A right-of-way is a right to make a way over a piece of land to and from another piece of land. A right of way is a type of easement granted or reserved over the land for transportation purposes, such as a highway, public footpath, rail transport, canal, as well as electrical transmission lines and gas pipelines. A right-of-way can be used to build a bike trail. A right-of-way is reserved for the purposes of maintenance or expansion of existing services with the right-of-way. In the case of an easement, it may revert to its original owners. In the United States, railroad rights-of-way are considered private property by the respective railroad owners and by applicable state laws. Most U. S. railroads employ their own police forces, who can arrest and prosecute trespassers found on their rights-of-way. Some railroad rights-of-way include recreational rail trails. In the United Kingdom, railway companies received the right to resume land for a right-of-way by a private Act of Parliament; the various designations of railroad right of way are as follows: Active track is any track, used or only once in a while.
Out of service means the right of way is preserved, the railroad retains the right to activate it. The line could be out of service for decades, thus track or crossings that have been removed need to be replaced. By an embargo the track is removed, but the right of way is preserved and is converted into a walking or cycling path or other such use. An abandonment is a lengthy formal process. In most cases the track is removed and sold for scrap and any grade crossings are redone; the line will never be active again. The right of way reverts to the adjoining property owners. Railroad rights-of-way need not be for railroad tracks and related equipment. Easements are given to permit the laying of communication cables or natural gas pipelines, or to run electric power transmission lines overhead, along a railroad
The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London in 1962. The first stable line-up consisted of bandleader Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts, Ian Stewart. Stewart was removed from the official line-up in 1963 but continued to work with the band as a contracted musician until his death in 1985; the band's primary songwriters and Richards, assumed leadership after Andrew Loog Oldham became the group's manager. Jones left the band less than a month before his death in 1969, having been replaced by Mick Taylor, who remained until 1974. After Taylor left the band, Ronnie Wood took his place in 1975 and continues on guitar in tandem with Richards. Since Wyman's departure in 1993, Darryl Jones has served as touring bassist; the Stones have not had an official keyboardist since 1963, but have employed several musicians in that role, including Jack Nitzsche, Nicky Hopkins, Billy Preston, Ian McLagan, Chuck Leavell. The Rolling Stones were at the forefront of the British Invasion of bands that became popular in the United States in 1964 and were identified with the youthful and rebellious counterculture of the 1960s.
Rooted in blues and early rock and roll, the band started out playing covers but found more success with their own material. After a short period of experimentation with psychedelic rock in the mid-1960s, the group returned to its "bluesy" roots with Beggars Banquet, which along with its follow-ups Let It Bleed, Sticky Fingers and Exile on Main St. is considered to be the band's best work and is seen as their "Golden Age." It was during this period they were first introduced on stage as "The Greatest Rock and Roll Band in the World."The band continued to release commercially successful albums through the 1970s and early 1980s, including Some Girls and Tattoo You, the two best-sellers in their discography. During the 1980s, the band infighting curtailed their output and they only released two more underperforming albums and did not tour for the rest of the decade, their fortunes changed at the end of the decade, when they released Steel Wheels, promoted by a large stadium and arena tour, the Steel Wheels/Urban Jungle Tour.
Since the 1990s, new material has been less frequent. Despite this, the Rolling Stones continue to be a huge attraction on the live circuit. By 2007, the band had four of the top five highest-grossing concert tours of all time: Voodoo Lounge Tour, Bridges to Babylon Tour, Licks Tour and A Bigger Bang. Musicologist Robert Palmer attributes the endurance of the Rolling Stones to their being "rooted in traditional verities, in rhythm-and-blues and soul music", while "more ephemeral pop fashions have come and gone"; the Rolling Stones were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2004. Rolling Stone magazine ranked them fourth on the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" list and their estimated record sales are above 250 million, they have released 23 live albums and numerous compilations. Let It Bleed marked the first of five consecutive No. 1 studio and live albums in the UK. Sticky Fingers was the first of eight consecutive No. 1 studio albums in the US.
In 2008, the band ranked 10th on the Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists chart. In 2012, the band celebrated its 50th anniversary; the band still continues to release albums to critical acclaim. S. and won a Grammy Award for Best Traditional Blues Album. The band continues to sell out venues, they have been on their No Filter Tour since September, 2017 and will wrap up the tour with a North American leg over Summer 2019. Keith Richards and Mick Jagger became childhood classmates in 1950 in Dartford, Kent; the Jagger family moved to Wilmington, five miles away, in 1954. In the mid-1950s, Jagger formed a garage band with his friend Dick Taylor. Jagger met Richards again on 17 October 1961 on platform two of Dartford railway station; the Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters records. A musical partnership began shortly afterwards. Richards and Taylor met Jagger at his house; the meetings moved to Taylor's house in late 1961 where Alan Etherington and Bob Beckwith joined the trio. In March 1962, the Blues Boys read about the Ealing Jazz Club in Jazz News newspaper, which mentioned Alexis Korner's rhythm and blues band, Blues Incorporated.
The group sent a tape of their best recordings to Korner, favourably impressed. On 7 April, they visited the Ealing Jazz Club where they met the members of Blues Incorporated, who included slide guitarist Brian Jones, keyboardist Ian Stewart and drummer Charlie Watts. After a meeting with Korner and Richards started jamming with the group. Jones, no longer in a band, advertised for bandmates in Jazz Weekly, while Stewart found them a practice space. Soon after, Jagger and Richards left Blues Incorporated to join Jones and Stewart; the first rehearsal included guitarist Geoff Bradford and vocalist Brian Knight, both of whom decided not to join the band. They objected to playing the Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley songs preferred by Jagger and R
San Jose, California
San Jose the City of San José, is an economic and political center of Silicon Valley, the largest city in Northern California. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,035,317, it is the third-most populous city in California and the tenth-most populous in United States. Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the southern shore of San Francisco Bay, San Jose covers an area of 179.97 square miles. San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California and one of the most affluent counties in the United States. San Jose is the most populous city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively. San Jose is a global city, notable as a center of innovation, for its affluence, Mediterranean climate, high cost of living. San Jose's location within the booming high tech industry, as a cultural and economic center has earned the city the nickname "Capital of Silicon Valley".
San Jose is one of the wealthiest major cities in the United States and the world, has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita. With a median home price of $1,085,000, San Jose has the most expensive housing market in the country and the fifth most expensive housing market in the world, according to the 2017 Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey. Major global tech companies including Cisco Systems, eBay, Adobe Systems, PayPal, Samsung, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Western Digital maintain their headquarters in San Jose, in the center of Silicon Valley. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Tamien nation of the Ohlone peoples of California. San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first city founded in the Californias, it became a part of Mexico in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence.
Following the American Conquest of California during the Mexican–American War, the territory was ceded to the United States in 1848. After California achieved statehood two years San Jose became the state's first capital. Following World War II, San Jose experienced an economic boom, with a rapid population growth and aggressive annexation of nearby cities and communities carried out in the 1950s and 1960s; the rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from an agricultural center to an urbanized metropolitan area. Results of the 1990 U. S. Census indicated that San Jose had surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in Northern California. By the 1990s, San Jose and the rest of Silicon Valley had become the global center for the high tech and internet industries, making it California's fastest-growing economy; the Santa Clara Valley has been home to the Tamyen group of the Ohlone people since around 4,000 BCE. The Tamyen spoke Tamyen language of the Ohlone language family.
With the Spanish colonization of California, the majority of the Tamyen came to inhabit Mission Santa Clara de Asís and Mission San José. California was claimed as part of the Spanish Empire in 1542, when explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo charted the Californian coast. During this time and Baja California were administered together as Province of the California. For nearly 200 years, the Californias were sparsely populated and ignored by the government of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City. Only in 1769 was Northern California surveyed by Spanish authorities, with the Portolá Expedition. In 1776, the Californias were included as part of the Captaincy General of the Provincias Internas, a large administrative division created by José de Gálvez, Spanish Minister of the Indies, in order to provide greater autonomy for the Spanish Empire's populated and ungoverned borderlands; that year, King Carlos III of Spain approved an expedition by Juan Bautista de Anza to survey the San Francisco Bay Area, in order to choose the sites for two future settlements and their accompanying mission.
First he chose the site for a military settlement in San Francisco, for the Royal Presidio of San Francisco, Mission San Francisco de Asís. On his way back to Mexico from San Francisco, de Anza chose the sites in Santa Clara Valley for a civilian settlement, San Jose, on the eastern bank of the Guadalupe River, a mission on its western bank, Mission Santa Clara de Asís. San Jose was founded as California's first civilian settlement on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe by José Joaquín Moraga, under orders of Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Viceroy of New Spain. San Jose served as a strategic settlement along El Camino Real, connecting the military fortifications at the Monterey Presidio and the San Francisco Presidio, as well as the California mission network. In 1791, due to the severe flooding which characterized the pueblo, San Jose's settlement was moved a mile south, centered on the Pueblo Plaza. In 1800, due to the growing population in the northern part of the Californias, Diego de Borica, Governor of the Californias split the province into two parts: Alta California, which would become a U.
S. state, Baja California, which would become two Mexican states. San Jose became part of the First M
Western Pacific Railroad
The Western Pacific Railroad was a Class I railroad in the United States. It was formed in 1903 as an attempt to break the near-monopoly the Southern Pacific Railroad had on rail service into northern California. WP's Feather River Route directly competed with SP's portion of the Overland Route for rail traffic between Salt Lake City/Ogden and Oakland, for nearly 80 years. In 1983, the Western Pacific was acquired by the Union Pacific Corporation and it was soon merged into their Union Pacific Railroad; the Western Pacific was one of the original operators of the California Zephyr. The original Western Pacific Railroad was established in 1865 to build the westernmost portion of the Transcontinental Railroad between San Jose and Sacramento, California; this company was absorbed into the Central Pacific Railroad in 1870. The second company to use the name Western Pacific Railroad was founded in 1903. Under the direction of George Jay Gould I, the Western Pacific was founded to provide a standard gauge track connection to the Pacific Coast for his aspiring Gould transcontinental system.
The construction was financed by the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, a company in the Gould system, which lost access to California due to the attempted acquisition of the Southern Pacific Railroad by the Rio Grande's main rival, the Union Pacific Railroad. The Western Pacific Railroad acquired the Alameda and San Joaquin Railroad and began construction on what would become the Feather River Route. In 1909 it became the last major railroad completed into California, it used 85-lb rail on untreated ties, with no tie plates except on curves over one degree. In 1931 Western Pacific opened a main line north from the Feather River Canyon to the Great Northern Railway in northern California; this route, the "Highline", joined the Oakland – Salt Lake City main line at the Keddie Wye, a unique combination of two steel trestles and a tunnel forming a triangle of intersecting track. In 1935, the railroad went bankrupt because of decreased freight and passenger traffic caused by the Depression and had to be reorganized.
WP attracted rail enthusiasts from around the world. It operated the California Zephyr passenger train with the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad and the Chicago and Quincy Railroad; the WP handled the "Silver Lady" from Oakland, California, to Salt Lake City, Utah from 1949–1970. The Western Pacific owned several connecting short-line railroads; the largest was the Sacramento Northern Railway, which once reached from San Francisco to Chico, California. Others included the Tidewater Southern Railway, the Central California Traction, the Indian Valley Railroad and the Deep Creek Railroad. At the end of 1970 WP operated 1,187 miles of road and 1,980 miles of track, not including its Sacramento Northern and Tidewater Southern subsidiaries. In 1983, the Union Pacific Corporation purchased the Western Pacific and the WP became part of a combined Union Pacific rail system: the Union Pacific Railroad, the Missouri Pacific Railroad, the WP; the Western Pacific and the Missouri Pacific was merged into the Union Pacific Railroad by the Union Pacific Corporation.
In 1996, Union Pacific purchased the WP's long-time rival, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company. In July 2005 Union Pacific unveiled a brand new EMD SD70ACe locomotive, Union Pacific 1983, painted as an homage to the Western Pacific; the California Zephyr was the famous Western Pacific passenger train but the railroad had a few others: Exposition Flyer Royal Gorge Scenic Limited Zephyrette Many special charter passenger trains have used parts of the WP route: Feather River Express, Special charter train for Portola Railroad Days Northern California Explorer There were twelve presidents of this railroad: Walter J. Bartnett Edward T. Jeffery Benjamin F. Bush Charles M. Levey Harry M. Adams Charles Elsey Harry A. Mitchell Frederic B. Whitman Myron M. Christy Alfred E. Perlman Robert G. "Mike" Flannery Robert C. Marquis Hercules – steam powered tugboat operated by the Western Pacific Western Pacific Railroad Museum Western Refrigerator Line – Subsidiary of the Western Pacific Western Pacific Railroad Museum in Portola California Western Pacific Railroad Historical Society Livermore History – Railroads 1 WP Subsidiary Tidewater Southern Website WP Subsidiary Central California Traction Website
Northern California is the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties its main population centers include the San Francisco Bay Area, the Greater Sacramento area, the Metropolitan Fresno area. Northern California contains redwood forests, along with the Sierra Nevada, including Yosemite Valley and part of Lake Tahoe, Mount Shasta, most of the Central Valley, one of the world's most productive agricultural regions; the 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States. The megaregion's area is instead defined from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento, from the Bay Area east across Nevada state line to encompass the entire Lake Tahoe-Reno area. Native Americans arrived in northern California at least as early as 8,000 to 5,000 BC and even much earlier, successive waves of arrivals led to one of the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America; the arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries did not establish European settlements in northern California.
In 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County. Northern California is not a formal geographic designation. California's north-south midway division is around 37° latitude, near the level of San Francisco. Popularly, though, "Northern California" refers to the state's northernmost 48 counties; because of California's large size and diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well. For example, the Central Valley is a region, distinct both culturally and topographically from coastal California, though in northern versus southern California divisions, the Sacramento Valley and most of the San Joaquin Valley are placed in northern California; the state is considered as having an additional division north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. Extreme northern residents have felt under-represented in state government and in 1941 attempted to form a new state with southwestern Oregon to be called Jefferson, or more to introduce legislation to split California into two or three states.
The coastal area north of the Bay Area is referred to as the North Coast, while the interior region north of Sacramento is referred by locals as the Northstate. Northern California is the name of a proposed new state on the 2018 California ballot created by splitting the existing state into three parts. Since the events of the California Gold Rush, Northern California has been a leader on the world's economic and cultural stages. From the development of gold mining techniques and logging practices in the 19th century that were adopted around the world, to the development of world-famous and online business models, northern California has been at the forefront of new ways of doing business. In science, advances range from being the first to isolate and name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, to breakthroughs in microchip technology. Cultural contributions include the works of Ansel Adams, George Lucas, Clint Eastwood, as well as beatniks, the Summer of Love, the cradle of the international environmental movement, the open, casual workplace first popularized in the Silicon Valley dot-com boom and now in use around the world.
Other examples of innovation across diverse fields range from Genentech to CrossFit as a pioneer in extreme human fitness and training. It is home to one of the largest Air Force Bases on the West Coast, the largest of California, Travis Air Force Base. Northern California's largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose and their many suburbs. In recent years the Bay Area has drawn more commuters from as far as Central Valley cities such as Sacramento, Fresno and Modesto. With expanding development in all these areas, the San Francisco Bay Area, Monterey Bay Area, central part of the Central Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may now be viewed as part of a single megalopolis; the 2010 U. S. Census showed that the Bay Area grew at a faster rate than the Greater Los Angeles Area while Greater Sacramento had the largest growth rate of any metropolitan area in California; the state's larger inland cities are considered part of Northern California in cases when the state is divided into two parts.
Important cities in the region not in major metropolitan areas include Eureka on the far North Coast, Redding, at the northern end of the Central Valley and Yuba City in the mid-north of the Valley, as well as Fresno and Visalia on the southern end. Though smaller in every case except for Fresno than the larger cities of the vast region, these smaller regional centers are of historical, inflated economic importance for their respective size, due to their locations, which are rural or otherwise isolated. Inhabited for millennia by Native Americans, from the Shasta tribe in the north, to the Miwoks in the central coast and Sierra Nevada, to the Yokuts of the southern Central Valley, northern California was among the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America; the first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish
San Joaquin Valley
The San Joaquin Valley is the area of the Central Valley of the U. S. state of California that lies south of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and is drained by the San Joaquin River. It comprises seven counties of Northern and one of Southern California, including, in the north, all of San Joaquin and Kings counties, most of Stanislaus and Fresno counties, parts of Madera and Tulare counties, along with a majority of Kern County, in Southern California. Although a majority of the valley is rural, it does contain cities such as Fresno, Stockton, Turlock, Porterville, Visalia and Hanford. San Joaquin Valley was inhabited by the Yokuts and Miwok peoples; the first European to enter the valley was Pedro Fages in 1772. The San Joaquin Valley extends from the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta in the north to the Tehachapi Mountains in the south, from the various California coastal ranges in the west to the Sierra Nevada in the east. Unlike the Sacramento Valley, the river system for which the San Joaquin Valley is named does not extend far along the valley.
Most of the valley south of Fresno, drains into Tulare Lake, which no longer exists continuously due to diversion of its sources. The valley's primary river is the San Joaquin, which drains north through about half of the valley into the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta; the Kings and Kern Rivers are in the southern endorheic basin of the valley, all of which have been diverted for agricultural uses and are dry in their lower reaches. The San Joaquin Valley began to form about 66 million years ago during the early Paleocene era. Broad fluctuations in the sea level caused various areas of the valley to be flooded with ocean water for the next 60 million years. About 5 million years ago, the marine outlets began to close due to uplift of the coastal ranges and the deposition of sediment in the valley. Starting 2 million years ago, a series of glacial episodes periodically caused much of the valley to become a fresh water lake. Lake Corcoran was the last widespread lake to fill the valley about 700,000 years ago.
At the beginning of the Holocene there were three major lakes remaining in the southern part of the Valley, Tulare Lake, Buena Vista Lake and Kern Lake. In the late 19th and in the 20th century, agricultural diversion of the Kern River dried out these lakes. Today, only a fragment of Buena Vista Lake remains as two small lakes Lake Webb and Lake Evans in a portion of the former Buena Vista Lakebed The San Joaquin Valley has hot, dry summers and has enjoyed cool rainy winters characterized by dense tule fog, its rainy season runs from November through April, but since 2011 when a drought became evident it received minimal to no rain at all. The drought was still extant by mid-August 2014 with scientists saying it would continue indefinitely, for anywhere from several years to several decades to come; as of February 2017 the majority of the Valley experienced a reprieve from the drought. However, as of February 2018, much of the Valley appears to be headed back into drought along with much of the rest of the State.
In August 2015, the Director of the California Department of Water Resources stated, "Because of increased pumping, groundwater levels are reaching record lows—up to 100 feet lower than previous records." Research from NASA shows that parts of the San Joaquin Valley sank as much as 8 inches in a four-month period, land near Corcoran sank 13 inches in 8 months. The sinking has destroyed thousands of groundwater well casings and has the potential to damage aqueducts, roads and flood-control structures. In the long term, the subsidence caused by extracting groundwater could irreversibly reduce the underground aquifer's water storage capacity, although immediate and short term needs are given higher priority and sense of urgency than long term sustainability; the National Weather Service Forecast Office for the San Joaquin Valley is located in Hanford and includes a Doppler weather radar. Weather forecasts and climatological information for the San Joaquin Valley are available from its official website.
The total population of the eight counties comprising the San Joaquin Valley at the time of the 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-year Estimates by United States Census Bureau reported a population of 4,080,509. The racial composition of San Joaquin Valley was 2,775,074 White, 193,694 Black or African American, 40,911 American Indian and Alaska Native, 310,557 Asian, 13,000 Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 2,048,280 Hispanic or Latino; the educational attainment of high school graduate or higher is 72.7%. By some estimates, federal restrictions on shallow well irrigation systems threaten the productivity of the San Joaquin Valley, which produces the majority of the 12.8% of the United States' agricultural production that comes from California. Grapes—table, to a lesser extent wine—are the valley's highest-profile product, but important are cotton, nuts and vegetables; the San Joaquin Valley has been called "The food basket of the world", for the diversity of its produce. Walnuts, peaches, tangerines, kiwis, hay and numerous other crops have been harvested with great success.
DeRuosi Nut, a large walnut processing plant in Escalon, has been in the valley since 1947. Certain places are identified quite with a given crop: Stockton produces the majority of the domestic asparagus consumed in the United States, Fresno is the largest produ
Pleasanton is a city in Alameda County, incorporated in 1894. It is a suburb in the San Francisco Bay Area located about 25 miles east of Oakland, 6 miles west of Livermore; the population was 70,285 at the 2010 census. In 2005 and 2007, Pleasanton was ranked the wealthiest middle-sized city in the United States by the Census Bureau. Pleasanton is home to the headquarters of Safeway, Ellie Mae, Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Blackhawk Network Holdings, Veeva Systems. Other major employers include Kaiser Permanente, Oracle and Macy's. Although Oakland is the Alameda County seat, a few county offices are located in Pleasanton; the Alameda County Fairgrounds are located in Pleasanton, where the county fair is held during the last week of June and the first week of July. Pleasanton Ridge Regional Park is located on the west side of town. Pleasanton was ranked number 4 in USA Today's list of "America's 50 best cities to live in" in 2014, number 63 in Money's list of "The Best Places to Live" in 2010, was named one of "Americans' Top Hometown Spots" in the United States in 2009 by Forbes.
Pleasanton was named the third wealthiest city in terms of earnings in the United States by NerdWallet in 2013 and 2016. Before the establishment of Pleasanton in the 1850s, an earlier settlement in the location was called Alisal, it was located on the lands of the Rancho Santa Rita near the site of an Indian ranchera, around the Francisco Solano Alviso Adobe, called El Alisal, one of the earliest houses built in the valley in 1844. It serves as the centerpiece of the Alviso Adobe Community Park. Alisal, nicknamed "The Most Desperate Town in the West", was one of the settlements located along La Vereda del Monte, a haunt and refuge of bandits and desperados in the era following the beginning of the California Gold Rush. Main Street shootouts were not uncommon. Banditos such as Claudio Feliz and Joaquin Murrieta would ambush prospectors on their way back from the gold rush fields and seek refuge in Alisal. In the 1860s Procopio, Narciso Bojorques and others took refuge there. Pleasanton is located on the lands of the Rancho Valle de San José and Rancho Santa Rita Mexican land grants.
Its name came from John W. Kottinger, an Alameda County justice of the peace, who named it after his friend, Union army cavalry Major General Alfred Pleasonton. A typographical error by a recording clerk in Washington D. C. led to the current spelling. In 1917, Pleasanton became the backdrop for the film Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, starring Mary Pickford; the town was once home to Phoebe Apperson Hearst, who lived in a 50-room mansion on a 2,000 acres estate, now the site of Castlewood Country Club. Pleasanton is located at 37°40′21″N 121°52′57″W and is adjacent to Hayward and Dublin. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.3 square miles, of which 24.1 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. On the east side of town on Stanley Blvd. Near the Livermore border is Shadow Cliffs Regional Park, a lake that permits swimming and boating. On the west side is the Pleasanton Ridge with two parks, Pleasanton Ridge and Augustin Bernal Park. Much of Pleasanton is drained by the Arroyo Arroyo Mocho watercourses.
Pleasanton lies along the route of the historic First Transcontinental Railroad. Pleasanton features a Mediterranean climate, with warm to hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters; the highest recorded temperature was 115 °F in 1950. The lowest recorded temperature was 17 °F in 1990; because of the preservation of Pleasanton's historic downtown area, many examples of architectural styles dating back to the mid-19th century exist. Buildings in Gothic Revival, Italianate, Commercial Italianate, Colonial Revival, Queen Anne styles can be found within walking distance of each other. One of the icons of downtown Pleasanton is the Kolln Hardware building, located at 600 Main Street, it is designed in the Commercial Italianate style, but the prominent five-sided corner tower and a few other features are indicative of the Colonial Revival style. The structure mixes in a little bit of Queen Anne design in the gable; this building was built in 1890 and has always housed a hardware store, first by the Lewis Brothers Cruikshank and Kolln.
The hardware store has been known as Kolln Hardware since 1933. In 2004, the Kolln Hardware business shut its doors. Bud Cornett, a Pleasanton developer, purchased the landmark and has invested in its renovation and earthquake retrofit. After more than 100 years of serving the community as a hardware store, the space is now occupied by Comerica Bank. La Hacienda del Pozo de Verona, located in southwest Pleasanton, was an area landmark until it was destroyed in a fire in 1969; the house was built by architect A. C. Schweinfurth for William Randolph Hearst in 1898. Phoebe Apperson Hearst had the hacienda remodeled and expanded by architect Julia Morgan for use as her primary residence after her husband died; the estate was built upon a 453-acre rancheria obtained in 1886 by George Hearst, who intended to use the location for a race horse farm. Its name was inspired by the circular, carved marble wellhead purchased by Phoebe and William in Verona and installed in the middle of the courtyard; the hacienda was the only female-owned estate to be mentioned in Porter Garnett's Stately Homes of California.
The architecture of the hacienda has been called California Mission style by various sources. The original architect used the term "provincial Spanish Renaissance", while Garnett wrote it would be more accurately