An altarpiece is an artwork such as a painting, sculpture or relief representing a religious subject made for placing behind the altar of a Christian church. Though most used for a single work of art such as a painting or sculpture, or a set of them, the word can be used of the whole ensemble behind an altar, otherwise known as a reredos, including what is an elaborate frame for the central image or images. Altarpieces were one of the most important products of Christian art from the late Middle Ages to the era of the Counter-Reformation. Large number of altarpieces are now removed from their church settings, their elaborate sculpted frameworks, displayed as more framed paintings in museums and other places. Altarpieces seem to have begun to be used during the 11th century, with the possible exception of a few earlier examples; the reasons and forces that led to the development of altarpieces are not agreed upon. The habit of placing decorated reliquaries of saints on or behind the altar, as well as the tradition of decorating the front of the altar with sculptures or textiles, preceded the first altarpieces.
Many early altarpieces were simple compositions in the form of a rectangular panel decorated with series of saints in rows, with a central, more pronounced figure such as a depiction of Mary or Christ. An elaborate example of such an early altarpiece is the Pala d'Oro in Venice; the appearance and development of these first altarpieces marked an important turning point both in the history of Christian art as well as Christian religious practice. It was considered a "significant development" because of its impact on the "nature and function of the Christian image...the autonomous image now assumed a legitimate position at the centre of Christian worship". Painted panel altars emerged in Italy during the 13th century. In the 13th century, it was not uncommon to find mural altarpieces in Italy; these altarpieces were influenced by Byzantine art, notably icons, which reached Western Europe in greater numbers following the conquest of Constantinople in 1204. During this time, altarpieces began to be decorated with an outer, sculptured or gabled structure with the purpose of providing a frame for individual parts of the altarpiece.
Vigoroso da Siena's altarpiece from 1291 display such an altarpiece. This treatment of the altarpiece would pave the way for the emergence, in the 14th century, of the polyptych; the sculpted elements in the emerging polyptychs took inspiration from contemporary Gothic architecture. In Italy, they were still executed in wood and painted, while in northern Europe altarpieces were made of stone. In the early 14th century, the winged altarpiece emerged in Germany, the Low Countries, the Baltic region and the Catholic parts of Eastern Europe. By hinging the outer panels to the central panel and painting them on both sides, the subject could be regulated by opening or closing the wings; the pictures could thus be changed depending on liturgical demands. The earliest displayed sculptures on the inner panels and paintings on the back of the wings. With the advent of winged altarpieces, a shift in imagery occurred. Instead of being centred on a single holy figure, altarpieces began to portray more complex narratives linked to the concept of salvation.
As the Middle Ages progressed, altarpieces began to be commissioned more frequently. In Northern Europe Lübeck and Antwerp would develop into veritable export centres for the production of altarpieces, exporting to Scandinavia and northern France. By the 15th century, altarpieces were commissioned not only by churches but by individuals, families and confraternities; the 15th century saw the birth of Early Netherlandish painting in the Low Countries. In Germany, sculpted wooden altarpieces were instead preferred, while in England alabaster was used to a large extent. In England, as well as in France, stone retables enjoyed general popularity. In Italy both stone retables and wooden polyptychs were common, with individual painted panels and with complex framing in the form of architectural compositions; the 15th century saw a development of the composition of Italian altarpieces where the polyptych was abandoned in favour of single-panel, painted altarpieces. In Italy, during the Renaissance, free-standing groups of sculpture began to feature as altarpieces.
In Spain, altarpieces developed in a original fashion into very large, architecturally influenced reredos, sometimes as tall as the church in which it was housed. In the north of Europe, the Protestant Reformation from the early 16th century onwards led to a swift decline in the number of altarpieces produced. Outbursts of iconoclasm locally led to the destruction of many altarpieces; as an example, during the burning of the Antwerp Cathedral in the course of the Reformation in 1533, more than fifty altarpieces were destroyed. The Reformation in itself promoted a new way of viewing religious art. Certain motifs, such as the Last Supper, were preferred before others; the Reformation regarded the Word of God – that is, the gospel – as central to Christendom, Protestant altarpieces displayed the biblical passages, sometimes at the expense of pictures. With time, Protestant though gave birth to the so-called pulpit altar, in which the altarpiece and the pulpit were combined, making the altarpiece a literal abode for the Word of God.
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Miguel Ángel Ayuso Guixot, MCCJ is a Spanish prelate of the Catholic Church and an historian of Islam. He has been an official of the Roman Curia since 2012 and an archbishop since 2016. Pope Francis raised him to the rank of cardinal on 5 October 2019. Miguel Ayuso was born in Seville, Spain, on 17 June 1952. On 2 May 1980, he made his perpetual vows as a member of the Comboni Missionaries of the Heart of Jesus, he was ordained as a priest on 20 September 1982. He earned a licentiate in Arabic and Islamic studies at Rome's Pontifical Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies in 1982, he was a missionary in Egypt and Sudan from 1982 to 2002. Beginning in 1989, he was professor of Islamic studies first in Khartoum in Cairo, President of PISAI from 2005 to 2012, he led interreligious discussions in Egypt, Kenya and Mozambique. He obtained a doctorate in dogmatic theology from the University of Granada in 2000. On 20 November 2007, Pope Benedict XVI appointed him a consultant to the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, on 30 June 2012, Benedict named him Secretary of that Council.
Benedict named him a special auditor at the Synod of Bishops for the Middle East in 2010. On 29 January 2016, Pope Francis appointed him Titular Bishop of Luperciana, he was ordained on 19 March by the pope himself. He served as the Vatican's principal representative in restoring dialogue with Grand Imam Ahmed el-Tayeb of Cairo's Al-Azhar mosque, which were curtailed in 2011, he reported that the parties were focused on "joint initiatives to promote peace", the right to religious education, the issue of religious freedom, looking to an agreement that establishes "the sacrosanct right to citizenship" for all, no matter their religion. His work culminated in the joint statement, the Declaration on Human Fraternity, issued by the Grand Imam and Pope Francis in February 2019 in Abu Dhabi. Ayuso Guixot has represented the Holy See as a member of the board of directors of the King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz International Centre for Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue, a joint initiative of Saudi Arabia and Spain, since its founding in Vienna in 2012.
On 25 May 2019, Pope Francis appointed him President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue. Pope Francis named him a member of the Congregation for Oriental Churches on 6 August 2019. On 5 October 2019, Pope Francis made him Cardinal Deacon of San Girolamo della Carità, he was made a member of the Congregation for Oriental Churches on 21 February 2020. Cardinals created by Francis Profile at Catholic Hierarchy
Sangavi is an Indian film actress and former model, known for her works Predominantly in Telugu cinema and Tamil cinema and in few Kannada cinema, Malayalam Cinema and Hindi cinema. In a film career spanning 25 years she was starred in over 80 feature films. 36 movies in Telugu, 35 movies in Tamil, 6 movies in Kannada, 2 movies in Malayalam and 1 movie in Hindi Sangavi was born in 1977 in Mysore, Karnataka. Her father was Late Dr D A Ramesh an ENT Professor in Mysore Medical College, her mother is Mrs Ranjana, she did her schooling from Marimallappa High School. Her grandmother's sister is Kannada film actress Aarathi. In 1993, she made her début with the Tamil film Amaravathi.. As per 2019 she was starred in over 99 feature films included supporting roles, dual heroine subjects and multi heroine subjects, she has started her first film. Sangavi married IT Professional N Venkatesh on 3 February 2016 at Bengaluru. Sangavi met with an accident in 2005, she had a minor injury to her nose and her father did the surgery, an ENT professor in the Mysore Medical college.
2008-2009: Gokulathil Seethai 2013: Savitri 2014: Kalabhairava Judged a show for Maa TV called Rangam 2017: Thai Veedu 2019: Jabardasth Best supporting Actress for the film Porkkaallam Sanghavi on IMDb