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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Alms

Alms or almsgiving involves giving to others as an act of virtue, either materially or in the sense of providing capabilities free. It exists in a number of regions; the word, in the modern English language, comes from the Old English ælmesse, ælmes, from Late Latin eleemosyna, from Greek ἐλεημοσύνη eleēmosynē, from ἐλεήμων, eleēmōn, from ἔλεος, eleos. In Judaism, tzedakah - a Hebrew term meaning righteousness but used to signify charity - refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just. Contemporary tzedakah is regarded as a continuation of the Biblical Maaser Ani, or poor-tithe, as well as Biblical practices including permitting the poor to glean the corners of a field, harvest during the Shmita, other practices. Tzedakah, along with prayer and repentance, is regarded as ameliorating the consequences of bad acts. In Judaism, Tzedakah is seen as one of the greatest deeds. Jewish farmers are commanded to leave the corners of their fields for the starving to harvest for food and are forbidden to pick up any grain, dropped during harvesting, as such food shall be left for the starving as well.

Famous Jewish scholar and sage Maimonides has been noted for creating a list of charity, with the most righteous form being allowing an individual to become self-sustaining and capable of giving others charity. Enabling the recipient to become self-reliant Giving when neither party knows the other's identity Giving when you know the recipient's identity, but the recipient doesn't know your identity Giving when you do not know the recipient's identity, but the recipient knows your identity Giving before being asked Giving after being asked Giving less than you should, but giving it cheerfully Giving begrudgingly In Islam, the concept of charitable giving is divided into voluntary giving, or Sadaqah, the Zakat, an obligatory practice governed by a specific set of rules within Islamic jurisprudence, intended to fulfill a well-defined set of theological and social requirements. For that reason, while Zakat plays a much larger role within Islamic charity, Sadaqah is a better translation of Christian influenced formulations of the notion of'alms'.

Zakat is the third of the five pillars of Islam. Various rules attach to the practice but, in general terms, it is obligatory to give 2.5% of one's savings and business revenue and 5–10% of one's harvest to the poor. Possible recipients include the destitute, the working poor, those who are unable to pay off their own debts, stranded travelers and others who need assistance, with the general principle of zakaah always being that the rich should pay it to the poor. One of the most important principles of Islam is that all things belong to God and, wealth is held by human beings in trust; the literal meaning of the word Zakat is "to purify", "to develop" and "cause to grow". According to Shariah it is an act of worship. Our possessions are purified by setting aside a proportion for those in need; this cutting back, like the pruning of plants and encourages new growth. Zakat is the amount of money that every adult, mentally stable and financially able Muslim, male or female, has to pay to support specific categories of people.

This category of people is defined in surah at-Taubah verse 60: "The alms are only for the poor and the needy, those who collect them, those whose hearts are to be reconciled, to free the captives and the debtors, for the cause of Allah, the wayfarers. Allah is knower, Wise.". The obligatory nature of Zakat is established in the Qur'an, the Sunnah, the consensus of the companions and the Muslim scholars. Allah states in Surah at-Taubah verses 34–35: "O ye who believe! There are indeed many among the priests and anchorites, who in Falsehood devour the substance of men and hinder from the way of Allah, and there are those who spend it not in the way of Allah. Announce unto them a most grievous penalty – On the Day when heat will be produced out of that in the fire of Hell, with it will be branded their foreheads, their flanks, their backs.- "This is the which ye buried for yourselves: taste ye the ye buried!". Muslims of each era have agreed upon the obligatory nature of paying Zakat for gold and silver, from those the other kinds of currency.

Zakat is obligatory when a certain amount of money, called the nisab is exceeded. Zakat is not obligatory; the nisab of gold and golden currency is 20 mithqal 85 grams of pure gold. One mithqal is 4.25 grams. The nisab of silver and silver currency is 200 dirhams, 595 grams of pure silver; the nisab of other kinds of money and currency is to be scaled to that of gold. Zakat is obligatory after the money has been in the control of its owner for the span of one lunar year; the owner needs to pay 2.5% of the money as Zakat.. The owner should deduct any amount of money he or she borrowed from others. If the owner had enough money to satisfy the nisab at the beginning of the year, but his wealth in any form increased, the owner needs to add the increase to the nisab amount owned at the beginning of the year pay Zakat, 2.5%, of the total at the end of the lunar year. There are minor differences between fiqh

Euryops pectinatus

Euryops pectinatus, the grey-leaved euryops, is a species of flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, endemic to rocky, sandstone slopes in the Western Cape of South Africa. It is a vigorous evergreen shrub growing to 1.5 m tall and wide, with silvery green, hairy leaves and yellow, daisy-like composite flowers 5 cm in diameter. They bloom from early summer into winter in areas with mild climates; the fruits bear a single seed and are either hairless or covered in myxogenic hairs, may be topped by a pappus of white or brown bristles. The Latin specific epithet pectinatus means “comb-like” referring to the deeply-divided, fernlike leaves. E. pectinatus is used as a garden plant in urban areas and due to its perpetual flowering regime. It grows best in well-drained deep soils, it must be grown in a sheltered location, away from frost-prone areas. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. All parts of the plant are poisonous. Media related to Euryops pectinatus at Wikimedia Commons

Groove Theory

Groove Theory is an American duo, with former member, singer-songwriter Amel Larrieux and songwriter/producer/actor, Bryce Wilson. The group is best known for their 1995 hit "Tell Me", which reached the top five of Billboard's Hot 100 and the US Billboard R&B chart; the group formed in New York City in 1993, when Amel Larrieux met Bryce Wilson while she was working at Rondor Music as a receptionist. Larrieux had been working at the music publishing company since the age of 18. A publisher at the company had signed Wilson as a producer, knew he was interested in forming a group, he approached Larrieux, who he knew was a singer-songwriter, with one of Wilson's production tracks, saying "look, you wanna try writing a song? You know I can give you one of the tracks, you can do it, if you don't mind, you can demo it." Wilson hoped to use the group as a chance to utilize his production talents, while Larrieux wanted a chance to shine in R&B. Wilson found it useful for Larrieux to both write and arrange each song instead of shopping around for different singers and songwriters.

The group signed a recording contract with Epic Records, in 1995, they released their self-titled debut album Groove Theory. The album featured the gold-selling hit single, "Tell Me", which reached number five on the Billboard Hot 100 and number three on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs. "Tell Me" peaked at No. 31 in the UK Singles Chart in November 1995. Other charted singles included "Baby Luv" and "Keep Trying", which reached numbers 18 and 36 on the R&B chart, respectively; the album went on to be certified gold. Larrieux left Groove Theory in 1999 being replaced by Makeda Davis; the group signed with Columbia Records and recorded a new album,'The Answer', expected for release in 2001. Displeased with Columbia's track record at the time with urban projects, Wilson asked for a release from the label, causing the album to remain unreleased. A single entitled "4 Shure" was released from the album to minor chart performance. Larrieux began her solo career in her absence from the group, forming her own independent record label, Blisslife, to distribute her music.

Wilson appeared in the films Beauty Shop and Hair Show, produced music for Beyoncé, Amerie and Mary J. Blige. On February 4, 2010, Soulsummer.com announced that Larrieux and Wilson have reunited, were in the recording studio working on their second official album. They were being managed by Jimmy "Henchmen" Rosemond who spoke a lot of the group, "They haven't worked together in so long, like most groups that break up, they’ve come into their own, so it's like sharing that spotlight again... I’m excited." Rosemond expected the duo to release new music before the year's end. Groove Theory at AllMusic

The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability

The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability is a 1998 book by psychologist Arthur Jensen. The book is about the topic of the general factor of human mental ability, or g; the book traces the origins of the idea of individual differences in general mental ability to 19th century researchers Herbert Spencer and Francis Galton. Charles Spearman is credited for inventing factor analysis in the early 20th century, which enabled statistical testing of the hypothesis that general mental ability is required in all mental efforts. Spearman gave the name g to the common factor underlying all mental tasks, he suggested that g reflected individual differences in "mental energy", hoped that future research would uncover the biological basis of this energy. The book argues that because it is difficult to arrive at a consensual scientific definition of the term intelligence, scientists should dispense with the term and focus on specific abilities and their covariances, it argues that mental abilities are best conceptualized as a three-level hierarchy, with a large number of narrow abilities at the base, a small number of broad factors at the intermediate level, a single general factor, g, at the apex.

The g factor can be derived from a correlation matrix of mental ability tests by many different methods of factor analysis. A g factor always emerges provided that the test battery is sufficiently diverse; the only exception is when one uses orthogonal rotation which precludes the appearance of a g factor. Jensen argues that orthogonal rotation is not appropriate for positively correlated variables such as mental abilities; the g factor has been found to be invariant across different factor analytic methods and in different racial and cultural groups. Jensen argues that g is distributed in any population, he contends that g cannot be described in terms of the information content or item characteristics of tests, likens it to a computer's CPU. Jensen hypothesizes that g is fundamentally about the speed or efficiency of the neural processes related to mental abilities; the book reviews studies on biological correlates of g, notes that they are numerous, including brain size and amplitude of evoked brain potentials, rate of brain glucose metabolism, general health.

The book puts the broad-sense heritability of g at.40 to.50 in children, at.60 to.70 in adolescents and young adults, at nearly.80 in older adults. It argues that shared family influences on g are substantial in childhood, but that in adults the environmental sources of variance are exclusively of the within-family kind; the book suggests that the main environmental influence on g is developmental "noise", consisting of more or less random physical events affecting the neurophysiological substrate of mental growth. It reviews the evidence, it argues that the ECT research supports the notion that g is related to the speed and efficiency of neural processes. The book argues, it is related to a large number of economically and valued attributes. It is a good predictor of academic and job-related outcomes, it stresses the difference between g and what it calls vehicles of g. Changes in test scores do not represent changes in the underlying construct, viz. g. Practice effects on test scores appear to be unrelated to g.

An authentic change in g happens when the change shows broad generalizability to a wide variety of cognitive tasks. Intensive psychological interventions beginning in infancy have failed to produce lasting effects on g. To what extent the Flynn effect represents a change in g is unknown. Due to the relation between differences in g and important educational and social differences, there has long been interest in group differences in g in the United States; the most extensively researched is the gap between black Americans. According to the book, whites outscore blacks in the US by about 1.2 standard deviations, or 18 IQ points, on average. Blacks in sub-Saharan Africa score, about two standard deviations below the white mean; the black-white gap in the US is not due to test bias. Cognitive tests have the same reliability and validity for all American-born, English-speaking groups; the magnitude of the black-white gap in the US is best predicted by the test's g loading, implying that the gap is due to a difference in g. Jensen argues that the black-white gap has a biological component.

The book contends that the causes of differences in g between blacks and whites consist of the same environmental and genetic differences and in the same magnitudes as within-population differences. The book argues that the g factor is important because it is a major node in a complex network of educationally and economically important variables; the book argues that a person's level of g is a threshold variable, that above a certain threshold other, non-g abilities and talents, including personality differences, are critical for educational and vocational success. The book anticipated that after 1998, subsequent research on g would have to extend into two directions, "horizontal" and "vertical": horizontal research to identify new variables in the g nexus, vertical research to uncover the origins of g in terms of evolutionary biology and neurophysiology; the g Factor was reviewed favorably by Canadian psychologist J. Philippe Rushton, who called it "an awesome and monumental exposition of the case for the reality of g." Robert Sternberg was more critical in his review, writing that "there is a great deal of evidence of various kinds that the general factor does not do what Jensen claims."

Big Game TV

Big Game TV was a live phone-in quiz channel, broadcast via Sky Broadcasting in 2005. It released a spin-off, The Hallmark Channel Quiz on 6 March 2006, shown on The Hallmark Channel; the show used only three of the presenters. Big Game TV Productions added The Daily Quiz! 13 March 2006. This show aired on ITV Play and on Men & Motors seven days a week and featured a selection of Big Game TV's presenters. ITV ended their involvement with Big Game TV due to fraud allegations in May 2006. Big Game TV was the subject of a City of London Police investigation brought by the BBC Radio 4 programme You and Yours in May 2006 over allegations that receptionists were told to ignore all incoming calls for long periods of time while 150-200 calls per minute were charged 75p each; the channel was called before a parliamentary committee. After investigating, the City of London Police said. NTL removed the channel from their channel line-up on 7 June; the channel closed down after leaving Sky in early 2007, after some bad press for the call-TV industry.

Natasha Powell Tommy Sandhu Kat Shoob Georgina Burnett

List of Take-Two Interactive games

Headquartered in Manhattan, New York, Take-Two Interactive is an American video game holding company founded in September 1993 by Ryan Brant. It publishes games through 2K Games, 2K Play, 2K Sports, Ghost Story Games, Private Division, Rockstar Games and Social Point. In the past, Take-Two operated Gathering of Developers, Global Star Software, Gotham Games, Mission Studios, On Deck Interactive, Take-Two Licensing, TalonSoft and TDK Mediactive Europe; this list includes all games developed by external and/or internal developers that were published by On Deck Interactive and Take-Two Interactive. List of 2K games, for a list of all 2K Games, 2K Play and 2K Sports titles List of Private Division games List of games by Rockstar Games List of Global Star Software games