployed from 1955 to 1964. Its development was an outgrowth of U. S. Navy tests conducted with the German V-1 missile at Naval Air Station Point Mugu in California, its barrel-shaped fuselage resembled that of numerous fighter aircraft designs of the era, but without a cockpit. Test articles of the Regulus were equipped with landing gear and could take off and land like an airplane; when the missiles were deployed they were launched from a rail launcher, equipped with a pair of Aerojet JATO bottles on the aft end of the fuselage. In October 1943, Chance Vought Aircraft Company signed a study contract for a 300-mile range missile to carry a 4,000-pound warhead; the project stalled for four years, until May 1947, when the United States Army Air Forces awarded Martin Aircraft Company a contract for a turbojet powered subsonic missile, the Matador.
The Navy saw Matador as a threat to its role in guided missiles and, within days, started a Navy development program for a missile that could be launched from a submarine and use the same J33 engine as the Matador. In August 1947, the specifications for the project, now named "Regulus," were issued: Carry a 3,000-pound warhead, to a range of 500 nautical miles, at Mach 0.85, with a circular error probable of 0.5% of the range. At its extreme range the missile had to hit within 2.5 nautical miles of its target 50% of the time. Regulus development was preceded by Navy experiments with the JB-2 Loon missile, a close derivative of the German V-1 flying bomb, beginning in the last year of World War II. Submarine testing was performed from 1947 to 1953 at the Navy's facility at Naval Air Station Point Mugu, with USS Cusk and USS Carbonero converted as test platforms carrying the missile unprotected, thus unable to submerge until after launch. Regulus was designed to be 30 feet long, 10 feet in wingspan, 4 feet in diameter, would weigh between 10,000 and 12,000 pounds.
The missile resembled an F-84 fighter aircraft, but without a cockpit, test versions were equipped with landing gear so that they could be recovered and re-used. After launch, Regulus would be guided toward its target by control stations by submarines or surface ships equipped with guidance equipment, it could be flown remotely by chase aircraft.. Army-Navy competition complicated both the Regulus' developments; the missiles used the same engine. They had nearly identical performances and costs. Under pressure to reduce defense spending, the United States Department of Defense ordered the Navy to determine if Matador could be adapted for their use; the Navy concluded. Regulus had some advantages over Matador, it required only two guidance stations. It could be launched quicker, as Matador's boosters had to be fitted while the missile was on the launcher while Regulus was stowed with its boosters attached. Chance Vought built a recoverable version of the missile, designated KDU-1 and used as a target drone, so that though a Regulus test vehicle was more expensive to build, Regulus was cheaper to use over a series of tests.
The Navy program continued, the first Regulus flew in March 1951. Due to its size and regulations concerning oversize loads on highways, Chance Vought collaborated with a firm that specialized in trucking oversize loads to develop a special tractor trailer combination which could move a Regulus I missile; the first launch from a submarine occurred in July 1953 from the deck of USS Tunny, a World War II fleet boat modified to carry Regulus. Tunny and her sister boat USS Barbero were the United States's first nuclear deterrent patrol submarines, they were joined in 1958 by two purpose-built Regulus submarines, USS Grayback and USS Growler, by the nuclear-powered USS Halibut. The USS Halibut, with its large internal hangar could carry five missiles and was intended to be the prototype of a whole new class of cruise missile firing SSG-N submarines; the Navy strategy called for four Regulus missiles to be at sea at any given time. Thus and Tunny, each of which carried two Regulus missiles, patrolled simultaneously.
Growler and Grayback, with Halibut, with five, could patrol alone. Operating from Pearl Harbor, the five Regulus submarines made 40 nuclear deterrent patrols in the Northern Pacific Ocean between October 1959 and July 1964, including during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. According to the documentary "Regulus: The First Nuclear Missile Submarines" by Nick T. Spark, their primary task in the event of a nuclear exchange would be to eliminate the Soviet naval base at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky; these deterrent patrols represented the first in the history of the submarine Navy and preceded those made by the Polaris missile firing submarines. The Regulus firing submarines were relieved by the George Washington-class submarines carrying the Polaris missile system. Barbero earned the distinction of launching the only delivery of missile mail. Additional submarines including USS Cusk and USS Carbonero were equipped with control systems that allowed them to take control of a Regulus in flight, thus extending its range in a tactical situation.
Regulus was deployed by the U. S. Navy in 1955 in the Pacific on board the cruiser USS Los Angeles. In 1956, three more followed: US
The Convair XF-92 was an early American delta wing aircraft. Conceived as a point-defence interceptor, the design was used purely for experimental purposes. However, it led Convair to use the delta-wing on a number of designs, including the F-102 Delta Dagger, F-106 Delta Dart, B-58 Hustler, the US Navy's F2Y Sea Dart as well as the VTOL FY Pogo. Prior to August 1945, the Vultee Division of Consolidated-Vultee looked at the possibility of a swept-wing aircraft powered by a ducted rocket. Years earlier, the company had performed designs. With this design, fuel would be added to the heat produced by small rocket engines in the duct, creating a "pseudo-ramjet". In August 1945, the United States Army Air Forces, soon to be renamed the United States Air Force, issued a proposal for a supersonic interceptor capable of 700 mph speeds and reaching an altitude of 50,000 feet in four minutes. Several companies responded, among, Consolidated-Vultee, which submitted its design on 13 October 1945; this design featured swept V-tails, as well as a powerful propulsion system.
Besides the ducted rocket, four 1,200 pounds-force rockets were positioned at the exhaust nozzle, along with the 1,560 pounds-force 19XB turbojet produced by Westinghouse. A proposal by Consolidated Vultee was accepted in May 1946, with a proposal for a ramjet-powered aircraft, with a 45° swept wing under USAAF Air Materiel Command Secret Project MX-813. However, wind tunnel testing demonstrated a number of problems with this design; as part of Operation Paperclip and similar efforts, Alexander Lippisch's DM1 research glider had been completed and shipped to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Langley Research Center, along with considerable German research on swept wings and delta wings. The DM1 was the first in a planned series of four similar testbed aircraft, each one exploring faster speeds; the DM1 was built to test low-speed handling only. At Langley, the thick-section airfoils of the DM1 were found to generate considerable drag at transonic speeds, a series of experiments followed to try to explore these issues.
Two lines of study were considered. This left considerable room in front of the stabilizer. During these tests, the tendency for the wings to generate large vortices at high angles of attack was noticed, but the significance of this was not exploited until many years later. Langley passed along the delta wing information to Convair designers Adolph Burstein, the assistant chief engineer of the San Diego Division, Ralph Shick, chief of aerodynamic research; the two were sceptical of the delta wing, but Shick flew to meet Lippisch at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and returned to Convair's Downey plant convinced this was the way to move forward. Convair's mixed propulsion system required a large air duct to the engine, which supplied not only the jet engine with air, but acted as a supply to the rockets to produce thrust augmentation; this left nowhere to put a traditional cockpit. To address this, the team modified the design in a fashion similar to both the Leduc 0.10 and Miles M.52, placing the cockpit in a cylindrical body in the center of the intake.
Power was provided by the 1,560 lbf Westinghouse J30 assisted by a battery of six 2,000 lbf liquid-fueled rockets. The design was presented to the U. S. Air Force in 1946, was accepted for development as the XP-92. In order to gain inflight experience with the delta wing layout, Convair suggested building a smaller prototype, the Model 7002, which the USAAF accepted in November 1946; the design was similar to Langley's modifications to the DM1, using the smaller vertical surface, thinner wings, a conventional cockpit. The main difference was to the stretch the fuselage rearward to provide room for the engine, leading to a conventional fuselage shape. In order to save development time and money, many components were taken from other aircraft. Construction was well underway at Vultee Field in Downey, California when North American Aviation took over the Vultee plants in summer 1947; the airframe was moved to Convair's plant in San Diego, completed in the autumn. In December it was shipped without an engine to NACA's Ames Aeronautical Laboratory for wind tunnel testing.
After testing was completed, the airframe was returned to San Diego, where it was fitted with a 4,250 lbf Allison J33-A-21 engine. By the time the aircraft was ready for testing, the concept of the point-defense interceptor seemed outdated and the F-92 project was cancelled, they decided to rename the test aircraft as the XF-92A. In April 1948 the XF-92A was shipped to Muroc Dry Lake. Early tests were limited to taxiing, although a short hop was made on 9 June 1948; the XF-92A's first flight was on 18 September 1948 with Convair test pilot Ellis D. "Sam" Shannon at the controls. On 21 December 1948 Bill Martin began testing the aircraft for the company. After 47 flights totaling 20 hours and 33 minutes, the aircraft was turned over to the USAAF on 26 August 1949, with the testing being assigned to Frank Everest and Chuck Yea
Lockheed T2V SeaStar
The Lockheed T2V SeaStar called the T-1 SeaStar, is a carrier-capable jet trainer for the United States Navy that entered service in May 1957. Developed from the Lockheed T-33, it was powered by one Allison J33 engine. Starting in 1949, the U. S. Navy used the Lockheed T-33 for land-based jet aircraft training; the T-33 was a derivative of the Lockheed P-80/F-80 fighter and was first named TO-2 TV-2 in Navy service. However, the TV-2 was not suitable for operation from aircraft carriers; the persisting need for a carrier-compatible trainer led to a further, more advanced design development of the P-80/T-33 family, which came into being with the Lockheed designation L-245 and USN designation T2V. Lockheed's demonstrator L-245 first flew on 16 December 1953 and production deliveries to the US Navy began in 1956. Compared to the T-33/TV-2, the T2V was totally re-engineered for carrier landings and at-sea operations with a redesigned tail, naval standard avionics, a strengthened undercarriage and lower fuselage, power-operated leading-edge flaps to allow carrier launches and recoveries, an elevated rear seat for improved instructor vision, among other changes.
Unlike other P-80 derivatives, the T2V could withstand the shock of landing on a pitching carrier deck and had a much higher ability to withstand sea water-related aircraft wear from higher humidity and salt exposure. The only version of the T2V was designated T2V-1 when it entered service, but was redesignated T-1A SeaStar under the 1962 United States Tri-Service aircraft designation system,the designation under which it would spend the majority of its career; the T-1A remained in service into the 1970s. As of 2017, one T2V-1A airworthy, based at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport in Mesa and being flown for experimental and display purposes. Two examples are preserved on public display in Arizona. United StatesUnited States Navy United States Marine Corps Data from Lockheed Aircraft since 1913General characteristics Crew: Two Length: 38 ft 6½ in Wingspan: 42 ft 10 in Height: 13 ft 4 in Wing area: 240 ft² Empty weight: 11,965 lb Loaded weight: 15,500 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 16,800 lb Powerplant: 1 × Allison J33-A-24/24A turbojet, 6,100 lbf Performance Maximum speed: 504 knots at 35,000 ft Range: 843 nm Service ceiling: 40,000 ft Rate of climb: 6,330 ft/min Related development Lockheed T-33 Lockheed P-80 Shooting StarAircraft of comparable role and era Douglas TA-4 Skyhawk Fouga CM.175 Zéphyr Grumman F9F-8T Cougar North American T-2 Buckeye Notes BibliographyFrancillon, René J. Lockheed Aircraft since 1913.
London:Putnam, 1982. ISBN 0-370-30329-6. Ginter, Steve. Lockheed T2V-1/T-1A Seastar. Naval Fighters #42. Simi Valley, California: Ginter Books, 1999. ISBN 978-0-942612-42-4. Ogden, Bob. Aviation Museums and Collections of North America. 2007. Air-Britain Ltd. ISBN 0-85130-385-4. Swanborough, with Bowers, Peter M. United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. 1990. Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN 0-87021-792-5. Green, with Gerald Pollinger; the Aircraft of the World. New York. P. 255. Green, with Dennis Punett. MacDonald World Air Power Guide. London. P. 28. Naval Aviation Chronology 1954-1959 chapter from United States Naval Aviation 1910-1995 book
Bell P-59 Airacomet
The Bell P-59 Airacomet was a twin jet-engined fighter aircraft, the first produced in the United States and built by Bell Aircraft during World War II. The United States Army Air Forces were not impressed by its performance and cancelled the contract when fewer than half of the aircraft ordered had been produced. Although no P-59s entered combat, the fighter paved the way for another design generation of U. S. turbojet-powered aircraft, was the first turbojet fighter to have its turbojet engine and air inlet nacelles integrated within the main fuselage. Major General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold became aware of the United Kingdom's jet program when he attended a demonstration of the Gloster E.28/39 in April 1941. The subject had been mentioned, but not as part of the Tizard Mission the previous year, he requested, was given, the plans for the aircraft's powerplant, the Power Jets W.1, which he took back to the U. S, he arranged for an example of the engine, the Whittle W.1X turbojet, to be flown to the U.
S in October 1941 in the bomb bay of a USAAC Consolidated B-24 Liberator, along with drawings for the more powerful W.2B/23 engine and a small team of Power Jets engineers. On 4 September, he offered the U. S. company General Electric a contract to produce an American version of the engine, which subsequently became the General Electric I-A. On the following day, he approached Lawrence Dale Bell, head of Bell Aircraft Corporation, to build a fighter to utilize it. Bell set to work on producing three prototypes; as a disinformation tactic, the USAAF gave the project the designation "P-59A", to suggest it was a development of the unrelated Bell XP-59 fighter project, canceled. The design was finalized on 9 January 1942, construction began. In March, long before the prototypes were completed, an order for 13 "YP-59A" preproduction machines was added to the contract. On 12 September 1942, the first XP-59A was sent to Muroc Army Air Field in California by train for testing, taking seven days to reach Muroc.
While being handled on the ground, the aircraft was fitted with a dummy propeller to disguise its true nature. The aircraft first became airborne during high-speed taxiing tests on 1 October with Bell test pilot Robert Stanley at the controls, although the first official flight was made by Col Laurence Craigie the next day. A handful of the first Airacomets had open-air flight observer stations cut into the nose. Chuck Yeager flew the aircraft and was dissatisfied with its speed, but was amazed at its smooth flying characteristics. Before delivery of the YP-59As in June 1943, the USAAF ordered 80 production machines, designated "P-59A Airacomet"; the 13 service test YP-59As had a more powerful engine than their predecessor, the General Electric J31, but the improvement in performance was negligible, with top speed increased by only 5 mph and a reduction in the time they could be used before an overhaul was needed. One of these aircraft, the third YP-59A was supplied to the Royal Air Force, in exchange for the first production Gloster Meteor I, EE210/G.
British pilots found that the aircraft compared unfavorably with the jets that they were flying. Two YP-59A Airacomets were delivered to the U. S. Navy where they were evaluated as the "YF2L-1" but were found unsuitable for carrier operations. Faced with their own ongoing difficulties, Bell completed 50 production Airacomets, 20 P-59As and 30 P-59Bs; each was armed with one 37 mm M4 cannon and 44 rounds of ammunition and three.50 cal machine guns with 200 rounds per gun. The P-59Bs were assigned to the 412th Fighter Group to familiarize AAF pilots with the handling and performance characteristics of jet aircraft. By 1950, all examples of the Airacomet were no longer airworthy. Over time, disposal of the aircraft included use as static displays, instructional aids in military training, as static targets. While the P-59 was not a great success, the type did give the USAAF experience with the operation of jet aircraft, in preparation for the more advanced types that would shortly become available.
XP-59 Unrelated piston engine-powered pusher propeller design developed from the Bell XP-52. Not built. XP-59A Prototype of the jet engine-powered version, three built, serial numbers 42-108784/108786. YP-59A Series of test aircraft, 13 built, serial numbers 42-108771/108783. YP-59A recon prototype YP-59A with armament replaced by an observer seat. YF2L-1 Two YP-59A delivered to the US Navy for carrier evaluation as Bu63960/63961. P-59A First production version, 20 built, serial numbers 44-22609/22628. Redesignated ZF-59A in June 1948. XP-59B Study for P-59A fitted with Halford H-1/Goblin engines. P-59B Improved P-59A. 80 aircraft ordered but only 30 built, serial numbers 44-22629/22658, further 50 canceled. Redesignated ZF-59B in June 1948. United KingdomRoyal Air Force received one aircraft, becoming RG362/G, in exchange for a Gloster Meteor I EE210/G. United StatesUnited States Army Air Forces 412th Fighter Group 445th Fighter Squadron United States Navy Six P-59s are known to survive today. On displayXP-59A42-108784 – National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC.
P-59A44-22614 – March Field Air Museum, March A
General Electric J31
The General Electric J31 was the first jet engine to be mass-produced in the United States. After a visit to England mid-1941, General Henry H. Arnold was so impressed by flight demonstrations of the Gloster E.28/39 jet aircraft he had witnessed that he arranged for the Power Jets W.1X turbojet engine to be shipped by air to the U. S, along with drawings for the more powerful W.2B/23 engine, so that the US could develop its own jet engine. General Electric's extensive experience in turbocharger production made them the natural choice for producing such an engine; the initial prototype, the General Electric I-A, was based on the W.2B/23. It first developed a static thrust of 1250lbf; the I-A air intake consisted of two peripheral slots which led to a double-sided, centrifugal compressor. A series of vanes guided the air into the impeller eyes. After radial compression, the air was diffused and turned 90 degrees rearwards, before entering a set of ten reverse-flow combustion chambers. A short shaft connected the compression system to the single stage axial turbine.
After expansion through the turbine, the combustion products exhausted the engine through the simple conical propelling nozzle, via the jet-pipe. For the turbine section, GE used a proprietary metal developed for their turbochargers, Hastelloy B. Problems were uncovered with overheating bearings, solved by fitting the turbine with larger cooling blades and changing the air diffuser, as well as switching to a ram air cooling air inlet. Using their turbocharger expertise, General Electric were able to, in a short space of time, develop a 1,400 lbf -thrust version, known as the I-14, they increased the thrust to 1,600 lbf. This version was referred to internally as the I-16 However, the United States Army Air Forces decided to standardise all their jet engine naming, at which point the I-16 became the J31. Production of the J31 started for the P-59 Airacomet in 1943, by the time the lines shut down in 1945, a total of 241 had been built. GE used the basic design to produce the much larger I-40 with 4,000 lbf, but this design was passed on to Allison as the J33, much to GE's chagrin.
Another derivative of the J31, the General Electric I-20, given the military designation J39, was ordered but cancelled. Meanwhile, the British version of the W.2B/23 turbojet entered production as the 1,600lbf thrust Rolls-Royce Welland 1 in October, 1943. The Gloster Meteor I fighter, which entered RAF service in July, 1944, was powered by the Welland I. Bell P-59 Airacomet Ryan FR Fireball Ryan XF2R Dark Shark There is a J31 on display at the New England Air Museum, Bradley International Airport, Windsor Locks, CT Data from Type: Centrifugal compressor turbojet Length: 72 in Diameter: 41.5 in Dry weight: 850 lb Compressor: Single-stage double-sided centrifugal Combustors: 10 reverse-flow can Turbine: Single-stage axial Fuel type: Kerosene or 100/130 gasoline Oil system: Pressure spray, wet sump with scavenge cooling and filtration Maximum thrust: 1,650 lbf Overall pressure ratio: 3.8:1 Air mass flow: 33 lb /second at 16,000 rpm Turbine inlet temperature: 1,220 °F Specific fuel consumption: 1.2 lb/lbf/hr Thrust-to-weight ratio: 1.94:1 Related development General Electric I-A General Electric I-40/J33 Power Jets W.2 Rolls-Royce Welland Comparable engines de Havilland GoblinRelated lists List of aircraft engines Gunston, Bill.
World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines, 5th Edition. Phoenix Mill, England, UK: Sutton Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-7509-4479-X. Kay, Anthony L.. Turbojet History and Development 1930-1960 Volume 2:USSR, USA, France, Sweden, Switzerland and Hungary. Ramsbury: The Crowood Press. ISBN 978-1861269393