Vodka is a clear distilled alcoholic beverage originating from Poland and Russia, composed of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings. Traditionally, it is made by distilling the liquid from cereal grains or potatoes that have been fermented, though some modern brands, such as Ciroc, CooranBong, Bombora, use fruits or sugar as the base. Since the 1890s, the standard Polish, Belarusian, Estonian, Icelandic, Lithuanian, Slovak and Ukrainian vodkas are 40% alcohol by volume, a percentage misattributed to Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. Meanwhile, the European Union has established a minimum alcohol content of 37.5% for any European vodka to be named as such. But beverages sold as vodka in the United States must have a minimum alcohol content of 40%. With these loose restrictions, most commercial vodka contains 40% alcohol. Vodka is traditionally drunk "neat" or "straight", though it is served freezer chilled in the vodka belt countries of Belarus, Finland, Lithuania, Norway, Russia and Ukraine.
It is used in cocktails and mixed drinks, such as the Vodka martini, Vodka Tonic, Greyhound, Black or White Russian, Moscow Mule, Bloody Mary, Bloody Caesar. The name vodka is a diminutive form of the Slavic word voda, interpreted as little water: root вод- + -к- + -a; the word vodka was recorded for the first time in 1405 in Akta Grodzkie, the court documents from the Palatinate of Sandomierz in Poland. At the time, wódka referred to medicines and cosmetic products, while the beverage was called gorzałka, the source of Ukrainian horilka; the word vodka written in Cyrillic appeared first in 1533, in relation to a medicinal drink brought from Poland to Russia by the merchants of Kievan Rus'. Although the word vodka could be found in early manuscripts and in lubok pictograms, it began to appear in Russian dictionaries only in the mid-19th century, it was attested in Sámuel Gyarmathi's Russian-German-Hungarian glossary of 1799, where it is glossed with Latin vinum adustum. In English literature the word vodka was attested in the late 18th century.
In a book of his travels published in English in 1780, Johann Gottlieb Georgi explained that "kabak in the Russian language signifies a public house for the common people to drink vodka in." William Tooke in 1799 glossed vodka as "rectified corn-spirits". In French, Théophile Gautier in 1800 glossed it as a "grain liquor" served with meals in Poland. Another possible connection of vodka with "water" is the name of the medieval alcoholic beverage aqua vitae, reflected in Polish okowita, Ukrainian оковита, Belarusian акавіта, Scandinavian akvavit. People in the area of vodka's probable origin have names for vodka with roots meaning "to burn": Polish: gorzała. Horílka. Harelka. In Russian during the 17th and 18th centuries, горящѣе вино or горячее вино was used. Others languages include the German Branntwein, Danish brændevin, Dutch: brandewijn, Swedish: brännvin, Norwegian: brennevin. Scholars debate the beginnings of vodka, it is a contentious issue because little historical material is available.
For many centuries, beverages differed compared to the vodka of today, as the spirit at that time had a different flavor and smell, was used as medicine. It contained little alcohol, an estimated maximum of about 14%; the still, allowing for distillation, increased purity, increased alcohol content, was invented in the 8th century. In Poland, vodka has been produced since the early Middle Ages with local traditions as varied as the production of cognac in France, or Scottish whisky; the world's first written mention of the drink and of the word "vodka" was in 1405 from Akta Grodzkie recorder of deeds, in the court documents from the Palatinate of Sandomierz in Poland and it went on to become a popular drink there. At the time, the word wódka referred to chemical compounds such as medicines and cosmetics' cleansers, while the popular beverage known as vodka was called gorzałka, the source of Ukrainian horilka; the word written in Cyrillic appeared first in 1533, in relation to a medicinal drink brought from Poland to Russia by the merchants of Kievan Rus'.
In these early days, the spirits were used as medicines. Stefan Falimierz asserted in his 1534 works on herbs that vodka could serve "to increase fertility and awaken lust". Wodka lub gorzałka, by Jerzy Potański, contains valuable information on the production of vodka. Jakub Kazimierz Haur, in his book Skład albo skarbiec znakomitych sekretów ekonomii ziemiańskiej, gave detailed recipes for making vodka from rye; some Polish vodka blends go back centuries. Most notable are Żubrówka, from
Govi-Altai is one of the 21 aimags of Mongolia. The province is located in the west of the country and is home to Salkhin Sandag NGO, which works to protect its main water source, the Zavkhan River; the Altai Airport has one paved runway and is served by regular flights to Arvaikheer and Ulaanbaatar. The new arrival/departure building was opened to the public in 2013; the capital Altai is geographically located in Yesönbulag sum, not to be confused with the Altai sum in the south of the aimag. *Includes the capital of Govi-Altai Aimag, Altai City
The Bolsheviks known in English as Bolshevists, were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903. The RSDLP was a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898 in Minsk, Belarus to unite the various revolutionary organisations of the Russian Empire into one party. In the Second Party Congress vote, the Bolsheviks won on the majority of important issues, hence their name, they became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Bolsheviks, or Reds, came to power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and founded the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. With the Reds defeating the Whites and others during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922, the RSFSR became the chief constituent of the Soviet Union in December 1922; the Bolsheviks, founded by Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov, were by 1905 a major organization consisting of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism, who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia.
Their beliefs and practices were referred to as Bolshevism. In the 2nd Congress of the RSDLP held in Brussels and London, UK during August 1903, Lenin and Julius Martov disagreed over the membership rules. Lenin wanted members who financially supported the party and participated in it. Martov suggested "by regular personal assistance under the direction of one of the party's organisations". Lenin advocated limiting party membership to a smaller core of active members as opposed to card carriers who might only be active in party branches from time to time or not at all; this active base would develop the cadre, a core of professional revolutionaries, consisting of loyal communists who would spend most of their time organising the party toward a mass revolutionary party capable of leading a workers' revolution against the Tsarist autocracy. A main source of the factions could be directly attributed to Lenin's steadfast opinion and what was described by Plekhanov as his inability to "bear opinions which were contrary to his own".
It was obvious at early stages in Lenin's revolutionary practices that he would not be willing to concede on any party policy that conflicted with his own predetermined ideas. It was the loyalty that he had to his own self-envisioned utopia. Lenin was seen by fellow party members as being so narrow-minded that he believed that anyone who didn't follow him was his enemy. Leon Trotsky, one of Lenin's fellow revolutionaries, compared Lenin in 1904 to the French revolutionary Maximilien Robespierre. Lenin's view of politics as verbal and ideological warfare and his inability to accept criticism if it came from his own dedicated followers was the reason behind this accusation; the root of the split was a book titled What Is To Be Done? that Lenin wrote while serving a sentence of exile. In Germany, the book was published in 1902. In Russia, strict censorship outlawed its distribution. One of the main points of Lenin's writing was that a revolution can only be achieved by the strong leadership of one person over the masses.
After the proposed revolution had overthrown the government, this individual leader must release power to allow socialism to encompass the nation. Lenin wrote that revolutionary leaders must dedicate their entire lives to the cause in order for it to be successful. Lenin said that if professional revolutionaries did not maintain control over the workers they would lose sight of the party's objective and adopt opposing beliefs abandon the revolution entirely. Lenin's view of a socialist intelligentsia showed that he was not a complete supporter of Marxist theory, which created some party unrest. For example, Lenin agreed with the Marxist idea of eliminating social classes, but in his utopian society there would still be visible distinctions between those in politics and the common worker. Most party members considered unequal treatment of workers immoral and were loyal to the idea of a classless society, therefore Lenin's variations caused internal dissonance. Although the party split of Bolsheviks and Mensheviks would not become official until 1903, the differences began to surface with the publication of What Is To Be Done?.
Through the influence of the book, Lenin undermined another group of reformers known as "Economists", who were pushing for economic reform while wanting to leave the government unchanged and who failed to recognize the importance of uniting the working population behind the party's cause. Other than the debate between Lenin and Martov, Lenin felt membership should require support of the party program, financial contributions and involvement in a party organization whereas Martov did not see the need for joining Party organizations, internal unrest rose over the structure, best suited for Soviet power; as discussed in What Is To Be Done?, Lenin believed that a rigid political structure was needed to initiate a formal revolution. This idea was met with opposition from his once close followers including Julius Martov, Georgy Plekhanov, Leon Trotsky and Pavel Axelrod. Plekhanov and Lenin's major dispute arose addressing the topic of nationalizing land or leaving it for private use. Lenin wanted to nationalize to aid in collectivization whereas Plekhanov thought worker motivation would remain higher if individuals were able to maintain their own property.
Those who opposed Lenin and wanted to continue on the Marxist path t
Kets are a Yeniseian people in Siberia. In the Russian Empire, they were called Ostyaks, without differentiating them from several other Siberian peoples, they became known as Yenisey ostyaks, because they lived in the middle and lower basin of the Yenisei River in the Krasnoyarsk Krai district of Russia. The modern Kets lived along the eastern middle stretch of the river before being assimilated politically into Russia between the 17th and 19th centuries. According to the 2010 census, there were 1,220 Kets in Russia; the Ket are thought to be the only survivors of an ancient nomadic people believed to have lived throughout central and southern Siberia. In the 1960s the Yugh people were distinguished as a separate, though similar, group. Today's Kets are the descendants of the tribes of fishermen and hunters of the Yenisei taiga, who adopted some of the cultural ways of those original Ket-speaking tribes of South Siberia; the earlier tribes engaged in hunting and reindeer breeding in the northern areas.
The Ket were incorporated into the Russian state in the 17th century. Their efforts to resist were futile as the Russians deported them to different places to break up their resistance; this broke up their organized patriarchal social system and their way of life disintegrated. The Ket people ran up huge debts with the Russians; some died of others of diseases introduced from Europe. By the 19th century, the Kets could no longer survive without food support from the Russian state. In the 20th century, the Soviets forced collectivization upon the Ket, they were recognized as Kets in the 1930s when the Soviet Union started to implement the self-definition policy with respect to indigenous peoples. However, Ket traditions continued to be suppressed and self-initiative was discouraged. Collectivization was completed by the 1950s and the Russian lifestyle and language forced upon the Ket people; the population of Kets has been stable since 1923. According to the 2002 census, there were 1,494 Kets in Russia.
This compares with 1,200 in the 1970 census. Today the Ket are no longer nomadic. Anuchin divides the Kets into three physical types: Aryan and Mixed. A criticizes this The Ket language has been linked to the Na-Dené languages of North America in the Dené–Yeniseian language family; this link has led to some collaboration between some northern Athabaskan peoples. Ket means "man"; the Kets of the Kas and Dubches rivers use jugun as a self-designation. In 1788 Peter Simon Pallas was the earliest scholar to publish observations about the Ket language in a travel diary. In 1926, there were 1,428 Kets; the 1989 census counted 1,113 ethnic Kets with only 537 native speakers left. As of 2008, there were only about 100 people who still spoke Ket fluently, half of them over 50, it is different from any other language in Siberia. The Ket traditional culture was researched by Matthias Castrén, Vasiliy Ivanovich Anuchin, Kai Donner, Hans Findeisen, Yevgeniya Alekseyevna Alekseyenko. Shamanism was a living practice into the 1930s, but by the 1960s no authentic shamans could be found.
Shamanism is not a homogeneous phenomenon, nor is shamanism in Siberia. As for shamanism among Kets, it shared characteristics with those of Mongolic peoples. Additionally, there were several types of Ket shamans, differing in function and associated animals. Among Kets there are examples of the use of skeleton symbolics. Hoppál interprets this as a symbol of shamanic rebirth, although it may symbolize the bones of the loon; the skeleton-like overlay represented shamanic rebirth among some other Siberian cultures as well. Of great importance to Kets are dolls, described as "an animal shoulder bone wrapped in a scrap of cloth simulating clothing." One adult Ket, careless with a cigarette, said, "It's a shame I don't have my doll. My house burnt down together with my dolls." Kets regard their dolls as household deities, which protect them at night. Vajda spent a year in Siberia studying the Ket people, finds a relationship between the Ket language and the Na-Dene languages, of which Navajo is the most prominent and spoken.
Vyacheslav Ivanov and Vladimir Toporov compared Ket mythology with that of Uralic peoples, assuming in the studies that they are modelling semiotic systems in the compared mythologies. They have made typological comparisons. Among other comparisons from Uralic mythological analogies, the mythologies of Ob-Ugric peoples and Samoyedic peoples are mentioned. Other authors have discussed analogies may be related to a dualistic organization of society—some dualistic features can be found in comparisons with these peoples. However, for Kets, neither dualistic organization of society nor cosmological dualism have been researched thoroughly. If such features existed at all, they have either weakened or remained undiscovered. There are some reports of a division into two exogamous patrilinear moieties, folklore on conflicts of mythological figures, cooperation of two beings in the creation of the land, the motif of the earth-diver; this motif is present in several cultures in different variants. In one example, the creator of the world is helped by a waterfowl as
The Altai Mountains spelled Altay Mountains, are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China and Kazakhstan come together, are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters. The massif merges with the Sayan Mountains in the northwest, becomes lower in the southeast, where it and merges into the high plateau of the Gobi Desert, it spans from about 45° to 52° N and from about 84° to 99° E. The region is inhabited by a sparse but ethnically diverse population, including Russians, Kazakhs and Mongolians; the local economy is based on bovine and horse husbandry, agriculture and mining. The now-disputed Altaic language family takes its name from this mountain range; the mountains are called Altain nuruu in Khalkha Mongolian, altai-yin niruɣu in Chakhar Mongolian, Altay tuular in the Altay language. They are called Altai’ tay’lary in Kazakh; the name comes from the word alt that means "gold" in Mongolic languages and the -tai suffix that means "with". That matches their old Chinese name 金山 "Gold Mountain".
The word for "gold" is altın in Turkic languages. In the north of the region is the Sailughem Mountains known as Kolyvan Altai, which stretch northeast from 49° N and 86° E towards the western extremity of the Sayan Mountains in 51° 60' N and 89° E, their mean elevation is 1,500 to 1,750 m. The snow-line runs at 2,000 m on the northern side and at 2,400 m on the southern, above it the rugged peaks tower some 1,000 m higher. Mountain passes across the range are few and difficult, the chief being the Ulan-daban at 2,827 m, the Chapchan-daban, at 3,217 m, in the south and north respectively. On the east and southeast this range is flanked by the great plateau of Mongolia, the transition being effected by means of several minor plateaus, such as Ukok with Pazyryk Valley, Kendykty, and; this region is studded with large lakes, e.g. Uvs 720 m above sea level, Khyargas and Khar 1,170 m, traversed by various mountain ranges, of which the principal are the Tannu-Ola Mountains, running parallel with the Sayan Mountains as far east as the Kosso-gol, the Khan Khökhii mountains stretching west and east.
The north western and northern slopes of the Sailughem Mountains are steep and difficult to access. On this side lies the highest summit of the range, the double-headed Belukha, whose summits reach 4,506 and 4,440 m and give origin to several glaciers. Altaians call it Kadyn Bazhy, but is called Uch-Sumer; the second highest peak of the range is in Mongolian part named Khüiten Peak. This massive peak reaches 4374 m. Numerous spurs, striking in all directions from the Sailughem mountains, fill up the space between that range and the lowlands of Tomsk; such are the Chuya Alps, having an average elevation of 2,700 m, with summits from 3,500 to 3,700 m, at least ten glaciers on their northern slope. Several secondary plateaus of lower elevations are distinguished by geographers, The Katun Valley begins as a wild gorge on the south-west slope of Belukha; the Katun and the Biya together form the Ob. The next valley is that of the Charysh, which has the Korgon and Tigeretsk Alps on one side and the Talitsk and Bashalatsk Alps on the other.
This, too, is fertile. The Altai, seen from this valley, presents the most romantic scenes, including the small but deep Kolyvan Lake, surrounded by fantastic granite domes and towers. Farther west the valleys of the Uba, the Ulba and the Bukhtarma open south-westwards towards the Irtysh; the lower part of the first, like the lower valley of the Charysh, is thickly populated. The valley of the Bukhtarma, which has a length of 320 km has its origin at the foot of the Belukha and the Kuitun peaks, as it falls some 1,500 m in about 300 km, from an alpine plateau at an elevation of 1,900 m to the Bukhtarma fortress, it offers the most striking contrasts of landscape and vegetation, its upper parts abound in glaciers, the best known of, the Berel, which comes down from the Byelukha. On the northern side of the range which separates the upper Bukhtarma from the upper Katun is the Katun glacier, which after two ice-falls widens out to 700 to 900 metres. From a grotto in this glacier bursts tumultuously the Katun river.
The middle and lower parts of the Bukhtarma valley have been colonized since the 18th century by runaway Russian peasants and religious schismatics, who created a free republic there on Chinese territory. The high valleys farther north, on the same western face of the Sailughem range, are but little known, their only visitors being Kyrgyz shepherds; those o
A counter-revolutionary or anti-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. The adjective, "counter-revolutionary," pertains to movements that would restore the state of affairs, or the principles, that prevailed during a prerevolutionary era. A counter-revolution can be negative in its consequences. For example, the transitory success of Agis and Cleomenes of ancient Sparta in restoring the constitution of Lycurgus was considered by Plutarch to be counter-revolutionary in a positive sense. During the French Revolution the Jacobins saw the Counter-revolution in the Vendée as distinctly negative, whilst it was supported by the exiled Royalists, the Catholic Church, the people of the provinces; the word "counter-revolutionary" referred to thinkers who opposed themselves to the 1789 French Revolution, such as Joseph de Maistre, Louis de Bonald or Charles Maurras, the founder of the Action française monarchist movement.
More it has been used in France to describe political movements that reject the legacy of the 1789 Revolution, which historian René Rémond has referred to as légitimistes. Thus, monarchist supporters of the Ancien Régime following the French Revolution were counter-revolutionaries, as were supporters of the Revolt in the Vendée and of the monarchies that put down the various Revolutions of 1848; the royalist legitimist counter-revolutionary French movement survives to this day, albeit marginally. It was active during the purported "Révolution nationale" enacted by Vichy France, considered by René Rémond not as a fascist regime but as a counter-revolutionary regime, whose motto was Travail, Patrie, which replaced the Republican motto Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité. After the French Revolution, anti-clerical policies and the execution of King Louis XVI led to the Revolt in the Vendee; this counter-revolution produced. Monarchists and Catholics took up arms against the revolutionaries' French Republic in 1793 after the government asked that 300,000 Vendeans be conscripted into the Republican military.
The Vendeans rose up against Napoleon's attempt to conscript them in 1815. Many historians have held that the rise and spread of Methodism in Great Britain prevented the development of a revolution there. In addition to preaching the Christian Gospel, John Wesley and his Methodist followers visited those imprisoned, as well as the poor and aged, building hospitals and dispensaries which provided free healthcare for the masses; the sociologist William H. Swatos stated that "Methodist enthusiasm transformed men, summoning them to assert rational control over their own lives, while providing in its system of mutual discipline the psychological security necessary for autonomous conscience and liberal ideals to become internalized, an integrated part of the'new men'... regenerated by Wesleyan preaching." The practice of temperance among Methodists, as well as their rejection of gambling, allowed them to eliminate secondary poverty and accumulate capital. Individuals who attended Methodist chapels and Sunday schools "took into industrial and political life the qualities and talents they had developed within Methodism and used them on behalf of the working classes in non-revolutionary ways."
The spread of the Methodist Church in Great Britain and professor Michael Hill states, "filled both a social and an ideological vacuum" in English society, thus "opening up the channels of social and ideological mobility... which worked against the polarization of English society into rigid social classes." The historian Bernard Semmel argues that "Methodism was an antirevolutionary movement that succeeded because it was a revolution of a radically different kind", capable of effecting social change on a large scale. In Italy, after being conquered by Napoleon's army in the late 18th century, there was a counter-revolution in all the French client republics; the most well-known was the Sanfedismo, reactionary movement led by the cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo, which overthrew the Parthenopean Republic and allowed the Bourbon dynasty to return to the throne of the Kingdom of Naples. A resurgence of the phenomenon happened during the Napoleon's second Italian campaign in the early 19th century. Another example of counter-revolution was the peasants rebellion in Southern Italy after the national unification, fomented by the Bourbon government in exile and the Papal States.
The revolt, labelled as brigandage, resulted in a bloody civil war that lasted ten years. In the Austro-Hungarian empire, another revolt took place against Napoleon called the Tyrolean Rebellion in 1809. Led by a Tyrolean innkeeper by the name of Andreas Hofer, 20,000 Tyrolean Rebels fought against Napoleon's troops. However, Hofer was betrayed by the Treaty of Schönbrunn, which led to the disbandment of his troops and was captured and executed in 1810; the Spanish Civil War was in a counter-revolution. Supporters of Carlism and nationalism joined forces against the Spanish Republic in 1936; the counter-revolutionaries saw the Spanish Constitution of 1931 as a revolutionary document that defied Spanish culture and religion. On the Republican side, the acts of the Communist Party of Spain against the rural collectives can be considered counter-revolutionary; the Carlist cause continues to the present. The White Army and its supporters who tried to defeat