The Gastein Convention, called the Convention of Badgastein, was a treaty signed at Bad Gastein in Austria on August 14,1865. It embodied agreements between the two powers of the German Confederation and Austria, over the governing of the so-called Elbe Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein. The Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein had been united under Danish rule since 1460, while Schleswig north of the Eider River was a Danish fief, the Duchies of Holstein officially remained an estate of the Holy Roman Empire which the Kings of Denmark held as an Imperial fief. In 1815 King Frederick VI of Denmark acquired the adjacent Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, both Holstein and Lauenburg were member states of the German Confederation since 1815. In the following Second Schleswig War, Denmark was defeated and according to the Treaty of Vienna signed on 30 October 1864 had to cede the Elbe Duchies to victorious Prussia and Austria. After the war, the two faced the issue of governing the provinces formerly held by the Danish royal House of Glücksburg in personal union.
To ease tensions, the Prussian minister-president Otto von Bismarck met with the Austrian envoy Gustav von Blome at the spa town of Bad Gastein in the Austrian Alps. In the negotiations, the administration of the territories was split between the two powers, Prussia would rule over Schleswig and Austria over Holstein. Austria would officially renounce Saxe-Lauenburg, which would be ruled by the Prussian king in personal union for a price of 2.5 million Danish rigsdalers. The treaty was ratified by both parties on 19 August, King William I of Prussia went on to rule Lauenburg in personal union and assumed the ducal title. Bismarcks negotiation skills had apparently been underestimated by Blome, though Prussia benefitted from the treaty, the minister-president noted that the bonding of cracks did not answer the German question nor did it ease the Austria–Prussia rivalry. The Gastein Convention marked the end off all attempts to seek a solution of the German question. It soon collapsed due to Bismarcks successful efforts to provoke a war with the Austrian Empire as well as to eliminate Austria from the German Confederation, the Austrian government had tolerated the rule of Duke Frederick VIII of Schleswig-Holstein, much to the chagrin of Prussia.
On 1 June 1866 Austria asked the Federal Convention for a resolution on the status of Holstein, under this pretext, Prussian troops entered Holstein nine days which led to the outbreak of the Austro-Prussian War, known as the Seven Weeks War. This provision was set aside by a resolution of Prussia and Austria in 1878. Instead the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein was created in 1868, both territories were to be admitted to the Zollverein, headed by Prussia, of which Austria was not a member
Military reserve force
A military reserve force is a military organisation composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career. They are not normally kept under arms and their role is to be available to fight when a nation mobilises for total war or to defend against invasion. Reserve forces are not considered part of a permanent standing body of armed forces. The existence of reserve forces allows a nation to reduce its military expenditures while maintaining a force prepared for war. It is analogous to the model of military recruitment before the era of standing armies. In some countries, such as Canada, United States and they may do so as individuals or as members of standing reserve regiments, for example the Army Reserve of the United Kingdom. In Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore and Israel, during the eighteenth century some nations military systems included practices and institutions that functioned effectively as a reserve force, even if they were not specifically designated as such.
The Militia Act of 1757 effectively gave Britain at least somewhat of a structure for a reserve force. Historically reservists first played a significant role in Europe after the Prussian defeat in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, on 9 July 1807 in the Treaties of Tilsit, Napoleon I forced Prussia to drastically reduce its military strength, in addition to ceding large amounts of territory. The Prussian army could no longer be stronger than 42,000 men, with this the reduction of the armys strength did not have the desired effect, and in the following wars Prussia was able to draw up a large number of trained soldiers. The system was retained by the Imperial German Army into the First World War, in some countries, for example the United States, reservists are often former military members who reached the end of their enlistment or resigned their commission. Indeed, service in the reserves for a number of years after leaving active service is required in the enlistment contracts, Reservists can be civilians who undertake basic and specialised training in parallel with regular forces while retaining their civilian roles.
They can be deployed independently or their personnel may make up shortages in regular units, United Kingdoms Army Reserve is one example of such a reserve. With universal conscription, most of the population may be reservists. In Finland, all men belong to the reserve until 60 years of age, ten percent of conscripts are trained as reserve officers. Reservists and reserve officers are called up for refresher exercises. Reserves are used and employed in many ways, in wartime they may be used to provide replacements for combat losses to in-action units and formations, thus allowing these to remain battle-worthy longer. They can be used to new units and formations to augment the regular army
Ernst of Schaumburg
Ernst of Schaumburg was the first Count of Schauenburg and Holstein-Pinneberg to earn the title of Prince in 1619. However, he died in 1622 without an heir, schauenburg-Pinneberg had been a Lutheran region since his grandfather Otto IV of Schaumburg had been won over to Martin Luthers teachings. After Ernsts death, a Catholic Count, Jobst Hermann, received a portion of Schauenburg but he died without children, and Otto V. Prince Ernst built the Stadthagen Mausoleum for himself and his family, this building is estimated as a cultural monument of European rank. On 11 September 1597 he married Hedwig of Hesse-Kassel at Wilhelmsburg Castle in Schmalkalden, house of Schaumburg Otto IV of Schaumburg Martin Luther Protestant Reformation Protestantism Catholic Encyclopedia article about the Counts of Schaumburg
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
The Jews, known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious group originating from the Israelites, or Hebrews, of the Ancient Near East. Jews originated as a national and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel, associated with the god El, somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the Kingdom of Israel, some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as Hebrews. The worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million prior to World War II, but approximately 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, and as of 2015 was estimated at 14.3 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank. According to the report, about 43% of all Jews reside in Israel and these numbers include all those who self-identified as Jews in a socio-demographic study or were identified as such by a respondent in the same household.
The exact world Jewish population, however, is difficult to measure, Israel is the only country where Jews form a majority of the population. The modern State of Israel was established as a Jewish state and defines itself as such in its Declaration of Independence and its Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to any Jew who requests it. The English word Jew continues Middle English Gyw, according to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. The Hebrew word for Jew, יְהוּדִי ISO 259-3 Yhudi, is pronounced, with the stress on the syllable, in Israeli Hebrew. The Ladino name is ג׳ודיו, Djudio, ג׳ודיוס, Yiddish, ייִד Yid, ייִדן, Yidn. The etymological equivalent is in use in languages, e. g. but derivations of the word Hebrew are in use to describe a Jew, e. g. in Italian. The German word Jude is pronounced, the corresponding adjective jüdisch is the origin of the word Yiddish, in such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility.
Some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a factual reconstruction for the origin of the Jews is a difficult and complex endeavor. It requires examining at least 3,000 years of ancient human history using documents in vast quantities, as archaeological discovery relies upon researchers and scholars from diverse disciplines, the goal is to interpret all of the factual data, focusing on the most consistent theory. In this case, it is complicated by long standing politics and religious and his family migrated to Ancient Egypt after being invited to live with Jacobs son Joseph by the Pharaoh himself. The patriarchs descendants were enslaved until the Exodus led by Moses, traditionally dated to the 13th century BCE, Modern archaeology has largely discarded the historicity of the Patriarchs and of the Exodus story, with it being reframed as constituting the Israelites inspiring national myth narrative. The growth of Yahweh-centric belief, along with a number of practices, gradually gave rise to a distinct Israelite ethnic group
Duchy of Holstein
The Duchy of Holstein was the northernmost state of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the present German state of Schleswig-Holstein. It was established when King Christian I of Denmark had his County of Holstein-Rendsburg elevated to a duchy by Emperor Frederick III in 1474, Holstein was ruled jointly with the Duchy of Schleswig by members of the Danish House of Oldenburg for its entire existence. From 1490 to 1523 and again from 1544 to 1773 the Duchy was partitioned between various Oldenburg branches, most notably the dukes of Holstein-Glückstadt and Holstein-Gottorp, the Duchy ceased to exist when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866 after the Second Schleswig War. The lands of Schleswig beyond the river remained a fief of the Danish Crown, while Holstein became a part of East Francia, the Kingdom of Germany. Adolf VIII, the last Count of Holstein-Rendsburg and Duke of Schleswig had died without heirs in 1459. As Schleswig had been a Danish fief, it had to back to King Christian I of Denmark.
He was backed by the nobility, who supported the continued common administration of both lands and by the 1460 Treaty of Ribe proclaimed him as the new Count of Holstein. Nevertheless, the comital Holstein lands south of the Eider River officially remained a fief held by the Ascanian dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg. In 1474 Emperor Frederick III conferred Imperial immediacy to Christian by elevating him to a Duke of Holstein, from 1648 the royal parts of Schleswig and Holstein were administered out of Glückstadt and became known as the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Glückstadt. Before 1773 its Holstein territory consisted of the following Ämter, South Dithmarschen, Segeberg, the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein in Haderslev, held by Duke Hans the Elder. Hans had no issue and after his death in 1580, his territories were divided among his brothers, the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein in Gottorp, held by Duke Adolf and his successors. In addition, significant parts of Holstein were jointly administered by the Dukes of Holstein-Glückstadt, in 1640, the County of Holstein-Pinneberg, whose ruling house was extinct, was merged in the royal part of the Duchy of Holstein.
In 1713, during the Great Northern War, the estates of the Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp in Schleswig including Schloss Gottorf were conquered by royal Danish troops, in the 1720 Treaty of Frederiksborg, Duke Charles Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp ceded them to his liege lord the Danish crown. His remaining territories formed the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp, administered from Kiel, with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Duchy of Holstein gained sovereignty. Denmark defended its rule over Holstein in the First Schleswig War of 1848-51 against the Kingdom of Prussia, however, in Second Schleswig War Prussian and Austrian troops conquered Schleswig. Christian IX of Denmark had to renounce both Schleswig and Holstein in the Treaty of Vienna, Holstein was put under Austrian administration, until annexed by Prussia in 1866 after the Austro-Prussian War. The Danish king in his function as duke of Holstein, and duke of Schleswig, 1523/45–1550, Johan Rantzau 1550–1556, Count Bertram von Ahlefeldt 1556–1598, Heinrich Rantzau 1598–1600, vacancy.
Peace of Prague List of rulers of Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein at Worldstatesmen
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
A Jewish cemetery is a cemetery where members of the Jewish faith are buried in keeping with Jewish tradition. Cemeteries are referred to in different ways in Hebrew, including bet kevarot, beit almin or bet olam. The land of the cemetery is considered holy and a consecration ceremony takes place upon its inauguration. According to Jewish tradition, Jewish burial grounds are sacred sites, establishing a cemetery is one of the first priorities for a new Jewish community. A Jewish cemetery is generally purchased and supported with communal funds, showing proper respect for the dead is intrinsic to Jewish law. The connection between the soul and the body after death is an essential aspect of Jewish belief in the eternity of the soul. In larger Jewish communities, cemeteries are sometimes subdivided into sections according to the chevra kadisha that uses and is responsible for that section of the cemeterys care, early Jewish cemeteries were located outside of the city. In the Diaspora, it is traditional to bury the dead with the feet in the direction of Jerusalem, the tombstones usually have inscriptions in Hebrew and the regional language.
During the Nazi Germany regime, Jewish cemeteries all over Europe were destroyed and desecrated, the largest Jewish cemeteries of Europe can be found in Budapest, Łódź, Warsaw and Berlin. Other Jewish cemeteries in Europe include the Jewish Cemetery in Khotyn, the mission of the International Jewish Cemetery Project is to document every Jewish burial site in the world. Bereavement in Judaism IAJGS International Jewish Cemetery Project JewishGen Online Worldwide Burial Registry Database of European Jewish Burial Grounds
Second Schleswig War
The Second Schleswig War was the second military conflict as a result of the Schleswig-Holstein Question. It began on 1 February 1864, when Prussian forces crossed the border into Schleswig, decisive controversy arose due to the passing of the November Constitution, which integrated the Duchy of Schleswig into the Danish kingdom in violation of the London Protocol. Reasons for the war were the controversy in Schleswig and the co-existence of conflicting political systems within the Danish unitary state. The war ended on 30 October 1864, when the Treaty of Vienna caused Denmarks cession of the Duchies of Schleswig, the northern and middle parts of Schleswig spoke Danish, but over time, the language in the southern half had shifted gradually to German. German culture was dominant among the clergy and nobility, Danish culture had a social status and was spoken mainly by the rural population. For centuries, while the rule of the king was absolute, when ideas of liberal democracy spread and nationalist currents emerged about 1820, identification was mixed between Danish and German.
To that was added a grievance about tolls charged by Denmark on shipping passing through the Danish Straits between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, to avoid that expense, Prussia planned the Kiel Canal, which could not be built so long as Denmark ruled Holstein. Much of the focused on the heir of King Frederick VII of Denmark. Prince Christian had served on the Danish side in the First Schleswig War in 1848-1851, at the time, the king of Denmark was duke of the duchies of Holstein and Schleswig. In 1848, Denmark had received its first free constitution and at the time had fought a civil war with the Germans of Schleswig-Holstein in which Prussia had intervened. The peace treaty stipulated that the duchy of Schleswig should not be treated any differently from the duchy of Holstein in its relations with the Kingdom of Denmark and that was a clear breach of the 1851 peace treaty and gave Prussia and the German union a casus belli against Denmark. France had colonial problems, not least with Britain, Bismarck had effectively neutralized Russia politically and succeeded in obtaining cooperation from Austria which underlined its major power status within the German union.
The adoption of the Constitution of Denmark in 1849 complicated matters further, as many Danes wished for the new constitution to apply to all Danes. Thus two systems of government co-existed within the state, democracy in Denmark, and absolutism in Schleswig. This caused a deadlock for practical lawmaking, in Copenhagen, the Palace and most of the administration supported a strict adherence to the status quo. In 1858, the German Confederation deposed the union constitution of the Danish monarchy concerning Holstein and Lauenburg, the two duchies were henceforth without any constitution, while the union constitution still applied to Schleswig and Denmark proper. As the heirless King Frederick VII grew older, Denmarks successive National-Liberal cabinets became increasingly focused on maintaining control of Schleswig following the kings demise. The king died in 1863 at a critical time, work on the November Constitution for the joint affairs of Denmark and Schleswig had just been completed
Hamburg, officially Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, is the second largest city in Germany and the eighth largest city in the European Union. It is the second smallest German state by area and its population is over 1.7 million people, and the wider Hamburg Metropolitan Region covers more than 5.1 million inhabitants. The city is situated on the river Elbe, the official long name reflects Hamburgs history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state, and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a sovereign state. Prior to the changes in 1919, the civic republic was ruled by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Though repeatedly destroyed by the Great Fire of Hamburg, the floods and military conflicts including WW2 bombing raids, the city managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. On the river Elbe, Hamburg is a port and a global service, media and industrial hub, with headquarters and facilities of Airbus, Blohm + Voss, Beiersdorf.
The radio and television broadcaster NDR, Europes largest printing and publishing firm Gruner + Jahr, Hamburg has been an important financial centre for centuries, and is the seat of Germanys oldest stock exchange and the worlds second oldest bank, Berenberg Bank. The city is a fast expanding tourist destination for domestic and international visitors. It ranked 16th in the world for livability in 2015, the ensemble Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel was declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science and education hub with several universities and institutes and its creative industries and major cultural venues include the renowned Elbphilharmonie and Laeisz concert halls, various art venues, music producers and artists. It is regarded as a haven for artists, gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule. Hamburg is known for theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Paulis Reeperbahn is among the best known European entertainment districts, Hamburg is on the southern point of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the north-east.
It is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Alster, the city centre is around the Binnenalster and Außenalster, both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes. The island of Neuwerk and two neighbouring islands Scharhörn and Nigehörn, in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are part of Hamburg. The neighbourhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land region, neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburgs highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at 116.2 metres AMSL. Hamburg has a climate, influenced by its proximity to the coast
The Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, was a reichsfrei duchy that existed 1296–1803 and 1814–1876 in the extreme southeast region of what is now Schleswig-Holstein. Its territorial center was in the district of Herzogtum Lauenburg and originally its eponymous capital was Lauenburg upon Elbe. This land was ceded to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814 and it is now part of the Lower Saxon Harburg. The Amt Neuhaus proper, including areas on both sides of the Elbe, which was ceded to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814, this is all part of Lower Saxon Lüneburg. Now it is part of todays Lower Saxon Cuxhaven, in 1203, King Valdemar II of Denmark conquered the area comprising Saxe-Lauenburg, but it reverted to Albert I, Duke of Saxony in 1227. In 1260, Albert Is sons Albert II and John I succeeded their father, in 1269,1272 and 1282, the brothers gradually divided their governing competences within the three territorially unconnected Saxon areas along the Elbe river, thus preparing a partition. The last document, mentioning the brothers and their uncle Albert II as Saxon fellow dukes dates back to 1295.
A deed of 20 September 1296, mentions the Vierlande, the Land of Ratzeburg, the Land of Darzing, John II, the eldest brother, wielded the electoral privilege for the Lauenburg Ascanians, rivalled by their cousin Rudolph I of Saxe-Wittenberg. In 1314, the dispute escalated into the election of two hostile German kings, the Habsburg Frederick III, the Fair, and his Wittelsbach cousin Louis IV, only Louis the Bavarian finally asserted himself as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The Golden Bull of 1356, conclusively named the dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg as electors and this acquisition included much of the trade route between Hamburg and Lübeck, thus providing a safe passage for freight between the cities. Eric III only retained a life tenancy, in 1401, Eric III died without issue. The Lauenburg Elder Line was thus extinct in the male line, in the same year, Eric IV, supported by his sons Eric and John, forcefully captured the pawned areas without making any repayment, before Lübeck could take possession of them.
Lübeck acquiesced for the time being, in 1420, Eric V attacked Prince-Elector Frederick I of Brandenburg and Lübeck allied with Hamburg in support of Brandenburg. Armies of both opened a second front and conquered Bergedorf, Riepenburg castle and the Esslingen river toll station. From the 14th century, Saxe-Lauenburg termed itself as Lower Saxony, Saxony as a naming for the area comprising the older Duchy of Saxony in its borders before 1180 still prevailed. The naming of Lower Saxony became more colloquial and the Saxon Circle was renamed into Lower Saxon Circle, in 1659, Duke Julius Henry decreed in his general disposition to esteem the woodlands as heart and dwell of the Principality of Lower Saxony. Magnus did not promote the spreading of Lutheranism in the rest of his duchy, in 1566, Francis I appointed the Superintendent Franciscus Baringius as the first spiritual leader of the church in the duchy, not including Hadeln. Francis I conducted a thrifty reign and resigned in favour of his eldest son Magnus II once having exploited all his means in 1571