Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes used carving and modelling, in stone, ceramics and other materials but, since Modernism, there has been an complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded or cast. Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, represents the majority of the surviving works from ancient cultures, though conversely traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished entirely. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, this has been lost. Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were an expression of religion or politics; those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, as well as many in Central and South America and Africa.
The Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, Greece is seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith; the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David. Modernist sculpture moved away from traditional processes and the emphasis on the depiction of the human body, with the making of constructed sculpture, the presentation of found objects as finished art works. A basic distinction is between sculpture in the round, free-standing sculpture, such as statues, not attached to any other surface, the various types of relief, which are at least attached to a background surface. Relief is classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sometimes an intermediate mid-relief. Sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief is the usual sculptural medium for large figure groups and narrative subjects, which are difficult to accomplish in the round, is the typical technique used both for architectural sculpture, attached to buildings, for small-scale sculpture decorating other objects, as in much pottery and jewellery.
Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs of stone also containing inscriptions. Another basic distinction is between subtractive carving techniques, which remove material from an existing block or lump, for example of stone or wood, modelling techniques which shape or build up the work from the material. Techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work; the term "sculpture" is used to describe large works, which are sometimes called monumental sculpture, meaning either or both of sculpture, large, or, attached to a building. But the term properly covers many types of small works in three dimensions using the same techniques, including coins and medals, hardstone carvings, a term for small carvings in stone that can take detailed work; the large or "colossal" statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity. Another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades.
The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the "head", showing just that, or the bust, a representation of a person from the chest up. Small forms of sculpture include the figurine a statue, no more than 18 inches tall, for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Modern and contemporary art have added a number of non-traditional forms of sculpture, including sound sculpture, light sculpture, environmental art, environmental sculpture, street art sculpture, kinetic sculpture, land art, site-specific art. Sculpture is an important form of public art. A collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in some form of association with religion. Cult images are common in many cultures, though they are not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art, like the Statue of Zeus at Olympia; the actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were evidently rather small in the largest temples.
The same is true in Hinduism, where the simple and ancient form of the lingam is the most common. Buddhism brought the sculpture of religious figures to East Asia, where there seems to have been no earlier equivalent tradition, though again simple shapes like the bi and cong had religious significance. Small sculptures as personal possessions go back to the earliest prehistoric art, the use of large sculpture as public art to impress the viewer with the power of a ruler, goes back at least to the Great Sphinx of some 4,500 years ago. In archaeology and art history the appearance, sometimes disappearance, of large or monumental sculpture in a culture is regarded as of great significance, though tracing the emergence is complicated by the presumed existence of sculpture in wood and other perishable materials of which no record remains; the ability to su
Emergency tourniquets are cuff-like devices designed to stop severe traumatic bleeding before or during transport to a care facility. They are wrapped around the limb, proximal to the site of trauma, tightened until all blood vessels underneath are occluded; the design and construction of emergency tourniquets allows quick application by first aid responders or the injured persons themselves. Correct use of tourniquet devices have been shown to save lives under austere conditions with comparatively low risk of injury. In field trials, prompt application of emergency tourniquets before the patient goes into shock are associated with higher survival rates than any other scenario where tourniquets were used or not at all. Existing guidelines call for the use of improvised "rope-and-stick" tourniquets as a last resort to stop severe bleeding. However, purpose-made tourniquet devices that are well designed can provide increased safety and efficacy. Variability in performance has been shown to exist between various designs and application methods.
Mechanisms that confer sufficient mechanical advantage are essential for applying adequate pressure to stop bleeding on the lower extremities. Pressures that occlude venous but not arterial flow can exacerbate hemorrhage and cause damage to healthy tissue. Results from laboratory and field testing suggest that windlass and pneumatic mechanisms are effective where other systems fail due to excessive pain, inadequate force, or mechanical failure. Pressure underneath a tourniquet cuff is not evenly distributed, with the highest pressures localized around the cuff centerline and decreasing to zero near the cuff edges. A high rate of change of pressure across the cuff width, or a high cuff pressure gradient, is a leading cause of nerve and muscle injury from tourniquet use. Tourniquets with wider straps or cuffs those with pneumatic actuation in contrast to mechanical force, distribute pressure more evenly and produce lower pressure gradients, they are therefore more to stop bleeding and less to cause damage to underlying tissue, in addition to being less painful than tourniquets with narrow straps and bands.
Overpressure protection in certain emergency tourniquets help to prevent excessive force from damaging the limb. Possible risks of complications—morbidity—related to emergency tourniquet use include Emergency care services implementing routine tourniquet use in the civilian setting, should exercise caution and ensure that training is adequate for optimal results. However, given proper precautions, the occurrence of complications due to tourniquet use is quite rare. Designed tourniquet devices are tightened over healthy limbs during training with no ill effects, recent evidence from combat hospitals in Iraq suggests that morbidity rates are low when users adhere to standard best practices. Since no better alternatives exist for users to self-apply with only basic training, the benefit of tourniquet use far outweighs the risks. Safe tourniquet practice involves: Latest field trials suggest that wider straps are more effective and less painful than tourniquets with thinner straps; the concept of limb occlusion pressure is gaining prominence over the misconception that greater applied force results in greater effectiveness.
In addition, studies of failed cases indicate that the correct devices should be coupled with training that facilitates realistic expectations and correct user actions. Despite the success of widespread tourniquet deployment to limit combat casualties, many preventable deaths from hemorrhage occur where conventional tourniquet use is inappropriate; the need exists for controlling junctional bleeding in the pelvic area. In 2012, the Combat Ready Clamp was selected by the U. S. Army Institute of Surgical Research for that purpose. Another emerging need is more refined training regimes and doctrine based on scientific evidence, which can ensure that future tourniquet practice and policies are in line with the most current body of knowledge. Tourniquet Surgical tourniquet Emergency bandage Esmarch bandage
Dr. Dean Conrad Allard, Jr. was a naval historian and archivist, who served as Director of Naval History and Director of the United States Navy's Naval Historical Center from 1989 to 1995. The son of Dean Conrad Allard, Sr. and his wife Elizabeth Donaldson Graves, Allard attended the Pembroke Country-Day School in Kansas City and went on to Dartmouth College, where he earned his A. B. was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He married Constance Lynne Morgan on June 1955, with whom he had four children. After serving in the United States Navy from 1955 to 1958, he returned to graduate school in history at Georgetown University, where he earned his M. A. degree in 1959 with a thesis on "The Influence of the United States Navy upon the American Steel Industry, 1880-1900." He completed his Ph. D. at the George Washington University in 1967 under Professor Wood Gray with a dissertation on "Spencer Fullerton Baird and the U. S. Fish Commission: a Study in the History of American Science." Upon leaving active service in the Navy, Allard was appointed head of the U.
S. Navy's Operational Archives in 1958 and served in that position until 1982, when he became senior historian. In 1989, he was appointed Director of Naval History and served in that capacity until his retirement in 1995. Allard served as an adjunct professor of history at George Washington University from 1979 to 1989. In addition, he served as President of the Arlington Historical Society from 1974 to 1975. S. Scientific Committee on the CSS Alabama from 1991 to 1995, he served as vice president of the International Commission for Military History from 2000 to 2005. S. Commission for Military History from 1995 to 1999, he was a member of the Cosmos Club in Washington, D. C.. 1992 K. Jack Bauer Award of the North American Society for Oceanic History 1995 Samuel Eliot Morison Award of the USS Constitution Museum 1995 Navy Superior Civilian Service Award 2015 Commodore Dudley W. Knox Naval History Lifetime Achievement Award of the Naval Historical Foundation U. S. Naval History Sources in the Washington Area and Suggested Research Subjects, compiled by Dean C.
Allard and Betty Bern. Washington. S. Govt. Print. Off. 1970. The United States Navy and the Vietnam Conflict: The Setting of the Stage to 1959, vol. 1. By Edwin B. Hooper, Dean C. Allard, Oscar P. Fitzgerald. Washington. S. Govt. Print. Off. 1976. Spencer Fullerton Baird and the U. S. Fish Commission. New York: Arno Press, 1978. U. S. Naval History Sources in the United States and edited by Dean C. Allard, Martha L. Crawley, Mary W. Edmison. Washington. S. Govt. Print. Off. 1979. Marquis Who's Who: "Dean C. Allard"