Bibliography of Boston
The following is a list of works about Boston, Massachusetts, USA.: Beagle, Jonathan M.. Boston: A Pictorial Celebration. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4027-1977-6. Bluestone, Barry; the Boston Renaissance: Race and Economic Change in an American Metropolis. Russell Sage Foundation. ISBN 978-1-61044-072-1. Bolino, August C.. Men of Massachusetts: Bay State Contributors to American Society. IUniverse. ISBN 978-1-4759-3376-5. Brown, Robin. Boston's Secret Spaces: 50 Hidden Corners In and Around the Hub. Globe Pequot. ISBN 978-0-7627-5062-7. Christopher, Paul J.. 50 Plus One Greatest Cities in the World You Should Visit. Encouragement Press, LLC. ISBN 978-1-933766-01-0. Hantover, Jeffrey. City in Time: Boston. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4027-3300-0. Kennedy, Lawrence W.. Planning the City Upon a Hill: Boston Since 1630. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 978-0-87023-923-6. Krieger, Alex. Mapping Boston. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-61173-2. O'Connell, James C.. The Hub's Metropolis: Greater Boston's Development from Railroad Suburbs to Smart Growth.
MIT Press. ISBN 9780262018753. O'Connor, Thomas H.. Boston: A to Z. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-00310-1. Price, Michael. Boston's immigrants, 1840–1925. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7524-0921-4. Seasholes, Nancy S.. Gaining Ground: A History of Landmaking in Boston. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-19494-5. Shand-Tucci, Douglass. Built in Boston: City & Suburb, 1800–2000. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 978-1-55849-201-1. Vrabel, Jim; when in Boston: A Time Line & Almanac. Northeastern University Press. ISBN 978-1-55553-620-6. Whitehill, Walter Muir. Boston: A Topographical History. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-00268-5. Henry Stevens. "Boston". Catalogue of the American Books in the Library of the British Museum. London: C. Whittingham at the Chiswick Press. Joseph Sabin, ed.. "Boston". Bibliotheca Americana. 2. New York. OCLC 13972268. Frederic Beecher Perkins, "Boston", Check List for American Local History: Reprinted with Additions from the Bulletins of the Boston Public Library, Rockwell & Churchill, pp. 12–33, hdl:2027/uc1.b4524371 "Index of Articles upon American Local History, in Historical Collections in the Boston Public Library: Boston", Bulletin of the Boston Public Library, 5, September 1883, pp. 437–440, hdl:2027/njp.32101065267914 Robert C.
Brooks, "Boston", Bibliography of Municipal Problems and City Conditions, Municipal Affairs, 5, New York: Reform Club, OCLC 1855351 Boston Directory "Boston", Appleton's Illustrated Hand-Book of American Cities, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1876 "Boston", United States, Leipzig: K. Baedeker, 1909, pp. 253–274, OCLC 02338437 "Boston". Automobile Blue Book. New York: Automobile Blue Book Publishing Co. 1917. Federal Writers' Project, "Boston: the Hub of the Universe", Massachusetts: a Guide to its Places and People, American Guide Series, Cambridge: Riverside Press Donlyn Lyndon, The City Observed, Boston: a Guide to the Architecture of the Hub, New York: Vintage Books, OL 23256413M John Harris, Boston Globe Historic Walks in Old Boston, Chester: Globe Pequot Press, OL 2213403M Boston, New York: Fodor's, 1996, OL 24710817M "New England: Massachusetts: Boston", USA, Let's Go, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999, OL 24937240M Boston, Lonely Planet, 2003, OL 24751454M Morris, Jerry; the Boston Globe Guide to Boston.
Globe Pequot. ISBN 978-0-7627-3430-6. Southworth, Michael. AIA Guide to Boston, 3rd Edition: Contemporary Landmarks, Urban Design, Historic Buildings and Neighborhoods. Globe Pequot. ISBN 978-0-7627-4337-7. Wechter, Eric B.. Fodor's Boston 2009. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4000-0699-1. Vorhees, Mara. Lonely Planet Boston City Guide. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74179-178-5. Hull, Sarah; the Rough Guide to Boston. Penguin. ISBN 978-1-4053-8247-2. Beatty, Jack; the Rascal King: The Life and Times of James Michael Curley, 1874-1958 online edition Blake, John B. Public Health in the Town of Boston, 1630-1822. Bridenbaugh, Carl. Cities in the Wilderness-The First Century of Urban Life in America 1625-1742 online edition Bridenbaugh, Carl. Cities in Revolt: Urban Life in America, 1743-1776 Carp, Benjamin L. Defiance of the Patriots: The Boston Tea Party and the Making of America Connolly, James J; the Triumph of Ethnic Progressivism: urban political culture in Boston, 1900-1925. Conzen, Michael P. and George King Lewis, eds.
Boston: A geographical portrait Fischer, David Hackett. Paul Revere's Ride online edition Eisinger, Peter K. "Ethnic political transition in Boston, 1884-1933: Some lessons for contemporary cities." Political Science Quarterly: 217-239. In JSTOR Formisano, Ronald P. Constance K. Burns, eds. Boston, 1700-1980: The Evolution of Urban Politics online edition, the standard political history Handlin, Oscar. Boston's Immigrants: A Study in Acculturation Jones, Howard Mumford; the Many Voices of Boston: A Historical Anthology 1630–1975. Boston: Little and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-47282-1. Kane, Paula M. Separatism and Subculture: Boston Catholicism, 1900-1920 online edition McCaughey, Robert A. Josiah Quincy 1772-1864: The Last Federalist Miller, John C. Sam Adams, Pioneer in Propaganda O'Connor, Thomas H; the B
Allston is an recognized neighborhood of the City of Boston, Massachusetts. It was named after poet Washington Allston, it comprises the land covered by the zip code 02134. For the most part, Allston is administered collectively with the adjacent neighborhood of Brighton; the two are referred to together as "Allston–Brighton." Boston Police Department District D-14 covers the Allston-Brighton area and a Boston Fire Department Allston station is located in Union Square which houses Engine 41 and Ladder 14. Engine 41 is nicknamed "The Bull" to commemorate the historic stockyards of Allston. Housing stock varies but consists of brick apartment buildings on Commonwealth Avenue and the streets directly off it, while areas further down Brighton Avenue, close to Brighton, are dotted with wooden triple-deckers. Lower Allston, across the Massachusetts Turnpike from the rest of Allston, consists of 1890–1920s single-family and multi-family Victorian homes; the estimated population of Allston is 29,196, according to the 2010 Census.
The median home cost is a decline of 0.97 % in the last year. The cost of living is 9.81% higher than the national average. The population density is 18,505/mi2, about 50% higher than the citywide average of 12,166; the median age is 29.2. 76.45% of residents list status as single. Allston is home to many immigrant populations, the largest groups being from Russia, East Asia, South Asia, South America. Young adults make up 78.3% of the neighborhood's population. The high concentration of students and "twenty-somethings" has created tension between some long-time residents and the student population which cycles in and out as students matriculate and graduate from Boston's many colleges and universities. In addition to nightly dancing and live music at area bars, house parties abound on surrounding streets during the school year; this has long been a sore point among other Allston residents. The largest religious affiliation is Catholic, followed by Protestant, unspecified Christian, Jewish and Muslim.
According to the 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, the largest ancestry groups in ZIP Codes 02134 and 02163 are: The neighborhood of Allston borders the Boston Neighborhoods of Fenway/Kenmore and Brighton, as well as the City of Brookline. Allston is bordered on the north by the Charles River; the area north of the turnpike near the Charles river is known as Lower Allston. It consists of streets north of the Turnpike, all the way to the Charles River, it extends westward eastward to the Charles River. In its center is Allston Square at the crossroads of Western Avenue and North Harvard Street. Allston is named for the great painter and 1800 Harvard graduate, Washington Allston, "The Father of American Romanticism". Allston Square is appropriately located halfway between Harvard Square in the North and Allston Village, Boston's'Greenwich Village' in the South. Allston claims to be the only community in America named for an artist. Lower Allston is a small neighborhood that consists of a mix of young professionals, blue-collar tradesmen, members of the educational community and long-term residents.
Unlike the rest of Allston, Lower Allston has far fewer students. The neighborhood is quiet, has low crime, is an easy walk to Allston Village or Harvard Square. Lower Allston has close proximity to Route 2, the Mass Pike, Storrow Drive, Soldiers Field Road. Public transportation includes the Red Line at Harvard Square, the Green Line at Packard's Corner or Harvard Avenue and Commonwealth Avenue and the 57, 66, 70, 71, 86 bus connections on North Harvard Street and Western Avenue. In the early 21st century, Harvard University announced dramatic expansion plans that called for major building projects, including the demolition of existing businesses, to prepare for the construction of new biology and science buildings in the northern sections of Lower Allston. While the existing building stock was demolished and businesses were evicted, the financial crisis of 2008 and the resultant decrease in Harvard's endowment caused the university to suspend the expansion projects. In 2016, Harvard began building again, has completed two new buildings and is starting on the new, state-of-the-art Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences on Western Avenue west of Allston Square by the Charles River.
It will begin construction of the "Gateway" building on the northeast corner of Allston Square. Allston was an eastern section of the former town of Brighton. In 1867 a new railroad depot for the Boston and Albany Railroad opened. In 1868 the station and post office in Brighton's eastern portion were given the name "Allston" after Washington Allston, the noted painter who had lived and worked across the Charles River in the Cambridgeport section of Cambridge, it can be said to have been named for a specific painting: Washington Allston's "Fields West of Boston." Allston has never existed as a separate political entity in its own right. The Town of Brighton was annexed by the City of Boston in 1874. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow owned several properties in Allston. In 1887 the wooden depot was replaced by the station depicted at the right. In 1888 Boston's first trolley route began there, running a route through Coolidge Corner, Brookline, to Boylston Street, to downtown Boston; the Allston community developed around large railroad and livestock operations.
The Boston and Albany Railroad (now
Boston College is a private Jesuit research university in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. The university has nearly 5,000 graduate students; the university's name reflects its early history as a liberal arts college and preparatory school in Dorchester. It is the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities, its main campus is a historic district and features some of the earliest examples of collegiate gothic architecture in North America. Boston College offers bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, doctoral degrees through its nine schools and colleges: Morrissey College of Arts & Sciences, Boston College Graduate School of Arts & Sciences, Carroll School of Management, Lynch School of Education and Human Development, Connell School of Nursing, Boston College Graduate School of Social Work, Boston College Law School, Boston College School of Theology and Ministry, Woods College of Advancing Studies. In 2018, Boston College was ranked America's 50th top college by Forbes. According to U. S. News & World Report, the school tied as the 38th best national school.
Boston College athletic teams are known as the Eagles, their colors are maroon and gold, mascot is Baldwin the Eagle. The Eagles compete in NCAA Division I as members of the Atlantic Coast Conference in all sports offered by the ACC; the men's and women's ice hockey teams compete in Hockey East. Boston College's men's ice hockey team. In 1825, Benedict Joseph Fenwick, S. J. A Jesuit from Maryland, became the second Bishop of Boston, he was the first to articulate a vision for a "College in the City of Boston" that would raise a new generation of leaders to serve both the civic and spiritual needs of his fledgling diocese. In 1827, Bishop Fenwick opened a school in the basement of his cathedral and took to the personal instruction of the city's youth, his efforts to attract other Jesuits to the faculty were hampered both by Boston's distance from the center of Jesuit activity in Maryland and by suspicion on the part of the city's Protestant elite. Relations with Boston's civic leaders worsened such that, when a Jesuit faculty was secured in 1843, Fenwick decided to leave the Boston school and instead opened the College of the Holy Cross 45 miles west of the city in Worcester, Massachusetts where he felt the Jesuits could operate with greater autonomy.
Meanwhile, the vision for a college in Boston was sustained by John McElroy, S. J. who saw an greater need for such an institution in light of Boston's growing Irish Catholic immigrant population. With the approval of his Jesuit superiors, McElroy went about raising funds and in 1857 purchased land for "The Boston College" on Harrison Avenue in the Hudson neighborhood of South End, Massachusetts. With little fanfare, the college's two buildings—a schoolhouse and a church—welcomed their first class of scholastics in 1859. Two years with as little fanfare, BC closed again, its short-lived second incarnation was plagued by the outbreak of Civil War and disagreement within the Society over the college's governance and finances. BC's inability to obtain a charter from the anti-Catholic Massachusetts legislature only compounded its troubles. On March 31, 1863, more than three decades after its initial inception, Boston College's charter was formally approved by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. BC became the second Jesuit institution of higher learning in Massachusetts and the first located in the Boston area.
Johannes Bapst, S. J. A Swiss Jesuit from French-speaking Fribourg, was selected as BC's first president and reopened the original college buildings on Harrison Avenue. For most of the 19th century, BC offered a singular 7-year program corresponding to both high school and college, its entering class in the fall of 1864 included 22 students. The curriculum was based on the Jesuit Ratio Studiorum, emphasizing Latin, Greek and theology. Boston College's enrollment reached nearly 500 by the turn of the 20th century. Expansion of the South End buildings onto James Street enabled increased separation between the high school and college divisions, though Boston College High School remained a constituent part of Boston College until 1927 when it was separately incorporated. In 1907, newly installed President Thomas I. Gasson, S. J. determined that BC's cramped, urban quarters in Boston's South End were inadequate and unsuited for significant expansion. Inspired by John Winthrop's early vision of Boston as a "city upon a hill", he re-imagined Boston College as world-renowned university and a beacon of Jesuit scholarship.
Less than a year after taking office, he purchased Amos Adams Lawrence's farm on Chestnut Hill, six miles west of the city. He organized an international competition for the design of a campus master plan and set about raising funds for the construction of the "new" university. Construction began in 1909. By 1913, construction costs had surpassed available funds, as a result Gasson Hall, "New BC's" main building, stood alone on Chestnut Hill for its first three years. Buildings of the former Lawrence farm, including a barn and gatehouse, were temporarily adapted for college use while a massive fundraising effort was underway. While Maginnis's ambitious plans were never realized, BC's first "capital campaign"—which included a large replica of Gasson Hall's clock tower set up on Boston Common to measure the fundraising progress—ensured that President Gasson's vision survived. By the 1920s BC began to fill out the dimensions of its university charter, establishing the Boston College Graduate School of Arts & Sciences, the Boston College Law School, the Woods College of Advancin
Interstate 90 is an east–west transcontinental freeway, the longest Interstate Highway in the United States at 3,020.54 miles. Its western terminus is in Seattle, at State Route 519 near T-Mobile Park and CenturyLink Field, its eastern terminus is in Boston, at Route 1A near Logan International Airport; the western portion of I-90 crosses the Continental Divide over Homestake Pass just east of Butte, connecting major cities such as Spokane, Washington. Between Seattle and the Wisconsin-Illinois state line, I-90 is a toll-free Interstate. East of that border, much of I-90 follows several toll roads, many of which predate the Interstate Highway system; these include the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway, Chicago Skyway, Indiana Toll Road, Ohio Turnpike, New York State Thruway, the Massachusetts Turnpike. The Interstate is not tolled through some segments in downtown Chicago; the western I-90 terminus is in the SoDo neighborhood of Seattle. I-90 eastbound begins at exit 2B, Edgar Martínez Drive S and 4th Avenue S. I-90 westbound exit 2B ends at Edgar Martínez Dr and 4th Ave near T-Mobile Park, as well as 4th Ave just north of S.
Royal Brougham Way near CenturyLink Field, about a block east of the entrance to the Port of Seattle's container shipping terminal at Pier 46. The tunnel that carries I-90 under the Mount Baker Ridge is on the National Register of Historic Places; the east portal of the tunnel is constructed as a bas relief concrete sculpture. I-90 incorporates two of the longest floating bridges in the world, the Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge and the Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge, which cross Lake Washington from Seattle to Mercer Island, they are the fifth longest such bridges, respectively. Forty miles east of Bellevue, I-90 traverses the Cascade Range's Snoqualmie Pass, elevation 3,022 feet, it intersects I-82 shortly after exiting the mountains and crosses the Columbia River on the Vantage Bridge at mile post 137. After entering Spokane near mile post 279, it enters Idaho eighteen miles later. Since 1980, I-90 from Seattle to Thorp was designated the Mountains to Sound Greenway to protect its outstanding scenic and cultural resources.
The Washington section of I-90 is defined in the Revised Code of Washington. The small town of Wallace still prides itself on having what was the last stop light in the Rocky Mountains on I-90, its downtown has many historical buildings, which would have been wiped out by the original planned route of the freeway, so in 1976, city leaders had the downtown placed on the National Register of Historic Places. As a result, the federal government was forced, at great expense, to reroute the freeway to the northern edge of downtown and elevate it; that section of I-90 opened in September 1991. A bicycle path is routed beneath part of that segment. In the period between 1995 and 1999, there was no numbered speed limit on I-90 in Montana; the speed limit was defined as "reasonable and prudent" as determined on a case-by-case basis by the Montana Highway Patrol. The speed limit in Montana is now 80 mph. From the west I-90 enters Montana on the summit of Lookout Pass, it passes next to Missoula and runs through Butte, where it connects with I-15 for close to eight miles, before crossing the continental divide just east of Butte where it goes over Homestake Pass, 6,329 feet in elevation, the highest point for the Interstate.
It passes between the Gallatin and Bridger mountain ranges over Bozeman Pass between Bozeman and Livingston. It follows the Yellowstone River from Livingston to Billings where it connects the suburbs of Laurel and Lockwood with the rest of the Billings area. In Lockwood it turns south. South of Hardin it passes the site of the Battle of the Little Bighorn at Crow Agency on the Crow Indian Reservation. Montana boasts the longest stretch of I-90. I-90 enters the state of Wyoming from the north after splitting off from I-94 in Montana; the first major town is Sheridan. It follows the foothills of the Bighorn Mountains between Sheridan and Buffalo where it intersects with I-25, where the route goes from a north–south orientation to an east–west orientation, it goes across the Powder River Basin toward Gillette and Sundance where it shares alignments with both US 14 and US 16. Near the Black Hills, I-90 leaves Wyoming and enters South Dakota between Sundance and Spearfish, South Dakota where it proceeds southeast toward Rapid City, South Dakota.
Near Rapid City at the Wyoming border I-90 is a four-lane divided highway with a grass median. In the Sioux Falls area, I-90 continues east a short distance to Minnesota. I-90 is the longest east–west thoroughfare in South Dakota; this interstate goes through Mitchell, Sioux Falls, Rapid City. It does not go through the state capital of Pierre; the South Dakota section of I-90 is defined at South Dakota Codified Laws § 31-4-184. The Minnesota section of I-90 is defined as Route 391 in Minnesota Statutes § 161.12. I-90 crosses southern Minnesota from the South Dakota border near Beaver Creek, Minnesota, to the Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin. On most of its length in the state, it is close to the Iowa border and parallel with it. In southeast Minnesota, it curves north to Winona; the wayside rest area near Blue Earth, Minnesota is where Minnesota's east-building and
WGBH is a public radio station located in Boston, Massachusetts. WGBH is a member station of National Public Radio and an affiliate of Public Radio International, which itself is owned by WGBH Educational Foundation, American Public Media; the license-holder is WGBH Educational Foundation, which owns company flagship WGBH-TV and WGBX-TV, along with WGBY-TV in Springfield. The station, dubbed Boston Public Radio, renamed Boston's Local NPR, broadcasts a news-and-information format during the daytime, jazz music during the nighttime. "GBH" stands for Great Blue Hill, the location of WGBH's FM transmitter, as well as the original location of WGBH-TV's transmitter. Great Blue Hill in Milton, has an elevation of 635 feet, is located within the Blue Hills Reservation, is the highest natural point in the Boston area. According to Ken Mills, a Minneapolis broadcast consultant and Nielsen data, the number of listeners of WGBH has doubled since 2012, increasing from 235,200 to 445,200. WGBH is the 10th-most-popular NPR news station in the United States.
WGBH operates a separately-programmed service for the Cape Cod and Islands area, with a full-time news-and-information format. This service is simulcast on three stations: WCAI Woods Hole, WNAN Nantucket, WZAI Brewster. WGBH owns WCRB, a classical music station; this service is simulcast by WJMF in Rhode Island. Both WCAI and WCRB are simulcast on HD Radio sidechannels of WGBH itself; the WCRB simulcast on WGBH-HD2 is relayed by translator W242AA East Cambridge, as the Federal Communications Commission regards it as a WGBH translator. WGBH, WCAI, WCRB all webcast their audio programming on the internet. For more of a history of the Lowell Institute Cooperative Broadcasting Council see the article on John Lowell, Jr. WGBH Educational Foundation received its first broadcasting license in 1951 under the auspices of the Lowell Institute Cooperative Broadcasting Council, a consortium of local universities and cultural institutions, whose collaboration stems from an 1836 bequest by textile manufacturer John Lowell, Jr. calling for free public lectures for the citizens of Boston.
WGBH signed on October 1951, with a live broadcast of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Within a decade, it had grown enough that it partnered with the Five Colleges to set up a repeater for western Massachusetts, WFCR; that repeater became a full-fledged station in 1962, is now the flagship NPR outlet for western Massachusetts. WGBH was a charter member of NPR, was one of the stations that carried the inaugural broadcast of All Things Considered in 1971. In the summer of 2016, the station will broadcast some of its programming from an on-air studio in the newly renovated Boston Public Library Johnson building, fronting on Boylston Street in Back Bay. WGBH broadcasts news programming from NPR or PRI. On weekends and some weekday evenings, a variety of public affairs programming and other informational/entertainment programming is featured, such as This American Life, The Moth, Selected Shorts, Freakonomics, On Being, Studio 360 and The New Yorker Radio Hour. Jazz music is broadcast on weekend overnights.
Until July 2, 2012, WGBH-FM carried jazz during the evening and overnight hours on Mondays through Thursdays. However, this programming was cut back on July 2, 2012, to increase news and information programming during the evening and overnight hours. Saturday programming is focused on Celtic music, followed by Live from Here and Says You!. Programs originating from WGBH for the local market include: Boston Public Radio, a daily two-hour local public affairs talk show co-hosted by Jim Braude and Margery Eagan. Greater Boston: Radio Edition, a radio adaptation of WGBH-TV's nightly public affairs program broadcast on Saturday afternoons A Celtic Sojourn, a three-hour program of Celtic music broadcast on Saturday afternoons Arts and Ideas, a three-hour news and arts magazine broadcast on Sunday eveningsPrograms originating from WGBH that are broadcast in other markets include: America's Test Kitchen Radio Says You! The World The Changing World From the Top Innovation Hub Until December 1, 2009, WGBH broadcast a variety of classical music programming during the day on weekdays, weekend mornings, Sunday afternoons.
These broadcasts included recordings made by WGBH of regional chamber music and solo recital performances, live in-studio performances and interviews, as well as live broadcasts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra from Symphony Hall, Tanglewood. In addition, WGBH's music programming included folk music on Saturday afternoons and blues on Saturday evenings. News programming was limited to drive time on weekdays, between 10 am and noon on weekends. In September 2009, the WGBH Educational Foundation announced a deal to acquire WCRB, a local classical music station, it consolidated all classical music programming on WCRB, changed WGBH to an all-news and information format. A significant number of WGBH's traditional classical listeners were sacrificed in the transition, as WCRB transmits from the North Shore of Boston, cannot be received reliably in areas to the south, including Cape Cod. In November
History of Boston
The history of Boston plays a central role in American history. In 1630, Puritan colonists from England helped it become the way it is today. Boston became the political, financial and educational center of the New England region; the American Revolution erupted in Boston, as the British retaliated harshly for the Boston Tea Party and the patriots fought back. They besieged the British in the city, with a famous battle at Breed's Hill in Charlestown on June 17, 1775 and won the Siege of Boston, forcing the British to evacuate the city on March 17, 1776. However, the combination of American and British blockades of the town and port during the conflict damaged the economy, the population fell by two thirds in the 1770s; the city recovered after 1800, re-establishing its role as the transportation hub for the New England region with its network of railroads, more important, the intellectual and medical center of the nation. Along with New York, Boston was the financial center of the United States in the 19th century, was important in funding railroads nationwide.
In the Civil War era, it was the base for many anti-slavery activities. In the 19th century the city was dominated by an elite known as the Boston Brahmins, they faced the political challenge coming from Catholic immigrants. The Irish Catholics, typified by the Kennedy Family, took political control of the city by 1900; the industrial foundation of the region, financed by Boston, reached its peak around 1950. By the 21st century the city's economy had recovered and was centered on education and high technology—notably biotechnology, while the many surrounding towns became residential suburbs; the Shawmut Peninsula was connected to the mainland to its south by a narrow isthmus, Boston Neck, surrounded by Boston Harbor and the Back Bay, an estuary of the Charles River. Several prehistoric Native American archaeological sites, including the Boylston Street Fishweir, excavated during construction of buildings and subways in the city, have shown that the peninsula was inhabited as early as 7,500 years Before Present.
In 1629, the Cambridge Agreement was signed in England among the Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The agreement established the colony as a self-governing entity, answerable only to the king. John Winthrop was its leader, would become governor of the settlement in the New World. In a famous sermon, "A Model of Christian Charity," Winthrop described the new colony as "a City upon a Hill." The competing Plymouth Colony, founded in 1620, merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691. In June 1630, the Winthrop Fleet arrived in what would be called Salem, which on account of lack of food, "pleased them not." They proceeded to Charlestown. The Puritans settled around the spring in what would become Boston, acquiring the land from the first English settler, William Blaxton and Chickatawbut, the Native American sachemTrimountaine was the name given by the 1630 settlers to the peninsula that would be incorporated as the City of Boston; the name was derived from a set of three prominent hills on the peninsula, two of which were leveled as the city was modernized.
The middle one, Beacon Hill, shortened between 1807 and 1824, remains to this day as a prominent feature of the Boston cityscape. Tremont Street still carries an alternative form of the original name; the two smaller peaks were Mt. Whoredom. Governor Winthrop announced the foundation of the town of Boston on September 7, 1630, with the place named after the town of Boston, in the English county of Lincolnshire, from which several prominent colonists emigrated; the name derives from Saint Botolph, the patron saint of travelers. Early colonists believed that Boston was a community with a special covenant with God, as captured in Winthrop's "City upon a Hill" metaphor; this influenced every facet of Boston life, made it imperative that colonists legislate morality as well as enforce marriage, church attendance, education in the Word of God, the persecution of sinners. One of the first schools in America, Boston Latin School, the first college in America, Harvard College, were founded shortly after Boston's European settlement.
Town officials in colonial Boston were chosen annually. Boston's Puritans looked askance at unorthodox religious ideas, exiled or punished dissenters. During the Antinomian Controversy of 1636 to 1638 religious dissident leader Anne Hutchinson and Puritan clergyman John Wheelwright were both banished from the colony. Baptist minister Obadiah Holmes was imprisoned and publicly whipped in 1651 because of his religion and Henry Dunster, the first president of Harvard College during the 1640s–50s, was persecuted for espousing Baptist beliefs. By 1679, Boston Baptists were bold enough to open their own meetinghouse, promptly closed by colonial authorities. Expansion and innovation in practice and worship characterized the early Baptists despite the restrictions on their religious liberty. On June 1, 1660, Mary Dyer was hanged on Boston Common for defying a law banning Quakers from being in the colony; the Boston Post
National Register of Historic Places listings in northern Boston
Boston, Massachusetts is home to a large number of listings on the National Register of Historic Places. This list encompasses those locations. See National Register of Historic Places listings in southern Boston for listings south of the Turnpike. Properties and districts located elsewhere in Suffolk County's other three municipalities are listed separately. There are 324 properties and districts listed on the National Register in Suffolk County, including 58 National Historic Landmarks; the northern part of the city of Boston is the location of 147 of these properties and districts, including 44 National Historic Landmarks. This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Suffolk County, Massachusetts