George Norman Douglas was a British writer, now best known for his 1917 novel South Wind. His travel books such as his 1915 Old Calabria were appreciated for the quality of their writing. Norman Douglas was born in Austria, his mother was Vanda von Poellnitz. His father was John Sholto Douglas, manager of a cotton mill, who died in a hunting accident when Douglas was about six, he spent the first years of his life on Villa Falkenhorst, in Thüringen. Douglas was brought up in Scotland at Tilquhillie, his paternal home, he was educated at Yarlet Hall and Uppingham School in England, at a grammar school in Karlsruhe. Douglas's paternal grandfather was the 14th Laird of Tilquhillie. Douglas's maternal great-grandfather was 17th Lord Forbes, he started in the diplomatic service in 1894 and from until 1896 was based in St. Petersburg, but was placed on leave following a sexual scandal. In 1897 he bought a villa in a maritime suburb of Naples; the next year he married a cousin Elizabeth Louisa Theobaldina FitzGibbon.
They had two children, Louis Archibald and Robert Sholto, but divorced in 1903 on grounds of Elizabeth's infidelity. Norman's first book publication, was written under the pseudonym Normyx, in collaboration with Elizabeth, he moved to Capri, spending time there and in London, became a more committed writer. Nepenthe, the fictional island setting of South Wind, is Capri in light disguise. There he was friends with opium addict Baron Jacques d'Adelswärd-Fersen. In 1912–1914 he worked for The English Review, he met D. H. Lawrence through this connection; this led to a feud, after Lawrence in his 1922 novel, Aaron's Rod based a character on Douglas. In late 1916 he jumped bail in London on a charge of indecent assault on a sixteen-year-old boy, then lived in exile, he himself wrote of this in self-exculpation: "Norman Douglas of Capri, of Naples and Florence, was of England, which he fled during the war to avoid persecution for kissing a boy and giving him some cakes and a shilling".. In the book Twentieth Century Authors, Douglas stated he disliked Marxism, "all kinds of set forms, including official Christianity".
During Douglas's years in Florence, he was associated with the publisher and bookseller Pino Orioli, who published in Italy in his'Lungarno' series a number of Douglas's books and works by other English authors, many of which, would have been prosecuted for obscenity if published in London. Douglas had a major hand in writing Orioli's autobiography, Adventures of a Bookseller. Douglas' 1920 novel They Went is a fantasy based on Breton folklore. Further scandals led to Douglas leaving Italy for the south of France in 1937. Following the collapse of France in 1940 Douglas left the Riviera, on a circuitous journey to London, where he lived from 1942 to 1946, he published the first edition of his Almanac in a tiny edition in Lisbon, he was made a citizen of the island. His circle of acquaintances included the writer Graham Greene, the composer Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji and the food writer Elizabeth David, he died in Capri deliberately overdosing himself on drugs after a long illness.. His last words are reputed to have been: "Get those fucking nuns away from me."
The Latin inscription on his tombstone, from an ode by Horace, reads: Omnes eodem cogimur, "We are all driven to the same end". H. M. Tomlinson, a contemporary of Douglas's, concluded his 1931 biography by saying that Douglas's kind of prose "is at present out of fashion", he compared the writing to that of great English essayists and novelists: to Jonathan Swift's irony and Laurence Sterne's warmth. Peter Ackroyd describes Douglas's London Street Games as "a vivid memorial to the inventiveness and energy of London children, an implicit testimony to the streets which harboured and protected their play."John Sutherland reports that "Douglas's Mediterranean travel writing chimed with the public taste", that "there was a time when, in smart literary conversations, Norman Douglas was regarded as one of the smartest things going. Part of that smartness was his keeping, for the whole of his long depraved life, one jump ahead of the law."In The Grand Tour and Beyond: British and American Travellers in Southern Italy, 1545–1960, Edward Chaney, wrote that "the true heir to the great tradition of the'pedestrian tour' in our own century has been'pagan-to-the-core' Norman Douglas.
Having first visited the south of Italy with his brother in 1888, before he was 30 he had abandoned his pregnant Russian mistress and his job at the British Embassy in St Petersburg and purchased a villa at Posillipo. By he had published his first piece on the subject of southern Italy.." Douglas's most famous work South Wind is a fictionalised account of life in Capri, with controversial references to moral and sexual issues. It has been reprinted, his travel books combine erudition, insight and some fine prose. These works include Siren Land, Fountains in the Sand, described as "rambles amongst the oases of Tunisia", Old Calabria and Alone. Reviewing Douglas's work in Italian Americana, John Paul Russo wrote: Douglas.. Published three travel books of his walkin
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher
Lawrence Gene David is an American comedian, actor and television producer. He and Jerry Seinfeld created the television series Seinfeld, of which David was the head writer and executive producer from 1989 to 1997. David has subsequently gained further recognition for the HBO series Curb Your Enthusiasm, which he created, in which he stars as a semi-fictionalized version of himself. David's work won him a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series in 1993. A stand-up comedian, David went into television comedy and starring in ABC's Fridays, as well as writing for Saturday Night Live, he has won two Primetime Emmy Awards, was voted by fellow comedians and comedy insiders as the 23rd greatest comedy star in a 2004 British poll to select "The Comedian's Comedian". David was born in Brooklyn, New York, his parents are Rose and Mortimer Julius "Morty" David, a men's clothing manufacturer, he has an older brother named Ken. David's family is Jewish, his father's side moved from Germany to the U.
S. during the 19th century, while David's mother was born in Ternopil Austrian Galicia, now in Ukraine. David graduated from Sheepshead Bay High School, from the University of Maryland, College Park, where he was a brother in Tau Epsilon Phi in the 1960s, with a bachelor's degree in history, it was while at college that David started developing his take on things and discovered that he could make people laugh by being himself. After college, David enlisted in the United States Army Reserve. While a stand-up comedian, Larry David worked as a store clerk, limousine driver, historian, he lived in Manhattan Plaza, a federally subsidized housing complex in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of Manhattan, across the hall from Kenny Kramer, the inspiration for the Cosmo Kramer character in Seinfeld. David became a writer for and cast member of ABC's Fridays from 1980 to 1982, a writer for NBC's Saturday Night Live from 1984 to 1985. During his time at SNL, he was able to get only one sketch on the show, which aired at 12:50 AM, the last time slot on the show.
David quit his writing job at SNL in the first season, only to show up to work two days acting as though nothing had happened. That event inspired a second-season episode of Seinfeld entitled "The Revenge". David met his future Seinfeld stars during that early stage of his career: he worked with Michael Richards on Fridays and with Julia Louis-Dreyfus on SNL, he can be heard heckling Michael McKean when McKean hosted SNL in 1984, he can be seen in the sketch "The Run and Catch Like a Girl Olympics" when Howard Cosell hosted the season finale in 1985. In 1989 David teamed up with comedian Jerry Seinfeld to create a pilot for NBC called The Seinfeld Chronicles, which became the basis for Seinfeld, one of the most successful shows in history, reaching the top of TV Guide's list of the 50 greatest TV shows of all time. Entertainment Weekly ranked it the third-best TV show of all time. David made occasional uncredited appearances on the show, playing such roles as Frank Costanza's cape-wearing lawyer and the voice of George Steinbrenner.
He was the primary inspiration for the show's character George Costanza. David left Seinfeld on friendly terms after the seventh season but returned to write the series finale in 1998, two years later, he continued to provide the voice for the Steinbrenner character. David wrote 62 of the episodes of Seinfeld, including 1992's "The Contest", for which he won a Primetime Emmy Award and which TV Guide ranked the episode No. 1 on its list of "TV's Top 100 Episodes of All Time". Syndication of Seinfeld earned David an estimated $250 million in 1998 alone; this amount has been decreasing each year, but payments will continue until the full $1.7 billion from the original syndication deal has been paid. In 2008 David made $55 million from Seinfeld syndication, DVD sales, Curb Your Enthusiasm, he was nominated for an Emmy award 19 times for Seinfeld, winning twice – once for best comedy and once for writing. The HBO cable television channel aired David's 1-hour special, Larry David: Curb Your Enthusiasm, on October 17, 1999.
This was followed by Curb Your Enthusiasm, a television series on HBO that aired its first episode on October 15, 2000. The show revisits many of the themes of Seinfeld, is improvised from a story outline only several pages long that David writes; the actors improvise their dialogue based on the story outline and their own creativity. David has said that his character in the show, a fictionalized version of himself, is what he would be like in real life if he lacked social awareness and sensitivity; the character's numerous and frequent social faux pas, misunderstandings, ironic coincidences are the basis of much of the show's comedy and have led to the entry into the American pop culture lexicon of the expression "Larry David moment", meaning an inadvertently created awkward situation. The basis of the show is the events in David's life following the fortune he earned from the Seinfeld series. Alongside David is his wife Cheryl, his manager and best friend Jeff, Jeff's wife Susie. Celebrities, including comedians Bob Einstein, Wanda Sykes, Richard Lewis, appear on the show regularly.
Actors Ted Danson and Mary Steenburgen have had recurring roles as themselves. The show is critically acclaimed and has been nominated for 30 Primetime Emmy Awards, with one win, as well as one Golden Globe win. In the first six seasons, Julia Louis-Dreyfus and Jason Alex
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness or of being aware of an external object or something within oneself. It has been defined variously in terms of sentience, qualia, the ability to experience or to feel, having a sense of selfhood or soul, the fact that there is something "that it is like" to "have" or "be" it, the executive control system of the mind. Despite the difficulty in definition, many philosophers believe that there is a broadly shared underlying intuition about what consciousness is; as Max Velmans and Susan Schneider wrote in The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness: "Anything that we are aware of at a given moment forms part of our consciousness, making conscious experience at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives."Western philosophers, since the time of Descartes and Locke, have struggled to comprehend the nature of consciousness and identify its essential properties. Issues of concern in the philosophy of consciousness include whether the concept is fundamentally coherent.
Thanks to developments in technology over the past few decades, consciousness has become a significant topic of interdisciplinary research in cognitive science, with significant contributions from fields such as psychology, anthropology and neuroscience. The primary focus is on understanding what it means biologically and psychologically for information to be present in consciousness—that is, on determining the neural and psychological correlates of consciousness; the majority of experimental studies assess consciousness in humans by asking subjects for a verbal report of their experiences. Issues of interest include phenomena such as subliminal perception, denial of impairment, altered states of consciousness produced by alcohol and other drugs, or spiritual or meditative techniques. In medicine, consciousness is assessed by observing a patient's arousal and responsiveness, can be seen as a continuum of states ranging from full alertness and comprehension, through disorientation, loss of meaningful communication, loss of movement in response to painful stimuli.
Issues of practical concern include how the presence of consciousness can be assessed in ill, comatose, or anesthetized people, how to treat conditions in which consciousness is impaired or disrupted. The degree of consciousness is measured by standardized behavior observation scales such as the Glasgow Coma Scale; the origin of the modern concept of consciousness is attributed to John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, published in 1690. Locke defined consciousness as "the perception of what passes in a man's own mind", his essay influenced the 18th-century view of consciousness, his definition appeared in Samuel Johnson's celebrated Dictionary. "Consciousness" is defined in the 1753 volume of Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie, as "the opinion or internal feeling that we ourselves have from what we do." The earliest English language uses of "conscious" and "consciousness" date back, however, to the 1500s. The English word "conscious" derived from the Latin conscius, but the Latin word did not have the same meaning as our word—it meant "knowing with", in other words "having joint or common knowledge with another".
There were, many occurrences in Latin writings of the phrase conscius sibi, which translates as "knowing with oneself", or in other words "sharing knowledge with oneself about something". This phrase had the figurative meaning of "knowing that one knows", as the modern English word "conscious" does. In its earliest uses in the 1500s, the English word "conscious" retained the meaning of the Latin conscius. For example, Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan wrote: "Where two, or more men, know of one and the same fact, they are said to be Conscious of it one to another." The Latin phrase conscius sibi, whose meaning was more related to the current concept of consciousness, was rendered in English as "conscious to oneself" or "conscious unto oneself". For example, Archbishop Ussher wrote in 1613 of "being so conscious unto myself of my great weakness". Locke's definition from 1690 illustrates. A related word was conscientia, which means moral conscience. In the literal sense, "conscientia" means knowledge-with, that is, shared knowledge.
The word first appears in Latin juridical texts by writers such as Cicero. Here, conscientia is the knowledge. René Descartes is taken to be the first philosopher to use conscientia in a way that does not fit this traditional meaning. Descartes used conscientia the way modern speakers would use "conscience". In Search after Truth he says "conscience or internal testimony"; the dictionary meanings of the word consciousness extend through several centuries and several associated related meanings. These have ranged from formal definitions to definitions attempting to capture the less captured and more debated meanings and usage of the wor
The Incredible Hulk (comic book)
The Incredible Hulk is an ongoing comic book series featuring the Marvel Comics superhero the Hulk and his alter ego Dr. Bruce Banner. First published in May 1962, the series ran for six issues before it was cancelled in March 1963, the Hulk character began appearing in Tales to Astonish. With issue #102, Tales to Astonish was renamed to The Incredible Hulk in April 1968, becoming its second volume; the series continued to run until issue #474 in March 1999 when it was replaced with the series Hulk which ran until February 2000 and was retitled to The Incredible Hulk's third volume, running until March 2007 when it became The Incredible Hercules with a new title character. The Incredible Hulk returned in September 2009 beginning at issue #600, which became The Incredible Hulks in November 2010 and focused on the Hulk and the modern incarnation of his expanded family; the series returned to The Incredible Hulk in December 2011 and ran until January 2013, when it was replaced with The Indestructible Hulk as part of Marvel's Marvel NOW! relaunch.
The original series was canceled with issue #6. Lee had written each story, with Jack Kirby penciling the first five issues and Steve Ditko penciling and inking the sixth. A year and a half after the series was canceled, the Hulk became one of two features in Tales to Astonish, beginning in issue #60; this new Hulk feature was scripted by writer-editor Lee and illustrated by the team of penciller Steve Ditko and inker George Roussos. Other artists in this run included Jack Kirby from #68–87, doing full pencils or, more layouts for other artists; the Tales to Astonish run introduced the supervillains the Leader, who would become the Hulk's nemesis, the Abomination, another gamma-irradiated being. Comics artist Marie Severin finished out the Hulk's run in Tales to Astonish. Beginning with issue #102 the book was retitled The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, ran until 1999, when Marvel canceled the series and restarted the title with the shorter-titled Hulk #1. The Incredible Hulk vol. 2 was published through the 1970s.
At times, the writers included Archie Goodwin, Chris Claremont, Tony Isabella. Len Wein wrote the series from 1974 through 1978. Nearly all of the 1970s issues were drawn by either Herb Trimpe, the regular artist for seven years, or Sal Buscema, the regular artist for ten years, starting with issue #194. Issues #180–181 introduced the character Wolverine, who would go on to become one of Marvel Comics' most popular; the original art for the comic book page that introduced Wolverine sold for $657,250 in May 2014. Key supporting characters included Jim Wilson and Jarella, both of whom would make few appearances outside of this decade. In 1977, Marvel launched The Rampaging Hulk, a black-and-white comics magazine; this was conceived as a flashback series, set between the end of his original, short-lived solo title and the beginning of his feature in Tales to Astonish. After nine issues, the magazine was retitled The Hulk! and printed in color. A nine-part "continuity insert" that in many ways contradicted the original comics stories was retconned as a movie made by an alien movie producer, Bereet who portrayed her people as warmonger shape-changers.
Following Roger Stern, Bill Mantlo took over the writing with issue #245. Among the adversaries Mantlo created for the series were the Soviet Super-Soldiers. Mantlo's "Crossroads of Eternity" stories, which ran through issues #300–313, explored the idea that Banner had suffered child abuse; the Incredible Hulk writers Peter David and Greg Pak called these stories an influence on their approaches to the series. After five years, Mantlo left the title to write Alpha Flight, while Alpha Flight writer John Byrne took over the series and left it after six issues, claiming, "I took on the Hulk after a discussion with editor-in-chief Jim Shooter, in which I mentioned some of the things I would like to do with that character, given the chance, he told me to do whatever was necessary to get on the book, he liked my ideas so much. I did, once installed he changed his mind—'You can't do this!' Six issues was as much as I could take." Byrne's final issue featured the wedding of Betty Ross. Byrne had done a seventh issue, consisting of one-panel pages.
It was published in Marvel Fanfare #29. Al Milgrom succeeded Byrne before new regular writer Peter David took over with issue #331, the start of an 11-year tenure, he returned to the Stern and Mantlo abuse storyline, expanding the damage caused, depicting Banner as suffering dissociative identity disorder. In issue #377 he merged Banner, the green Hulk, the grey Hulk into a single being with the unified personality and powers of all three. David claimed he had been planning this from the beginning of his tenure on the series, had held off so that he could make the readers have an emotional attachment to the grey Hulk. David worked with numerous artists over his run on the series, including Dale Keown, Todd McFarlane, Sam Kieth, Gary Frank, Liam Sharp, Terry Dodson, Mike Deodato, George Pérez, Adam Kubert. In 1998, David followed editor Bobbie Chase's suggestion to kill Betty Ross. In the introduction to the Hulk trade paperback Beauty and the Behemoth, David said that his wife had left him, providing inspiration for the storyline.
Marvel executives used Ross' death as an opportunity to push the idea of bringing back t
Friday the 13th (1980 film)
Friday the 13th is a 1980 American slasher film produced and directed by Sean S. Cunningham, written by Victor Miller, it stars Betsy Palmer, Adrienne King, Harry Crosby, Laurie Bartram, Mark Nelson, Jeannine Taylor, Robbi Morgan, Kevin Bacon. The film tells the story of a group of teenage camp counselors who are murdered one by one by an unknown killer while attempting to re-open an abandoned summer camp. Prompted by the success of John Carpenter's Halloween, director Cunningham put out an advertisement to sell the film in Variety in early 1979, while Miller was still drafting the screenplay. After casting the film in New York City, filming took place in New Jersey in the summer of 1979, on an estimated budget of $550,000. A bidding war ensued over the finished film, ending with Paramount Pictures acquiring the film for domestic distribution, while Warner Bros. secured European distribution rights. Released on May 9, 1980, Friday the 13th was a major box office success, grossing over $39.7 million in the United States alone and $20 million international, making it the highest grossing film in the franchise in adjusted dollars.
Critical response to the film was divided, with some praising the film's cinematography and performances, while numerous others derided it for its depiction of graphic violence. Aside from being the first independent film of its kind to secure distribution in the U. S. by a major studio, its box office success led to a long series of sequels, a crossover with A Nightmare on Elm Street, a 2009 series reboot. In 1958 at Camp Crystal Lake, counselors Barry and Claudette sneak inside a storage barn to have sex, where an unseen assailant murders them. Twenty-one years camp counselor Annie Phillips is given a lift halfway to the reopened Camp Crystal Lake by a truck driver named Enos. Before they reach the truck, an elderly man named Crazy Ralph warns Annie that "Camp Blood" is cursed. While driving, Enos tries to persuade Annie to turn back and leave, warning her about the camp's past, he informs her about a young boy who drowned at Crystal Lake in 1957 and several other suspicious deaths. After being dropped off, Annie hitches another ride from an unseen person.
The driver drives past the road to Crystal Lake at full speed. After her urgent requests to turn back are ignored, Annie panics, jumps out of the vehicle, is pursued into the woods, where the driver slashes her throat. At the camp, counselors Ned Rubenstein, Jack Burrell, Bill Brown, Marcie Cunningham, Brenda Jones, Alice Hardy, along with the owner Steve Christy, refurbish the cabins and facilities; as a thunderstorm approaches, Steve leaves the campground to stock supplies. Afterward, Ned follows. While Jack and Marcie have sex in one of the cabin's bunk beds, they are unaware of Ned's body above them, with his throat slit; when Marcie leaves to use the bathroom, Jack's throat is pierced with an arrow from beneath the bed. The killer slams an axe into her face. Brenda hears a child's voice calling for help and ventures outside to the archery range, where the lights turn on. Steve returns to the camp and is confronted by the unseen killer, who stabs him. Worried by their friends' disappearances and Bill leave the main cabin to investigate.
They find a bloody axe in Brenda's bed, the phones disconnected, the cars inoperable. When the power goes out, Bill goes to check on the generator. Alice finds his body pinned with arrows to the generator room's door, she flees back to the main cabin to hide, only to be traumatized further when Brenda's body is thrown through the window. Soon after, Alice rushes outside, thinking it is Steve. Instead, she is greeted by a middle-aged woman named Mrs. Voorhees, who claims to be an old friend of Steve. Mrs. Voorhees sees Brenda's body and begins to reminisce that her son Jason was the young boy who drowned in 1957, she blames his death on the counselors who were supposed to be watching him, but instead were having sex and not paying attention to Jason drowning. Revealing herself as the killer, Mrs. Voorhees attempts to kill Alice with her bowie knife, but she knocks her unconscious. Finding Alice at the shore, Mrs. Voorhees tries to kill her again with a machete, but Alice gains the advantage and decapitates her.
Exhausted, Alice boards and falls asleep inside a canoe. The next morning, just as Alice wakes up, Jason's decomposing body attacks her, she awakens in a hospital where medical staff tend to her. When Alice asks about Jason, the officer says. Alice says "Then he's still there". Friday the 13th was produced and directed by Sean S. Cunningham, who had worked with filmmaker Wes Craven on the film The Last House on the Left. Cunningham, inspired by John Carpenter's Halloween, wanted Friday the 13th to be shocking, visually stunning and " you jump out of your seat." Wanting to distance himself from The Last House on the Left, Cunningham wanted Friday the 13th to be more of a "roller-coaster ride."The original screenplay was tentatively titled A Long Night at Camp Blood. While working on a redraft of the screenplay, Cunningham proposed the title Friday the 13th, after which Miller began redeveloping. Cunningham rushed out to place an advertisement in Variety using the Friday the 13th title. Worried that someone else owned the rights to the title and wanting to avoid potential lawsuits, Cunningham thought it would be best to find out immediately.
He commissioned a New York advertising agency to develop his concept of the Friday the 13th logo, which consisted of big block letters bursting through a pane of glass. In the end, Cunningham believed there were "no pro