Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane. What is performed when a relief is cut in from a flat surface of stone or wood is a lowering of the field, leaving the unsculpted parts raised; the technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, a time-consuming exercise. On the other hand, a relief saves forming the rear of a subject, is less fragile and more securely fixed than a sculpture in the round one of a standing figure where the ankles are a potential weak point in stone. In other materials such as metal, plaster stucco, ceramics or papier-mâché the form can be just added to or raised up from the background, monumental bronze reliefs are made by casting. There are different degrees of relief depending on the degree of projection of the sculpted form from the field, for which the Italian and French terms are still sometimes used in English.
The full range includes high relief, where more than 50% of the depth is shown and there may be undercut areas, mid-relief, low-relief (basso-rilievo, or French: bas-relief, shallow-relief or rilievo schiacciato, where the plane is only slightly lower than the sculpted elements. There is sunk relief, restricted to Ancient Egypt. However, the distinction between high relief and low relief is the clearest and most important, these two are the only terms used to discuss most work; the definition of these terms is somewhat variable, many works combine areas in more than one of them, sometimes sliding between them in a single figure. The opposite of relief sculpture is counter-relief, intaglio, or cavo-rilievo, where the form is cut into the field or background rather than rising from it. Hyphens may or may not be used in all these terms, though they are seen in "sunk relief" and are usual in "bas-relief" and "counter-relief". Works in the technique are described as "in relief", in monumental sculpture, the work itself is "a relief".
Reliefs are common throughout the world on the walls of buildings and a variety of smaller settings, a sequence of several panels or sections of relief may represent an extended narrative. Relief is more suitable for depicting complicated subjects with many figures and active poses, such as battles, than free-standing "sculpture in the round". Most ancient architectural reliefs were painted, which helped to define forms in low relief; the subject of reliefs is for convenient reference assumed in this article to be figures, but sculpture in relief depicts decorative geometrical or foliage patterns, as in the arabesques of Islamic art, may be of any subject. Rock reliefs are those carved into solid rock in the open air; this type is found in many cultures, in particular those of the Ancient Near East and Buddhist countries. A stele is a single standing stone; the distinction between high and low relief is somewhat subjective, the two are often combined in a single work. In particular, most "high reliefs" contain sections in low relief in the background.
From the Parthenon Frieze onwards, many single figures in large monumental sculpture have heads in high relief, but their lower legs are in low relief. The projecting figures created in this way work well in reliefs that are seen from below, reflect that the heads of figures are of more interest to both artist and viewer than the legs or feet; as unfinished examples from various periods show, raised reliefs, whether high or low, were "blocked out" by marking the outline of the figure and reducing the background areas to the new background level, work no doubt performed by apprentices. A low relief or bas-relief is a projecting image with a shallow overall depth, for example used on coins, on which all images are in low relief. In the lowest reliefs the relative depth of the elements shown is distorted, if seen from the side the image makes no sense, but from the front the small variations in depth register as a three-dimensional image. Other versions distort depth much less, it is a technique which requires less work, is therefore cheaper to produce, as less of the background needs to be removed in a carving, or less modelling is required.
In the art of Ancient Egypt, Assyrian palace reliefs, other ancient Near Eastern and Asian cultures, Meso-America, a consistent low relief was used for the whole composition. These images would be painted after carving, which helped define the forms; the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, now in Berlin, has low reliefs of large animals formed from moulded bricks, glazed in colour. Plaster, which made the technique far easier, was used in Egypt and the Near East from antiquity into Islamic times and Europe from at least the Renaissance, as well as elsewher
A flexible display is an electronic visual display, flexible in nature. In recent years there has been a growing interest from numerous consumer electronics manufacturers to apply this display technology in e-readers, mobile phones and other consumer electronics. Flexible electronic paper based displays were the first flexible displays conceptualized and prototyped. Though this form of flexible displays has a long history and were attempted by many companies, it is only that this technology began to see commercial implementations slated for mass production to be used in consumer electronic devices; the concept of developing a flexible display was first put forth by Xerox PARC. In 1974, Nicholas K. Sheridon, a PARC employee, made a major breakthrough in flexible display technology and produced the first flexible e-paper display. Dubbed Gyricon, this new display technology was designed to mimic the properties of paper, but married with the capacity to display dynamic digital images. Sheridon sought commercial applications for Gyricon.
In 2003 Gyricon LLC was formed as a direct subsidiary of Xerox to commercialize the electronic paper technology developed at Xerox PARC. Gyricon LLC's operations were short lived and in December 2005 Xerox closed the subsidiary company in a move to focus on licensing the technology instead. In 2005, Arizona State University opened a 250,000 square foot facility dedicated to flexible display research named the ASU Flexible Display Center. ASU received $43.7 million from the U. S. Army Research Laboratory towards the development of this research facility in February 2004. A planned prototype device was slated for public demonstration that year. However, the project met a series of delays. In December 2008, ASU in partnership with Hewlett Packard demonstrated a prototype flexible e-paper from the Flexible Display Center at the university. HP continued on with the research, in 2010, showcased another demonstration. However, due to limitations in technology, HP stated " doesn't see these panels being used in flexible or rollable displays, but instead sees them being used to make displays thinner and lighter."Between 2004–2008, ASU developed its first small-scale flexible displays.
Between 2008–2012, ARL committed to further sponsorship of ASU’s Flexible Display Center, which included an additional $50 million in research funding. Although the U. S. Army funds ASU’s development of the flexible display, the center’s focus is on commercial applications; this company develops and manufactures monochrome plastic flexible displays in various sizes based on its proprietary organic thin film transistor technology. They have demonstrated their ability to produce colour displays with this technology, however they are not capable of manufacturing them on a large scale; the displays are manufactured in the company's purpose-built factory in Dresden, the first factory of its kind to be built – dedicated to the high volume manufacture of organic electronics. These flexible displays are cited as being "unbreakable", because they are made of plastic and do not contain glass, they are lighter and thinner than glass-based displays and low-power. Applications of this flexible display technology include signage and wearable devices as well as automotive and mobile devices.
In 2004, a team led by Prof. Roel Vertegaal at Queen's University's Human Media Lab in Canada developed PaperWindows, the first prototype bendable paper computer and first Organic User Interface. Since full-colour, US Letter-sized displays were not available at the time, PaperWindows deployed a form of active projection mapping of computer windows on real paper documents that worked together as one computer through 3D tracking. At a lecture to the Gyricon and Human-Computer Interaction teams at Xerox PARC on 4 May 2007, Prof. Vertegaal publicly introduced the term Organic User Interface as a means of describing the implications of non-flat display technologies on user interfaces of the future: paper computers, flexible form factors for computing devices, but encompassing rigid display objects of any shape, with wrap-around, skin-like displays; the lecture was published a year as part of a special issue on Organic User Interfaces in the Communications of the ACM. In May 2010, the Human Media Lab partnered with ASU's Flexible Display Center to produce PaperPhone, the first flexible smartphone with a flexible electrophoretic display.
PaperPhone used bend gestures for navigating contents. Since the Human Media Lab has partnered with Plastic Logic and Intel to introduce the first flexible tablet PC and multi-display e-paper computer, PaperTab, at CES 2013, debuting the world's first actuated flexible smartphone prototype, MorePhone in April 2013. Since 2010 Sony Electronics, AU Optronics and LG Electronics have all expressed interest in developing flexible e-paper displays. However, only LG have formally announced plans for mass production of flexible e-paper displays. Research and development into flexible OLED displays began in the late 2000s with the main intentions of implementing this technology in mobile devices. However, this technology has made an appearance, to a moderate extent, in consumer television displays as well. Nokia first conceptualized the application of flexible OLED displays in mobile phone with the Nokia Morph concept mobile phone. Released to the press in February 2008, the Morph concept was project Nokia had co-developed with the University of Cambridge.
With the Morph, Nokia intended to demonstrate their vision of future mobile dev
Large low-shear-velocity provinces, LLSVPs called LLVPs or superplumes, are characteristic structures of parts of the lowermost mantle of the Earth. These provinces are characterized by slow shear wave velocities and were discovered by seismic tomography of the deep Earth. There are two main provinces: the African LLSVP and the Pacific LLSVP. Both extend laterally for thousands of kilometers and up to 1000 km vertically from the core-mantle boundary; the Pacific LLSVP has specific dimensions of 3000 km across and 300 m higher than the surrounding ocean-floor, is situated over four hotspots that suggest multiple mantle plumes underneath. These zones represent around 8% of the volume of the mantle. Other names for LLSVPs include thermo-chemical piles, or hidden reservoirs; some of these names, are more interpretive of their geodynamical or geochemical effects, while many questions remain about their nature. LLSVPs were discovered in full mantle seismic tomographic models of shear velocity as slow features in the lowermost mantle beneath Africa and the Pacific.
The boundaries of these features appear consistent across models when applying objective k-means clustering. The global spherical harmonic degree two structure is strong and aligns with its smallest moments of inertia along with the two LLSVPs; this means, by using shear wave velocities, the established locations of the LLSVPs are not only verified, a stable pattern for mantle convection emerges. This stable configuration is responsible for the geometry of plate motions at the surface due as well as mantle convection. Another name for the degree two structure, a 200 km thick layer of the lower mantle directly above the core–mantle boundary, is the D″; the LLSVPs lie around the equator, but on the southern hemisphere. Global tomography models inherently result in smooth features; the sharpness of the boundaries makes it difficult to explain the features by temperature alone. Ultra low velocity zones at smaller scales have been discovered at the edges of these LLSVPs. By using the solid Earth tide, the density of these regions has been determined.
The bottom two thirds are 0.5% denser than the bulk of the mantle. However tidal tomography cannot say how the excess mass is distributed; the overdensity may be due to primordial material or subducted ocean slabs. The current leading hypothesis for the LLSVPs is the accumulation of subducted oceanic slabs; this corresponds with the locations of known slab graveyards surrounding the Pacific LLSVP. These graveyards are thought to be the reason for the high velocity zone anomalies surrounding the Pacific LLSVP and are thought to have formed by subduction zones that were around long before the dispersion—some 750 million years ago—of the supercontinent Rodinia. Aided by the phase transformation, the temperature would melt the slabs, to form a dense heavy melt that pools and forms the ultra low velocity zone structures at the bottom of the core-mantle boundary closer to the LLSVP than the slab graveyards; the rest of the material is carried upwards due to chemical buoyancy and contributes to the high levels of basalt found at the mid-ocean ridge.
The resulting motion forms small clusters of small plumes right above the core-mantle boundary that combine to form larger plumes and contribute to superplumes. The Pacific and African LLSVP, in this scenario, are created by a discharge of heat from the core to the much colder mantle, the recycled lithosphere is only fuel that helps drive the superplume convection. Since it would be difficult for the Earth's core to maintain this high heat by itself, it gives support for the existence of radiogenic nuclides in the core, as well as the indication that if fertile subducted lithosphere stops subducting in locations preferable for superplume consumption, it will mark the demise of that superplume. Geodynamic mantle convection models have included compositional distinctive material; the material tends to get swept up in piles. When including realistic past plate motions into the modeling, the material gets swept up in locations that are remarkably similar to the present day location of the LLSVPs.
These locations correspond with known slab graveyard locations mentioned in the origin section. These types of models, as well as the observation that the degree two structure of the LLSVPs is orthogonal to the path of true polar wander, suggest these mantle structures have been stable over large amounts of time; this geometrical relationship is consistent with the position of the supercontinent Pangaea, the formation of the current geoid pattern due to continental break-up from the superswell below. However, the heat from the core is not enough to sustain the energy needed to fuel the superplume located at the LLSVPs. There is a phase transition from perovskite to post-perovskite from the down welling slab that causes an exothermic reaction; this exothermic reaction helps to heat the LLSVP, but it is not sufficient enough to account for the total energy needed to sustain it. So it is hypothesized that the material from the slab graveyard can become dense and form large pools of melt concentrate enriched in uranium and potassium.
These concentrated. So, the appearance and disappearance of slab graveyards predicts the birth and death of an LLSVP changing the dynamics of all plate tectonics. Http://www.awa.tohoku.ac.jp/geoscien
"Albertine" is a song by singer-songwriter Brooke Fraser, the third single from her second studio album, Albertine. It was inspired by a Rwandan orphan, by the name of Albertine, whom Fraser met while there in 2005. "Albertine" did not appear on any record chart. Fraser went to Rwanda on behalf of the first of many trips. While there, she met a girl named Albertine, who had become orphaned by the genocide of 1994. Fraser described Albertine as "tall and beautiful", her guide, took her to a village school in Kabuga district, showed her a girl whose life the guide had saved. On her return, she felt she was "in a position where I could share message with other people that could be a great way to contribute in and of itself". "Albertine" tells the "tale of courage" of the two Rwandans in the 1990s."Albertine" was released by Sony BMG on 9 July 2007 as a digital EP, as well as a CD single. "Albertine" is a guitar-based pop ballad. Mike Schiller from PopMatters said that "its rhythmic amelodic guitar work stands in sharp contrast to the lush cloying melodic sensibilities of the rest of the album."The lyrics of "Albertine" describe Fraser's feelings while visiting Rwanda, her responsibility to help the Rwandan people.
Chris Thomas from suite101.com described it as "a tale of one less fortunate than herself. Another reviewer said that "On its surface,'Albertine' is a song about a tall and beautiful girl who survived the Rwandan genocide. Though, it’s a song about a whole lot more. It’s a song about faith, it’s a song about hope, it’s a song about love… and it’s a song about deeds; the Southern Cross selected "Albertine" as one of the standout songs from Fraser's album."Albertine" did not appear on any official record chart, was the first of Fraser's singles that did not chart on the New Zealand Singles Chart. It did, win Fraser the 2007 APRA Silver Scroll, a peer-chosen award for songwriters. Other contenders for the Silver Scroll in 2007 included "Maybe" by Opshop, "Light Surrounding You" by Evermore, Crazy? Yes! Dumb? No! by The Mint Chicks, Fraser's "Deciphering Me" released from Albertine. Fraser performed "Albertine" at the 2007 New Zealand Music Awards, where her album won the Highest Selling Album award, "Deciphering Me" won Airplay Record of the Year.
The music video for Albertine was shot in May 2007 in Rwanda. Fraser posted a blog entry in her official MySpace blog while en route to Rwanda from Johannesburg. In this entry, she stated: Later, on 15 July the video for the song was released on Brooke Fraser's official YouTube channel, it shows face shots at the start of the video interspersed with pictures of children from Rwanda, before showing Fraser walk along a bridge as Rwandan people walk by. All songs written by Brooke Fraser. Albertine – EP"Albertine – 3:57 "C. S. Lewis Song" – 5:12 "Faithful" – 7.
Zeta was the original name for General Motors' full-size rear-wheel drive automobile platform developed by GM's Australian subsidiary company Holden and was most referred to as the "Global RWD Architecture". The GM Zeta replaced the V-body, debuted with 2006 Holden Commodore sedan and Holden Ute; this platform was considered as the replacement for the North American W, H, K platforms until plans were cancelled due to fuel-economy considerations and GM's financial situation. Although the future of the Zeta program was in doubt at that time, in May 2009, Holden began the development of an improved second version of the platform that went on to form the basis of the 2013 Commodore and Chevrolet SS; the 2010-15 fifth generation Chevrolet Camaro was the only Zeta platform model produced in North America. All other Zeta platform vehicles have been manufactured in Australia by Holden. In 2016, the Chevrolet Camaro debuted on the GM Alpha platform. Australian manufactured models include the long-wheelbase Holden WM Statesman/Caprice sedan and the high performance range produced by Holden Special Vehicles.
On export markets, Holden-based models included the: short-wheelbase Commodore -based Pontiac G8 and the Commodore -based Chevrolet SS full HSV range, the HSV-based Vauxhall VXR8 and Chevrolet Specialised Vehicles E-series the long-wheelbase Chevrolet Caprice PPV and the Buick Park Avenue. In December 2013, Holden announced that it will cease its local production by 2017 and, with it, the production of the GM Zeta platform. Production ended in October 2017. Development was started in late 1999 by Holden to replace the aging V-body platform underpinning the third generation Commodore that debuted in 1997, after Opel announced that its Omega would be discontinued. Principal development on the VE Commodore was completed by July 2004 at a cost approaching A$1 billion and the first testing mules underwent trials that year. Unlike previous Holden platforms, the platform was designed around the LWB Caprice and Statesman and shortened to create the Commodore. General Motors global corporate headquarters was impressed by the VE design and began studies on using the underlying architecture for a range of future products on a global scale.
After the cancellation of the plan due to the fuel-economy considerations and GM's financial situation, the idea of Zeta as a global rear drive platform was revived with plans for the fifth generation Chevrolet Camaro of 2010. The Zeta architecture was designed for great flexibility and could accommodate a wide variety of automotive features such as wheelbase length, ride height, windshield rake and roof line. Zeta's suspension system was all wheel independent and utilizes a MacPherson strut coupled with a dual ball joint lower A-arm for the front and a four link independent setup for the rear wheels; the engine was mounted behind the front axle giving improved weight distribution. In May 2009, Holden began the re-engineering of the Zeta platform to create a lighter, better handling and more fuel efficient version; the improved second version of the platform formed the basis of the 2013 Commodore, which spawned the 2013 Chevrolet SS that GM announced in May 2012 for the US market. This Chevrolet made its debut at the 2013 Daytona Shootout.
The Holden VF Commodore, on which the Chevrolet SS is based, went on sale the same day in Australia. In December 2013, Holden announced the end, at the Elizabeth plant in South Australia by the end of 2017 and, with it, that of the Zeta platform. Sigma-based vehicles that shared design engineering with Zeta transitioned to the Alpha platform, which used Zeta as its basis. In particular, the new-age Chevrolet Camaro transitioned to the Alpha platform in November 2015, with the launch of the 2016 sixth generation model; the vehicles that have used the Zeta platform include: 2006-2013 Holden VE Commodore / 2007-2012 Bitter Vero Sport / 2006-2013 HSV E Series / 2007-2013 Vauxhall VXR8 and CSV equivalents / 2007-2011 Chevrolet Lumina / 2008-2009 Pontiac G8 / 2006 Chevrolet Omega 2006-2013 Holden WM Statesman/Caprice 2014–2017 Holden WN Caprice/2007-2012 Bitter Vero/ 2007-2017 Chevrolet Caprice / 2008-2010 Daewoo Veritas / 2007-2012 Buick Park Avenue / 2006-2013 HSV E-Series Grange/ 2014–2017 HSV F-Series Grange 2007–2017 Holden Ute 2008 Holden Coupe 60 concept car 2010–2015 Chevrolet Camaro 2011–2017 Chevrolet Caprice PPV police vehicle 2013–2017 Holden VF Commodore / Chevrolet SS / HSV F Series.
"Camaro tops GM's rwd list. AutoWeek. Retrieved January 16, 2006. "Moving Up? Impala goes back to rwd in'09". AutoWeek. Retrieved November 14, 2006. "GM to Build New Car Based on Zeta Platform". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved December 10, 2006. "It's official: Pontiac GTO will return!". Leftlanenews
Wintrust Arena at McCormick Square referred to as DePaul Arena or McCormick Place Events Center, is a 10,387-seat sports venue in Chicago's Near South Side community area that opened in 2017. It is the current home court for the men's and women's basketball teams of DePaul University and serves as an events center for McCormick Place, it is the home of the Chicago Sky of the Women's National Basketball Association. The arena was announced in May 2013, with construction planned to begin in 2014, use expected to begin with the 2016–17 season; the start of construction was delayed to November 2015, with completion delayed until the 2017–18 season. Although DePaul had been seeking a new home arena — it used Allstate Arena in suburban Rosemont starting 1980 — it rejected a November 2012 ten-year offer to play rent free at the United Center. Instead, DePaul planned to use Allstate Arena on a recurring one-year basis. On November 16, 2016, DePaul and the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority announced that the new event center at McCormick Square would be called Wintrust Arena.
The announcement came after the signing of a letter of intent that contemplated a definitive 15-year sponsorship agreement between DePaul and Wintrust. At the outset there were two different interpretations of the planned venue. ESPN has interpreted the plan as a 10,000-seat arena with a cost to tax payers of $103 million and total cost of $175 million; the Chicago Sun-Times has interpreted the plan as a 12,000-seat arena with public funding of $125 million out of a total spend $300 million. Before the actual announcement, the arena was publicized by the Chicago Sun-Times as a 12,000-seat arena that would cost $300 million. After the announcement, the Chicago Sun-Times reported an expected 12,000-seat venue, but with $125 million coming from public funds. Upon announcement, ESPN reported the expected cost of the 10,000-seat arena, located on Cermak Road between Indiana and Prairie Avenue, across the street from McCormick Place was $173 million; the funding came from three sources: $70 million from the university, $70 million from a McPier bond fund and $33 million from public taxes.
It was built to host concerts and other events in addition to DePaul Basketball games. As the building approached completion, its capacity was announced as 10,387 seats for basketball; the decision for public participation in the funding of DePaul's athletic facility was controversial because it was announced 6 days prior to the Board of Education's decision to close 50 public schools due to a $1 billion deficit. When the Chicago City Council approved funding on July 24, 2013, the Chicago Reader reported the vote as though money was taken from the schools and spent on the arena because the spending plan included $68 million in budget cuts for the Chicago Public Schools; the Chicago Tribune revealed that the land for the project had not yet been acquired four days after the City Hall funding vote. On November 16, 2015, Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel, officials from DePaul University and McCormick Place attended the ceremonial groundbreaking for the center. At the time of the groundbreaking, the construction was expected to result in a 10,000-seat venue at the corner of Cermak Road and Indiana Avenue and expected to be completed at some time in 2017.
At the time, the DePaul Athletics department expected the 2017–18 DePaul Blue Demons to be able to host their season opener at the venue, but the venue was expected to double as an events center for McCormick Place. The Center was expected to create 2,500 permanent jobs; the city issued a "new construction" building permit to McPier on March 23, 2016, for the full building. Issued permits allowed the construction of foundations and shear walls. After being referred to as both DePaul Arena and McCormick Place Events Center, MPEA and DePaul announced a 15-year naming rights agreement for the complex with Wintrust Financial under the name Wintrust Arena on November 16, 2016. On July 25, 2017, MPEA announced that it had reached a five-year agreement with the Chicago Sky to play their home games at the arena starting with all 17 home games for the 2018 WNBA season after having played the previous eight seasons at Allstate Arena; the arena's first event was a concert by REO Speedwagon on September 25, reserved for attendees of the annual convention of the True Value hardware company.
The opening ceremony was held on October 14, 2017, with the event featuring the season-opening practices for the 2017–18 DePaul men's and women's teams. The first major public event took place on October 27. By that time, the arena had been announced as the host of the Big East Women's Basketball Tournament for 2018–2020; the arena was used for some Junior Basketball Association games for the inaugural 2018 JBA season some games holding the Chicago Ballers franchise. However, it did not hold the 2018 JBA All-Star Event/Game; the arena housed the primary panel stage for the Star Wars Celebration held in Chicago in 2019. From the stage in the arena and crew revealed first looks at franchise productions including Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker and The Mandalorian, featured celebrity guests including Stephen Colbert, J. J. Abrams, Daisy Ridley, Billy Dee Williams, Jon Favreau, Pedro Pascal. Mayor Lori Lightfoot was inaugurated at the arena on May 20, 2019. On February 14, 2020, the arena hosted the 2020 NBA All-Star Celebrity Game.
On February 29, 2020, the arena will host AEW Revolution. List of NCAA Division I basketball arenas Official website DePaul Blue Demons Official Athletics Website Chicago Sky Media Central (which lists the arena as the team's cur