An obelisk is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top. These were called tekhenu by their builders, the Ancient Egyptians; the Greeks who saw them used the Greek term'obeliskos' to describe them, this word passed into Latin and English. Ancient obelisks are monolithic. Most modern obelisks are made of several stones; the term stele is used for other monumental, upright and sculpted stones. Obelisks played a vital role in their religion and were prominent in the architecture of the ancient Egyptians, who placed them in pairs at the entrance of the temples; the word "obelisk" as used in English today is of Greek rather than Egyptian origin because Herodotus, the Greek traveller, was one of the first classical writers to describe the objects. A number of ancient Egyptian obelisks are known to have survived, plus the "Unfinished Obelisk" found hewn from its quarry at Aswan; these obelisks are now dispersed around the world, fewer than half of them remain in Egypt.
The earliest temple obelisk still in its original position is the 68-foot 120-metric-ton red granite Obelisk of Senusret I of the XIIth Dynasty at Al-Matariyyah in modern Heliopolis. The obelisk symbolized the sun god Ra, during the religious reformation of Akhenaten it was said to have been a petrified ray of the Aten, the sundisk, it was thought that the god existed within the structure. Benben was the mound that arose from the primordial waters Nu upon which the creator god Atum settled in the creation story of the Heliopolitan creation myth form of Ancient Egyptian religion; the Benben stone is the top stone of the Egyptian pyramid. It is related to the Obelisk, it is hypothesized by New York University Egyptologist Patricia Blackwell Gary and Astronomy senior editor Richard Talcott that the shapes of the ancient Egyptian pyramid and obelisk were derived from natural phenomena associated with the sun. The pyramid and obelisk's significance have been overlooked the astronomical phenomena connected with sunrise and sunset: the zodiacal light and sun pillars respectively.
Around 30 B. C. after Cleopatra "the last Pharaoh" committed suicide, Rome took control of Egypt. The Ancient Romans were awestruck by the obelisks, looted the complex to the extent that they destroyed walls at the Temple of Karnak to haul out obelisks. There are now more than twice as many obelisks that were seized and shipped out by Rome as remain in Egypt. A majority were dismantled during the Roman period over 1, 700 years ago and the obelisk were sent in different locations; the largest standing and tallest Egyptian obelisk is the Lateran Obelisk in the square at the west side of the Lateran Basilica in Rome at 105.6 feet tall and a weight of 455 metric tons. Not all the Egyptian obelisks in the Roman Empire were set up at Rome. Herod the Great imitated his Roman patrons and set up a red granite Egyptian obelisk in the hippodrome of his new city Caesarea in northern Judea; this one weighs about 100 metric tons. It has been re-erected at its former site. In 335 A. D. Constantine I ordered the removal of two of Karnak's obelisks.
One was sent to Constantinople, the Eastern Emperor Theodosius took the obelisk and had it set up in a hippodrome, where it has weathered Crusaders and Seljuks and stands in the Hippodrome square, now called Istanbul. This one stood 95 feet tall and weighing 380 metric tons, its lower half reputedly once stood in Istanbul but is now lost. The Istanbul obelisk is 65 feet tall; the other was transported to Rome and is the most well-known 25 metres, 331-metric-ton obelisk at Saint Peter's Square in the world. The obelisk had stood since AD 37 on its site and on the wall of the Circus of Nero, flanking St Peter's Basilica: "The elder Pliny in his Natural History refers to the obelisk's transportation from Egypt to Rome by order of the Emperor Gaius as an outstanding event; the barge that carried it had a huge mast of fir wood. One hundred and twenty bushels of lentils were needed for ballast. Having fulfilled its purpose, the gigantic vessel was no longer wanted. Therefore, filled with stones and cement, it was sunk to form the foundations of the foremost quay of the new harbour at Ostia."Re-erecting the obelisk had daunted Michelangelo, but Sixtus V was determined to erect it in front of St Peter's, of which the nave was yet to be built.
He had a full-sized wooden mock-up erected within months of his election. Domenico Fontana, the assistant of Giacomo Della Porta in the Basilica's construction, presented the Pope with a little model crane of wood and a heavy little obelisk of lead, which Sixtus himself was able to raise by turning a little winch with his finger. Fontana was given the project; the obelisk, half-buried in the debris of the ages, was first excavated. The re-erection, scheduled for 14 September, the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, was watched by a large crowd, it was a famous feat of engineering, which made the reputation of Fontana, who detailed it in a book illustrated with copperplate etchings, Della Trasportatione dell'Obelisco Vaticano et delle Fabriche di Nostro Sig
Francisco de Miranda
Sebastián Francisco de Miranda y Rodríguez de Espinoza known as Francisco de Miranda, was a Venezuelan military leader and revolutionary. Although his own plans for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, he is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence liberated much of South America, he was known as "The First Universal Venezuelan" and "The Great Universal American". In the National Archive of Venezuela can be found the statute of the blood purity of the father of Francisco de Miranda. Miranda led a romantic and adventurous life in the general political and intellectual climate that emerged from the Age of Enlightenment that influenced all of the Atlantic Revolutions, he participated in three major historical and political movements of his time: the American Revolutionary War, the French Revolution and the Spanish American wars of independence. He described his experiences over this time in his journal. An idealist, he developed a visionary plan to liberate and unify all of Spanish America, but his own military initiatives on behalf of an independent Spanish America ended in 1812.
He was handed over to his enemies and four years died in a Spanish prison. Miranda was born in Caracas, Venezuela Province, in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada, baptized on April 5, 1750, his father, Sebastian de Miranda Ravelo, was an immigrant from the Canary Islands who had become a successful and wealthy merchant, his mother, Francisca Antonia Rodríguez de Espinoza, was a wealthy Venezuelan. Growing up, Miranda attended the finest private schools. However, he was not a member of high society. Miranda's father, always strove to improve the situation of the family, in addition to accumulating wealth and attaining important positions, he ensured his children a college education. Miranda was first tutored by Jesuits, Jorge Lindo and Juan Santaella, before entering the Academy of Santa Rosa. On January 10, 1762, Miranda began his studies at the Royal and Pontifical University of Caracas, where he studied Latin, the early grammar of Nebrija, the Catechism of Ripalda for two years.
Miranda became an upperclassman. Between 1764 and 1766, Miranda continued his studies, studying the writings of Cicero and Virgil, history, religion and arithmetic. In June 1767, Miranda received his baccalaureate degree in the Humanities, it is unknown if Miranda received the title of Doctor, as the only evidence in favor of this title is his personal testimony stating he received it in 1767, at age 17. Beginning in 1767, Miranda's studies were disrupted in part due to his father's rising prominence in Caracas society. In 1764, Sebastian de Miranda was appointed the captain of the local militia known as the Company of the White Canary Islanders by the governor, Jose de Solano y Bote. Sebastian de Miranda directed his regiment for five years, but his new title and societal position bothered the white aristocracy. In retaliation, a competing faction formed a militia of its own and two local aristocrats, Don Juan Nicolas de Ponte and Don Martin Tovar Blanco, filed a complaint against Sebastian de Miranda.
Sebastian de Miranda requested and was granted honorary military discharge to avoid further antagonizing the local elite, spent many years attempting to clear the family name and establish the "purity" of his family line. The need to establish the "cleanliness" of the family bloodline was important to maintain a place in society in Caracas, as it was what allowed the family to attend university, to marry in the church, to attain government positions. In 1769, Sebastian produced a notarized genealogy to prove that his family had no African, Jewish or Muslim ancestors, according to the records in the National Archive of Venezuela. Miranda's father obtained a blood cleanliness certificate, which should not be confounded with the blood nobility certificate. In 1770, Sebastian won his family's rights through an official royal patent, signed by Charles III, which confirmed Sebastian's title and societal standing; the court ruling, created an irreconcilable enmity with the aristocratic elite, who never forgot the conflict nor forgave the challenge, which influenced subsequent decisions by Miranda.
After the court victory of his father, Miranda decided to pursue a new life in Spain, and, on January 25, 1771, Miranda left Caracas from the port of La Guaira for Cadiz, Spain, on a Swedish frigate, the Prince Frederick. Miranda landed at the Port of Cadiz on March 1, 1771, where he stayed for two weeks with a distant relative, Jose D'Anino, before leaving for Madrid. On March 28, 1771, Miranda travelled to Madrid and took an interest in the libraries and art that he found there. In Madrid, Miranda pursued his education modern languages, as they would allow him to travel throughout Europe, he sought to expand his knowledge of mathematics and political science, as he aimed to serve the Spanish Crown as a military officer. During this time, he pursued genealogical research of his family name to establish his ties to Europe and Christianity, important to him after his father's struggles to legitimize their family line in Caracas, it was in Madrid that Miranda began to build his personal library, which he added to as he traveled, collecting books and letters.
In January 1773, Miranda's father transferred 85,000 reales vell
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Caracas Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela, centre of the Greater Caracas Area. Caracas is located along the Guaire River in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range. Terrain suitable for building lies between 760 and 1,140 m above sea level, although there is some settlement above this range; the valley is close to the Caribbean Sea, separated from the coast by a steep 2,200-metre-high mountain range, Cerro El Ávila. The Metropolitan Region of Caracas has an estimated population of 4,923,201. Speaking, the centre of the city is still "Catedral", located near Bolívar Square though it is assumed that it is Plaza Venezuela, located in the Los Caobos neighbourhood. Chacaíto area, Luis Brión Square and El Rosal neighborhood are considered the geographic center of the Metropolitan Region of Caracas called "Greater Caracas". Businesses in the city include service companies and malls.
Caracas has a service-based economy, apart from some industrial activity in its metropolitan area. The Caracas Stock Exchange and Petróleos de Venezuela are headquartered in Caracas. PDVSA is the largest company in Venezuela. Caracas is Venezuela's cultural capital, with many restaurants, theaters and shopping centers; some of the tallest skyscrapers in Latin America are located in Caracas. Caracas has been considered one of the most important cultural, tourist and economic centers of Latin America; the Museum of Contemporary Art of Caracas is one of the most important in South America. The Museum of Fine Arts and the National Art Gallery of Caracas are noteworthy; the National Art Gallery is projected to be the largest museum in Latin America, according to its architect Carlos Gómez De Llarena. Caracas is home to two of the tallest skyscrapers in South America: the Parque Central Towers, it has a nominal GDP of 91,988 million dollars, a nominal GDP per capita of 18,992 and a PPP GDP per capita of 32,710 dollars.
Being the seventh city in GDP and the seventh metropolitan area in population of Latin America. Caracas has the highest per capita murder rate in the world, with 111.19 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. At the time of the founding of the city in 1567, the valley of Caracas was populated by indigenous peoples. Francisco Fajardo, the son of a Spanish captain and a Guaiqueri cacica, attempted to establish a plantation in the valley in 1562 after founding a series of coastal towns. Fajardo's settlement did not last long, it was destroyed by natives of the region led by Guaicaipuro. This was the last rebellion on the part of the natives. On 25 July 1567, Captain Diego de Losada laid the foundations of the city of Santiago de León de Caracas; the foundation − 1567 – "I take possession of this land in the name of God and the King" These were the words of Don Diego de Losada in founding the city of Caracas on 25 July 1567. In 1577, Caracas became the capital of the Spanish Empire's Venezuela Province under Governor Juan de Pimentel.
During the 17th century, the coast of Venezuela was raided by pirates. With the coastal mountains as a barrier, Caracas was immune to such attacks. However, in 1595, around 200 English privateers including George Sommers and Amyas Preston crossed the mountains through a little-used pass while the town's defenders were guarding the more often-used one. Encountering little resistance, the invaders sacked and set fire to the town after a failed ransom negotiation; as the cocoa cultivation and exports under the Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas grew in importance, the city expanded. In 1777, Caracas became the capital of the Captaincy General of Venezuela. José María España and Manuel Gual led an attempted revolution aimed at independence, but the rebellion was put down on 13 July 1797. Caracas was the site of the signing of a Declaration of independence on 17 August 1811. In 1812, an earthquake destroyed Caracas; the independentist war continued until 24 June 1821, when Bolívar defeated royalists in the Battle of Carabobo.
Caracas grew in economic importance during Venezuela's oil boom in the early 20th century. During the 1950s, Caracas began an intensive modernization program which continued throughout the 1960s and early 1970s; the Universidad Central de Venezuela, designed by modernist architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva and declared World Heritage by UNESCO, was built. New working- and middle-class residential districts sprouted in the valley, extending the urban area toward the east and southeast. Joining El Silencio designed by Villanueva, were several workers' housing districts, 23 de Enero and Simon Rodriguez. Middle-class developments include Bello Monte, Los Palos Grandes, El Cafetal; the dramatic change in the economic structure of the country, which went from being agricultural to dependent on oil production, stimulated the fast development of Caracas, made it a magnet for people in rural communities who migrated to the capital city in an unplanned fashion searching for greater economic opportunity. This migration created the rancho belt of the valley of Caracas.
The flag of Caracas consists of a burgundy red field with the version of the Coat of Arms of the City. The red field symbolises the blood spilt by Caraquenian people in favour of independence and the highest ideals of the Venezuelan Nation. In the year 1994 as a result of the change of municipal authorities, it was decided to increase the size of the Caracas coat of arms and move it to the centre of the field; this version
East Caracas refers to the eastern portions of Caracas, may refer to the municipalities from the Metropolitan District of Caracas located in Miranda State: Chacao, Sucre, El Hatillo. It concentrates the 34.8% population of the Metropolitan District of Caracas, the 21.7% population of the Greater Caracas Area. Caracas Country Club, the richest neighborhood of the city, is located between El Recreo and Chacao districts; until some years ago, it was one of the safest regions of Caracas since most neighbourhoods on the eastern side had a lower crime rate, but now the situation has changed. Crime is rampant in all the districts of the city; some of the eastern neighborhoods of Caracas report a high rate of kidnappings, but some neighborhoods in downtown such as San Bernardino. East Caracas is divided geographically in Southeastern Caracas; the list of neighborhoods are: Eastern: El Pedregal, San Marino, Campo Alegre, Bello Campo, El Rosal, El Retiro, Las Mercedes, Chuao, Los Palos Grandes, La Castellana, La Floresta, Santa Eduvigis, Sebucán, La Carlota, Santa Cecilia, Campo Claro, Los Ruices, Los Chorros, Los Dos Caminos, Boleíta, Los Cortijos, La California, Horizonte, El Marqués, La Urbina, Terrazas del Ávila, Lomas del Ávila, El Llanito, Macaracuay, La Guairita, Caurimare, El Cafetal, San Román, Santa Rosa, San Luis, Santa Sofía, Santa Paula, Santa Inés, Los Pomelos, Palo Verde, Petare.
Southeastern: Valle Arriba, Santa Fe, Los Campitos, Prados del Este, Alto Prado, Manzanares, El Peñón, Piedra Azul, La Trinidad, La Tahona, Las Minas, Los Samanes, Cerro Verde, Los Naranjos, La Boyera, Alto Hatillo, El Hatillo, Los Geranios, La Lagunita, El Placer, El Guayabao, El Volcán, La Unión, Sartanejas. Eastern: Los Caobos, Las Palmas, San Rafael, Bello Monte, Sabana Grande, San Antonio, Las Delicias, Hoyo de Las Delicias, La Florida, Los Cedros, Alta Florida, La Campiña. Alcaldía Mayor Metropolitana Estado Miranda
El Hatillo Municipality
El Hatillo Municipality is an administrative division of the State of Miranda, Venezuela. It is located in the southeastern area of Caracas, in the northwestern part of the State of Miranda; the seat of the municipal government is El Hatillo Town, founded in 1784 by Don Baltasar de León, instrumental in the area's development. Although the town had its origins during the Spanish colonisation, the municipality was not established until 1991. In 2000 – the year after a new constitution was enacted in Venezuela – some of the municipality functions were delegated to a consolidated mayor's office called Alcaldía Mayor, which has some authority over the other four municipalities of Caracas. El Hatillo preserves some of its colonial architecture, including an 18th-century parish church and a unique Romanian Orthodox Church; the municipality has a rich artistic culture, with at least two important musical festivals celebrated yearly, numerous holiday celebrations reflecting the heritage of El Hatillo.
The culture, the pleasant temperature, the rural landscape, the gastronomy of the municipality have made it a place of interest for visitors to the city, a desirable place to live. The municipality receives a part of its income from tourism, an activity, promoted by the government. Although commercial areas are growing agriculture remains a foundation of the economy in the rural areas of the southern part of El Hatillo; the business sector remains underdeveloped, causing heavy employee movement in and out of the municipality – a problem that has made the transportation infrastructure of El Hatillo congested. In the 16th century, when the Spanish colonisation in the area began, El Hatillo was inhabited by the Mariches, an indigenous people related to the Kalina. Cacique Tamanaco was the leader of these tribes, known for resisting the Spanish colonisation; as the colonisation developed, the indigenous inhabitants were killed. In 1752, Don Baltasar de León García arrived to El Hatillo from Cádiz, having just completed a prison term at La Carraca, for opposing the monopoly rules of Guipuzcoana Company, in charge of maintaining exclusive trade between Spain and Venezuela.
Don Baltasar founded El Hatillo Town, becoming one of the most significant contributors to its early development. Don Baltasar focused on making El Hatillo a strong and independent community, aiming to establish the area as a distinct parish from Baruta, on which El Hatillo depended, he accomplished this on June 12, 1784, when the governor and the bishop agreed to declare El Hatillo autonomous and under the direction of Don Baltasar, in front of 180 Canary-descendant families. That same year, Don Baltasar and his brother-in-law donated their properties to the town, an engineer assisted in the urban planning, which included grid streets and a parish church; the church was built to honor Santa Rosalía de Palermo, who Baltasar believed had saved him from a plague that killed his father in prison. In 1803, at the age of 79, Don Baltasar was unexpectedly killed in a horse accident. In 1809, landlord and Lieutenant Colonel Manuel Escalona achieved the separation of El Hatillo from Petare, another suburb of Caracas, making it a different Tenientazgo de Justicia – a type of administrative division at the time.
On April 19, 1810, Escalona enjoined the town to the movement of independence under Simón Bolívar, becoming another important person in the history of the municipality. Ana Francisca Pérez García, Don Baltasar's wife, was a noteworthy woman in El Hatillo, attending to community children and ill citizens, she donated a considerable amount of money for the construction of a hospital in Petare after the 1812 earthquake. One of the most ambitious urbanisation projects in El Hatillo since its founding was the neighborhood called La Lagunita. In the 1950s and 1960s, La Lagunita S. A. constructed a "functional and comfortable" residential zone. To encourage people to settle in the area, each parcel included a membership to Lagunita Country Club, opened in 1964. Brazilian landscape designer Roberto Burle Marx contributed to this project, constructed on the 4.3 million m² hacienda that once belonged to former Venezuelan president, Eleazar López Contreras. La Lagunita has since become a wealthy neighborhood of El Hatillo.
Although El Hatillo has been independent from Petare since 1809, it became part of Sucre Municipality, where Petare is located. On November 19, 1991, Miranda's Legislative Assembly gave El Hatillo full autonomy, making it an independent municipality. In 1993, Mercedes Hernández de Silva was elected the first mayor of El Hatillo. Since 2000, the Alcaldía Mayor manages some of the functions of the municipality. El Hatillo Municipality lies at the southeast area of the city of Caracas and at the northwest corner of the State of Miranda. El Hatillo is within the jurisdiction of the Alcaldía Mayor, which has power over three adjacent municipalities of Miranda, over Libertador Municipality in the Capital District; these five municipalities make up the city of Caracas. El Hatillo has a land size of 114 square kilometres – the third largest municipality in the capital; the municipality's natural southern boundary is the Turgua range, spanning east to west and separating El
Altamira is a neighborhood located in the Chacao municipality of Caracas, Venezuela. It has its own Metro Station, many hotels and restaurants, it is an important business and residential center of the city, it is an important tourist destination and cultural center in Caracas. The Francisco de Miranda avenue and the Distibuidor Altamira are both located in Altamira; this neighborhood borders El Ávila National Park to the north, La Castellana neighborhood to the west, Los Palos Grandes to the east, Bello Campo neighborhood to the south. Altamira was created on June 1577, by Juan Andres Varela; this neighborhood is home to Plaza Francia, a well-known landmark which includes an obelisk and a fountain. This square and most of Altamira was built by Luis Roche, who owned most of the area in 1943. In 1944, Luis Roche ordered -with permission of the government- the construction of many avenues and the square. Roche wanted the square's obelisk to be "higher than the Cathedral of Caracas"; the square was completed by Martin Hermanos co on August 11, 1945, was called Plaza Altamira.
On January 17, 1967, the Venezuelan and French governments agreed to rename Plaza Altamira to Plaza Francia. The French government built a Plaza Venezuela in their country in 1975. In 1948, Luis Roche began exploring the possibility of building a tunnel between Altamira and the Caribbean Sea, he contacted the people who were in charge of the construction of the Hudson River Tunnels, in New York City. This project was scrapped due to its high cost as it required three tunnels, two of them used for ventilation. If built, the tunnel would have been about eight kilometers long. Luis Roche was assigned Venezuelan Ambassador to Argentina. Today, Altamira has its own Metro Station, many hotels and restaurants, is an important business center in Caracas. Avenida Francisco de Miranda and the Distribuidor Altamira are both located in Altamira. Altamira was the scene of a mass shooting on December 6, 2002. João de Gouveia murdered three citizens and injured 19 participating in a demonstration in Plaza Altamira against Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez.
The shooting occurred during the 2002-2003 general strike. On August 16, 2004, Plaza Francia was the scene of another incident. A group of opposition activists, protesting what they considered to be fraudulent electoral results of the Presidential Recall Referendum, were met with a hail of bullets from a group of Pro-Government supporters. One person was killed and nine wounded; the headquarters of Estelar Airlines is in Altamira. The British School, Caracas is in Altamira. A branch of the worldwide Tomchei Tmimim; the hub of the bajurim. 1967 Caracas earthquake Caracas El Rosal, Caracas El Hatillo Sabana Grande Las Mercedes, Caracas Chacao Municipality Baruta Municipality Miranda Chacao.gov.ve: Altamira y el Obelisco Archivo.eluniversal.com