Algolsheim is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. This Alsatian commune is located in the Haut-Rhin several kilometers from Neuf-Brisach. Situated 2 km from the border with Germany, Algolsheim includes a good number of German residents, which has increased its number of inhabitants in recent years. Algolsheim is part of the Canton of Ensisheim and the Arrondissement of Colmar-Ribeauvillé. In 1196, the village was mentioned under the name d'Altolvisherde. From 1324 until the Revolution, the commune was part of the holdings of the counts of Wurtemberg. Between 1870 and 1875, several tombs of bronze were found in the territory of the commune; the village held the name Alt-Olsheim. It owes its current name to the ease; the town includes a catholic church, a protestant temple since 1864, as well as a Mennonite chapel founded in 1977. Modernised agriculture, the principal industry of Algolsheim, maintains a healthy level, despite the increasing scarcity of farmers.
More than half of the inhabitants of the commune work in the nearby industrial centers on the banks of the Rhine. The construction of new housing projects has led to an increase in the demographic diversity of the village. Algolsheim possesses a rich natural heritage, owing to the proximity of the Rhine forest and the île du Rhin. Communes of the Haut-Rhin department INSEE commune file
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Appenwihr is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Communes of the Haut-Rhin department INSEE commune file
Nagorno-Karabakh known as Artsakh, is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, within the mountainous range of Karabakh, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur, covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains. The region is mountainous and forested. Nagorno-Karabakh is a disputed territory, internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan, but most of the region is governed by the Republic of Artsakh, a de facto independent state with Armenian ethnic majority established on the basis of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. Azerbaijan has not exercised political authority over the region since the advent of the Karabakh movement in 1988. Since the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994, representatives of the governments of Armenia and Azerbaijan have been holding peace talks mediated by the OSCE Minsk Group on the region's disputed status; the region is equated with the administrative borders of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast comprising an area of 4,400 square kilometres.
The historical area of the region, encompasses 8,223 square kilometres. The prefix Nagorno- derives from the Russian attributive adjective nagorny, which means "highland." The Azerbaijani names of the region include the similar adjectives dağlıq or yuxarı. Such words are not used in the Armenian name, but they have appeared in the official name of the region during the Soviet era as Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast. Other languages highland; the names for the region in the various local languages all translate to "mountainous Karabakh", or "mountainous black garden": Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ, transliterated Leṙnayin Ġarabaġ Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ, Дағлыг Гарабағ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, Јухары Гарабағ Russian: Нагорный Карабах, transliterated Nagornyy Karabakh or Nagornyi Karabah The Armenians living in the area refer to Nagorno-Karabakh as Artsakh, using the name of the 10th province of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia. Urartian inscriptions use the name Urtekhini for the region. Ancient Greek sources called the area Orkhistene.
Nagorno-Karabakh falls within the lands occupied by peoples known to modern archaeologists as the Kura-Araxes culture, who lived between the two rivers Kura and Araxes. The ancient population of the region consisted of various autochthonous local and migrant tribes who were non-Indo-Europeans. According to the prevailing western theory, these natives intermarried with Armenians who came to the region after its inclusion into Armenia in the 2nd or earlier, in 4th century BC. Other scholars suggest that the Armenians settled in the region as early as in the 7th century BC. In around 180 BC, Artsakh became one of the 15 provinces of the Armenian Kingdom and remained so until the 4th century. While formally having the status of a province, Artsakh formed a principality on its own — like Armenia's province of Syunik. Other theories suggest. Tigran the Great, King of Armenia, founded in Artsakh one of four cities named "Tigranakert" after himself; the ruins of the ancient Tigranakert, located 30 miles north-east of Stepanakert, are being studied by a group of international scholars.
In 387 AD, after the partition of Armenia between Byzantium and Sassanid Persia, two Armenian provinces Artsakh and Utik became part of the Sassanid satrapy of Caucasian Albania, which, in turn, came under strong Armenian religious and cultural influence. At the time the population of Artsakh and Utik consisted of several Armenized tribes. Armenian culture and civilization flourished in the early medieval Nagorno-Karabakh. In the 5th century, the first-ever Armenian school was opened on the territory of modern Nagorno-Karabakh—at the Amaras Monastery—by the efforts of St. Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet. St. Mesrop was active in preaching Gospel in Artsakh and Utik. Overall, Mesrop Mashtots made three trips to Artsakh and Utik reaching pagan territories at the foothills of the Greater Caucasus; the 7th-century Armenian linguist and grammarian Stephanos Syunetsi stated in his work that Armenians of Artsakh had their own dialect, encouraged his readers to learn it. In the same 7th century, Armenian poet Davtak Kertogh writes his Elegy on the Death of Grand Prince Juansher, where each passage begins with a letter of Armenian script in alphabetical order.
The only comprehensive history of Caucasian Albania was written in Armenian, by the historian Movses Kaghankatvatsi. Around the mid 7th century, the region was conquered by the invading Muslim Arabs through the Muslim conquest of Persia. Subsequently, it was ruled by local governors endorsed by the Caliphate. According to some sources, in 821, the Armenian prince Sahl Smbatian revolted in Artsakh and established the House of Khachen, which ruled Artsakh as a principality until the early 19th century. According to other sources, Sahl i Smbatean "was of the Zamirhakan family of kings," and in the year 837-838, he acquired sovereignty over Armenia and Albania; the name "Khachen" originated from Armenian word "khach," which means "
Baltzenheim is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Communes of the Haut-Rhin department INSEE commune file
Sundgau is a geographical territory in the southern Alsace region, on the eastern edge of France. The name is derived from Alemannic German Sunt-gowe, denoting an Alemannic county in the Old High German period; the principal city and historical capital is Altkirch. The smaller French pays of Sundgau, implemented by the 1999 Loi Voynet corresponds to the arrondissement of Altkirch, comprising four cantons and 112 communes in the south of the larger Sundgau region; the hilly region is bounded on the south by the Swiss border and the foothills of the Jura, in the east by the valley of the Rhine in the vicinity of Basel, to the north by Mulhouse and the potassium-rich basin of Alsace, to the west by the Belfort Gap. It comprises parts of the modern Department of Haut-Rhin and the Territory of Belfort in the regions of Alsace and the Franche-Comté; the fertile loess soil has traditionally favoured a non-specialised agriculture, with crop production being organised into strips. The main crops are maize and colza.
The Ill, the most important river in Alsace, crosses Sundgau from south to north before flowing into the Rhine. Its source is at Winkel in the foothills of the Jura. Other rivers define the region's valleys, such as the Largue, which rises near Courtavon, passes through Dannemarie, meets the Ill at Illfurth. In medieval times, monks raised carp in the small valley ponds and carpe frite remains a regional speciality; the images of two carp appear in the coat of arms of Sundgau. Archaeological digs have revealed vestiges of Neolithic settlements. Traces of Bronze Age cremation pyres have been found. Excavations at Illfurth date from the Iron Age. In the 1st century BC, the Sequani tribe, centered around Besançon, settled in Sundgau. From 70 BC, they waged perpetual warfare with their neighbours, the Aedui, calling upon German mercenaries, led by Ariovistus; when the conflict finished, the Germans settled into the region, the Sequani, to remove them appealed to the Romans. Julius Caesar defeated Ariovistus in 58 BC near Cernay, a long domination by the Romans commenced.
This ended in 405, when the Alamani crossed the Rhine and occupied Sundgau. They, in turn, were followed by the Franks following their victory at the Battle of Tolbiac in 496. Sundgau was incorporated into the kingdom of Austrasia and Christianity was introduced under the Merovingians. About 750, the Duchy of Alsace was divided into two counties and Sundgau, the latter being mentioned in the Treaty of Mersen in 870. Sundgau coincides with the lands of the counts of Ferrette and Habsburg, excepting the town of Mulhouse and its territories of Illzach and Modenheim. Geographically, Sundgau denotes a more restricted area comprising the hilly country to the south of Mulhouse and reaching to the valley of Lucelle. During the 9th century and the 10th century Sundgau was administered by the Lieutfried family. Following the breakup of Charlemagne's empire, the region entered a period of instability, culminating in the emergence of feudalism. From 925 on, the Sundgau belonged to the Duchy of Swabia. In 1125, son of Theodoric I of Montbéliard, inherited the south of Alsace and became count of Ferrette.
So, from 1125 to 1324, a large part of the Sundgau was administered by the counts of Ferrette. Ulrich III died with no male issue, his daughter Jeanne married Albert II, Duke of Austria in 1324, the County of Ferrette fell to Austria and was integrated with the other Habsburg possessions in the area. The Landgraviate of Sundgau, the successor of the Carolingian county, had been administered by the counts of Habsburg since 1135, they had owned the adjacent County of Sundgau earlier. The Habsburgs enlarged their possessions in the area with numerous acquisitions in the following centuries, until by the mid-14th century all of the former Carolingian county was in the possession of Habsburg, their consolidated territories in the area became known as the Sundgau, belonged to the Austrian Circle of the Empire after 1512. The Habsburgian Sundgau was administered from Ensisheim by a bailli and divided into four bailiwicks. Enguerrand VII, Lord of Coucy tried unsuccessfully to claim the Sundgau during the Gugler War of 1375.
As of 1500, the Austrian Sundgau encompassed most of the southern Alsace and was bordered by the following states: Imperial City of Colmar, County of Württemberg, the Austrian Breisgau, the Margraviate of Baden, the Imperial City of Basel, the Bishopric of Basel, the County of Württemberg, the Duchy of Lorraine, the Abbacy of Murbach, the Bishopric of Strasbourg. The Imperial City of Mulhouse formed an enclave surrounded by the Sundgau; the Reformation did not trouble Sundgau, despite the proximity of Mulhouse. The country maintained its fidelity to the religion of the Catholicism. Commencing in 1632, the Thirty Years' War broke upon Sundgau, with a violence unprecedented in the history of the region; the Swedish, supported by France, invaded the country and burning all in their path. In reaction, the inhabitants of the countryside revolted, but the rebellion was subdued, the Swedes hanged the ringleaders from roadside trees. From 1634, the Swedes ceded their fortresses to the French, in 1648 the war ended with th
Aspach-le-Bas is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Communes of the Haut-Rhin department INSEE commune file