Allosaurus is a genus of carnivorous theropod dinosaur that lived 155 to 145 million years ago during the late Jurassic period. The name "Allosaurus" means "different lizard" alluding to its unique concave vertebrae, it is derived from the Greek ἄλλος and σαῦρος. The first fossil remains that could definitively be ascribed to this genus were described in 1877 by paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh; as one of the first well-known theropod dinosaurs, it has long attracted attention outside of paleontological circles. Allosaurus was a large bipedal predator, its skull equipped with dozens of sharp, serrated teeth. It averaged 9.5 metres in length, though fragmentary remains suggest it could have reached over 12 m. Relative to the large and powerful hindlimbs, its three-fingered forelimbs were small, the body was balanced by a long and muscled tail, it is classified as a type of carnosaurian theropod dinosaur. The genus has a complicated taxonomy, includes 5-6 valid species, the best known of, A. fragilis.
The bulk of Allosaurus remains have come from North America's Morrison Formation, with material known from Portugal. It was known for over half of the 20th century as Antrodemus, but a study of the copious remains from the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry brought the name "Allosaurus" back to prominence and established it as one of the best-known dinosaurs; as the most abundant large predator in the Morrison Formation, Allosaurus was at the top of the food chain preying on contemporaneous large herbivorous dinosaurs, even other predators. Potential prey included ornithopods and sauropods; some paleontologists interpret Allosaurus as having had cooperative social behavior, hunting in packs, while others believe individuals may have been aggressive toward each other, that congregations of this genus are the result of lone individuals feeding on the same carcasses. Allosaurus was a typical large theropod, having a massive skull on a short neck, a long sloping tail and reduced forelimbs. Allosaurus fragilis, the best-known species, had an average length of 8.5 m, with the largest definitive Allosaurus specimen estimated at 9.7 meters long, an estimated weight of 2.3 metric tons.
In his 1976 monograph on Allosaurus, James H. Madsen mentioned a range of bone sizes which he interpreted to show a maximum length of 12 to 13 m; as with dinosaurs in general, weight estimates are debatable, since 1980 have ranged between 1,500 kilograms, 1,000 to 4,000 kg, 1,010 kilograms for modal adult weight. John Foster, a specialist on the Morrison Formation, suggests that 1,000 kg is reasonable for large adults of A. fragilis, but that 700 kg is a closer estimate for individuals represented by the average-sized thigh bones he has measured. Using the subadult specimen nicknamed "Big Al", since assigned to the species Allosaurus jimmadseni, researchers using computer modelling arrived at a best estimate of 1,500 kilograms for the individual, but by varying parameters they found a range from 1,400 kilograms to 2,000 kilograms. Several gigantic specimens have been attributed to Allosaurus, but may in fact belong to other genera; the related genus Saurophaganax reached 10.9 m in length, its single species has sometimes been included in the genus Allosaurus as Allosaurus maximus, though recent studies support it as a separate genus.
Another potential specimen of Allosaurus, once assigned to the genus Epanterias, may have measured 12.1 meters in length. A more recent discovery is a partial skeleton from the Peterson Quarry in Morrison rocks of New Mexico. David K. Smith, examining Allosaurus fossils by quarry, found that the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry specimens are smaller than those from Como Bluff or Brigham Young University's Dry Mesa Quarry, but the shapes of the bones themselves did not vary between the sites. A study by Smith incorporating Garden Park and Dinosaur National Monument specimens found no justification for multiple species based on skeletal variation. Further work on size-related variation again found no consistent differences, although the Dry Mesa material tended to clump together on the basis of the astragalus, an ankle bone. Kenneth Carpenter, using skull elements from the Cleveland-Lloyd site, found wide variation between individuals, calling into question previous species-level distinctions based on such features as the shape of the horns, the proposed differentiation of A. jimmadseni based on the shape of the jugal.
The skull and teeth of Allosaurus were modestly proportioned for a theropod of its size. Paleontologist Gregory S. Paul gives a length of 845 mm for a skull belonging to an individual he estimates at 7.9 m long. Each premaxilla held five teeth with D-shaped cross-sections, each maxilla had between 14 and 17 teeth; each dentary had between 14 and 17 teeth, with an average count of 16. The teeth became shorter and more curved
Born in Syria, Mohammed Galeb Kalaje Zouaydi became a Spanish accountant while living between Spain and Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia he was known as accountant for the al-Faisal branch of the Saudi royal family, which included Prince Turki al-Faisal. In Spain, he is accused of transferring funds totaling nearly a million dollars from several corporations he was involved with that accepted donations, to Al-Qaeda members, including Mamoun Darkazanli and Nabil Sayadi, he was arrested by Spanish authorities on April 23, 2002. He was described as "Al Qaeda's financier" by The Wall Street Journal. Mohammed Galeb Kalaje Zouaydi's brother-in-law, Abu-Khalid al-Suri, was Al-Qaeda's representative in Syria and received funding from the Qatar-based terrorist Abd Al-Rahman al-Nuaimi, cofounder of Alkarama. On 19 June 2019, Mohammed Galeb Kalaje Zouaydi was arrested by Spanish police as part of "Operation Wamor", which involved 350 police officers across Spain and Europol anti-terrorism agents; those arrested were described by Europol as "part of a huge international clandestine structure, with the aim of attacking the Western economic system as a form of terrorism ".
He was arrested alongside several members of the Kutayni family, who created a web of companies to fund Al-Qaeda operations in Syria. According to the Spanish newspaper ABC, he acted as the "financial director" of the terrorist network, the largest uncovered in Spain. Fares Kutayni, arrested with Mohammed Galeb Kalaje Zouaydi, is a representative of the Union of Islamic Communities of Spain, related to the Muslim Brotherhood. According to Spanish media, the Kutayni clan is related to Riay Tatary Bakry, President of the Islamic Commission of Spain, "considered to be ideologically linked to the Muslim Brotherhood"
In the Land of the Giants is an album by saxophonist Eric Kloss, recorded in 1968 and released on the Prestige label. Allmusic awarded the album 4 stars stating: "A superior post-bop altoist, the blind Kloss showed that he was able to hold his own with musicians much better-known than himself". All compositions by Eric Kloss except as indicated "Summertime" - 7:31 "So What" - 11:01 "Sock It to Me Socrates" - 5:14 "When Two Lovers Touch" - 5:14 "Things Ain't What They Used to Be" - 5:33 Eric Kloss - alto saxophone Booker Ervin - tenor saxophone Jaki Byard - piano Richard Davis - bass Alan Dawson - drums