Reynolds Metals Company International Headquarters
The Reynolds Metals Company International Headquarters is an International Style building complex set in a composed landscape in Henrico County, near Richmond, completed in 1958. The low-rise Executive Office Building was designed by Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore and Merrill, in collaboration with Richmond landscape architect Charles F. Gillette; the headquarters complex has been cited as a prototype for modern suburban office development. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000, it is the headquarters for the Altria Group known as the Philip Morris Companies, Inc. The property is owned by the University of Richmond; the headquarters complex is set on a 121-acre site outside of Richmond, once a horse farm, now surrounded by suburban development. The Donovan Farm known as the "Horse Pen", gave its name to nearby Horsepen Road; the original site comprised the General Office Building, its podium, a service building and a greenhouse, as well as screened parking areas, formal gardens and a reflecting pool.
The principal element of the Reynolds headquarters complex is the Executive Office Building. Intended as a showcase for the products of the Reynolds Metals Company, the Executive Office Building incorporated aluminum, the company's principal product, wherever possible, principally in the building's exterior cladding, but in interior furnishings and finishes, where carpets and draperies incorporated aluminum fibers; the three story building rests on an elevated podium. The lowest level appears as an open loggia with slender aluminum-clad columns. Windows span from slab to slab at all three levels, more inset at the first level to reveal the columns. An interior courtyard illuminates interior spaces. Deep fixed overhangs on the south shade the windows from the sun, are matched by non-functional overhangs on the north side; the east and west elevations feature bright blue adjustable aluminum louvers for sun control. The louvers are motorized to provide daylighting without direct glare; the Executive Office Building uses a total of 1,235,800 pounds of aluminum, 400,000 pounds in the exterior cladding.
The building retains much of its original furniture, such as built-in aluminum file cabinets, other original furnishings are in use or in storage. Furniture was designed by Eero Saarinen, Florence Knoll, Hans Wegner; the carpet and draperies are woven with aluminum thread. The four story 1968 General Office Building, while sympathetic to the Executive Office Building, is not considered a contributing structure to the National Register property, nor are the 1978 Information Services Building and other support structures
Steven Arthur Pinker is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist and popular science author. He is Johnstone Family Professor in the Department of Psychology at Harvard University, is known for his advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. Pinker's academic specializations are visual psycholinguistics, his experimental subjects include mental imagery, shape recognition, visual attention, children's language development and irregular phenomena in language, the neural bases of words and grammar, the psychology of cooperation and communication, including euphemism, emotional expression, common knowledge. He has written two technical books that proposed a general theory of language acquisition and applied it to children's learning of verbs. In particular, his work with Alan Prince published in 1989 critiqued the connectionist model of how children acquire the past tense of English verbs, arguing instead that children use default rules such as adding "-ed" to make regular forms, sometimes in error, but are obliged to learn irregular forms one by one.
Pinker is the author of eight books for general audiences. His earlier works argue that the human faculty for language is an instinct, an innate behavior shaped by natural selection and adapted to our communication needs; the Language Instinct, How the Mind Works and Rules, The Blank Slate, The Stuff of Thought, describe aspects of psycholinguistics and cognitive science, include accounts of his own research. Pinker's The Sense of Style, as a general style guide, is another language-oriented work. Informed by modern science and psychology, it offers advice on how to produce more comprehensible and unambiguous writing in nonfiction contexts and explains why so much of today's academic and popular writing is difficult for readers to understand. Pinker's two other books for the public leave behind individual questions of language and learning in favor of broader societal themes; the Better Angels of Our Nature, makes the case that violence in human societies has, in general declined with time, identifies six major causes of this decline.
Enlightenment Now, continues the optimistic thesis of The Better Angels of Our Nature by using social science data from various sources to argue for a general improvement of the human condition over recent history. Pinker has been named as one of the world's most influential intellectuals by various magazines, he has won awards from the American Psychological Association, the National Academy of Sciences, the Royal Institution, the Cognitive Neuroscience Society and the American Humanist Association. He delivered the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh in 2013, he has served on the editorial boards of a variety of journals, on the advisory boards of several institutions. He has participated in public debates on science and society. Pinker was born in Montreal, Quebec, to a middle-class Jewish family, his parents were Harry Pinker. His grandparents emigrated to Canada from Poland and Romania in 1926, owned a small necktie factory in Montreal, his father, a lawyer, first worked as a manufacturer's representative, while his mother was first a home-maker a guidance counselor and high-school vice-principal.
He has two younger siblings. His brother Robert is a policy analyst for the Canadian government, while his sister, Susan Pinker, is a psychologist and writer who authored The Sexual Paradox and The Village Effect. Pinker married Nancy Etcoff in 1980 and they divorced in 1992, his third wife, whom he married in 2007, is philosopher Rebecca Goldstein. He has the poet Danielle Blau. Pinker graduated from Dawson College in 1973, he received a Bachelor of Arts in psychology from McGill University in 1976, earned his Doctorate of Philosophy in experimental psychology at Harvard University in 1979 under Stephen Kosslyn. He did research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a year, after which he became an assistant professor at Harvard and Stanford University. From 1982 until 2003, Pinker taught at the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT, was the co-director of the Center for Cognitive science, became the director of the Center for Cognitive neuroscience, taking a one-year sabbatical at the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1995–96.
Since 2003, he has been serving as the Johnstone Family Professor of Psychology at Harvard and between 2008 and 2013 he held the title of Harvard College Professor in recognition of his dedication to teaching. He gives lectures as a visiting professor at the New College of the Humanities, a private college in London. About his Jewish background Pinker has said, "I was never religious in the theological sense... I never outgrew my conversion to atheism at 13, but at various times was a serious cultural Jew." As a teenager, he says he considered himself an anarchist until he witnessed civil unrest following a police strike in 1969, when: As a young teenager in proudly peaceable Canada during the romantic 1960s, I was a true believer in Bakunin's anarchism. I laughed off my parents' argument that if the government laid down its arms all hell would break loose. Our competing predictions were put to the test at 8:00 A. M. on October 17, 1969, when the Montreal police went on strike... This decisive empirical test left my politics in tatters.
Pinker identifies himself as an equity feminist, which he defines as "a moral doctrine about
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. It is the center of the Greater Richmond Region. Richmond was incorporated in 1742 and has been an independent city since 1871; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 204,214. The Richmond Metropolitan Area has a population of 1,260,029, the third-most populous metro in the state. Richmond is located at the fall line of the James River, 44 miles west of Williamsburg, 66 miles east of Charlottesville, 100 miles east of Lynchburg and 90 miles south of Washington, D. C. Surrounded by Henrico and Chesterfield counties, the city is located at the intersections of Interstate 95 and Interstate 64, encircled by Interstate 295, Virginia State Route 150 and Virginia State Route 288. Major suburbs include Midlothian to the southwest, Chesterfield to the south, Varina to the southeast, Sandston to the east, Glen Allen to the north and west, Short Pump to the west and Mechanicsville to the northeast; the site of Richmond had been an important village of the Powhatan Confederacy, was settled by English colonists from Jamestown in 1609, in 1610–1611.
The present city of Richmond was founded in 1737. It became Dominion of Virginia in 1780, replacing Williamsburg. During the Revolutionary War period, several notable events occurred in the city, including Patrick Henry's "Give me liberty or give me death" speech in 1775 at St. John's Church, the passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom written by Thomas Jefferson. During the American Civil War, Richmond served as the second and permanent capital of the Confederate States of America; the city entered the 20th century with one of the world's first successful electric streetcar systems. The Jackson Ward neighborhood is a national hub of African-American culture. Richmond's economy is driven by law and government, with federal and local governmental agencies, as well as notable legal and banking firms, located in the downtown area; the city is home to both the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, one of 13 United States courts of appeals, the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, one of 12 Federal Reserve Banks.
Dominion Energy and WestRock, Fortune 500 companies, are headquartered in the city, with others in the metropolitan area. After the first permanent English-speaking settlement was established in April 1607, at Jamestown, Captain Christopher Newport led explorers northwest up the James River, to an area, inhabited by Powhatan Native Americans; the earliest European settlement in the Central Virginia area was in 1611 at Henricus, where the Falling Creek empties into the James River. In 1619, early Virginia Company settlers struggling to establish viable moneymaking industries established the Falling Creek Ironworks. After decades of territorial conflicts with native tribes, the Falls of the James became more to white settlement in the late 1600s and early 1700s. In 1737, planter William Byrd II commissioned Major William Mayo to lay out the original town grid. Byrd named the city "Richmond" after the English town of Richmond near London, because the view of the James River was strikingly similar to the view of the River Thames from Richmond Hill in England, where he had spent time during his youth.
The settlement was laid out in April 1737, was incorporated as a town in 1742. In 1775, Patrick Henry delivered his famous "Give me Liberty or Give me Death" speech in St. John's Church in Richmond, crucial for deciding Virginia's participation in the First Continental Congress and setting the course for revolution and independence. On April 18, 1780, the state capital was moved from the colonial capital of Williamsburg to Richmond, to provide a more centralized location for Virginia's increasing westerly population, as well as to isolate the capital from British attack; the latter motive proved to be in vain, in 1781, under the command of Benedict Arnold, Richmond was burned by British troops, causing Governor Thomas Jefferson to flee as the Virginia militia, led by Sampson Mathews, defended the city. Richmond recovered from the war, by 1782 was once again a thriving city. In 1786, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was passed at the temporary capitol in Richmond, providing the basis for the separation of church and state, a key element in the development of the freedom of religion in the United States.
A permanent home for the new government, the Greek Revival style of the Virginia State Capitol building, was designed by Thomas Jefferson with the assistance of Charles-Louis Clérisseau, was completed in 1788. After the American Revolutionary War, Richmond emerged as an important industrial center. To facilitate the transfer of cargo from the flat-bottomed James River bateaux above the fall line to the ocean-faring ships below, an enterprising George Washington helped design the James River and Kanawha Canal from Westham east to Richmond, in the 18th century to bypass Richmond's rapids on the upper James River with the intent of providing a water route across the Appalachian Mountains to the Kanawha River flowing westward into the Ohio eventually to the Mississippi River; the legacy of the canal boatmen is represented by the figure in the center of the city flag. As a result of this and ample access to hydropower due to the falls, Richmond became home to some of the largest manufacturing facilities in the country, including iron works and flour mills, the largest facilities of their kind in The South.
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Henrico County, Virginia
Henrico County the County of Henrico, is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 306,935. In 2015, the population was estimated to be 320,717, making it the fifth-most populous county in Virginia and the sixth-most populous county-equivalent in Virginia. Henrico County is included in the Greater Richmond Region. There is no incorporated community within Henrico County, there is no incorporated county seat either. Laurel, an unincorporated CDP, serves this function. Named after the Citie of Henricus, Henrico was organized as one of the eight original Shires of Virginia in 1634, it is one of the United States' oldest counties. The City of Richmond was part of Henrico County until 1842, when it became a independent city; the present-day Henrico County curves around the City of Richmond, surrounding it to the west, the north, the east. The county is bounded by the Chickahominy River to the north and the James River and Richmond to the south.
Richmond Raceway is in the central portion of Henrico County near Mechanicsville, just north of the Richmond city limits. The raceway seats 60,000 people and holds two NASCAR doubleheader race weekends per year. Additionally, Richmond International Airport is located in the eastern portion of Henrico County in Sandston. Top private employers in the county include Capital One, Bon Secours Richmond Health System, Anthem. In 1611, Thomas Dale founded the Citie of Henricus on a peninsula in the James River, now called Farrar's Island. Henricus was named for Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, but it was destroyed during the Indian massacre of 1622, during which Native American warriors attacked the English settlers to drive them from the area. In 1634, Henrico Shire was one of the eight original Shires of Virginia established in the Virginia Colony. Since 10 counties and three independent cities have been formed from the original territory of Henrico Shire. Since becoming independent in 1842, the City of Richmond has annexed portions of Henrico five times.
Chesterfield County annexed the site of Henricus in 1922. Richmond attempted to merge with Henrico in 1961, but 61% of the votes in a referendum in Henrico county voted against the merger. In 1965, Richmond attempted to annex 145 square miles of Henrico County. However, after a lengthy court battle, the city was given permission to annex only 17 square miles. Since the city would have had to reimburse Henrico a hefty $55 million, Richmond opted against annexing the 17 square miles. In 1981, the Virginia General Assembly placed a moratorium on all annexations throughout the state. Henrico's borders have not changed since Richmond's 1942 annexation; the original county seat was at Varina, at the Varina Farms plantation across the James River from Henricus. Colonist John Rolfe built this plantation. Henrico's government was located at Varina from around 1640 until 1752. In 1752, Henrico relocated its seat to a more central location inside the city of Richmond, between Church Hill and what is now Tobacco Row.
The county seat remained at 22nd and Main St in Richmond after the city's government became independent of the county in 1842. It was not until 1974 when the county moved out of the Old Henrico County Courthouse to a complex in the western portion of the county at the intersection of Parham Road and Hungary Springs Road in Laurel. In addition to the 1974 complex, in 1988 the county opened its Eastern Government Center to be more convenient to county residents in the eastern portion of the county, it is located on Nine Mile Road. During the Civil War, in 1862 Henrico County was the site of numerous battles during the Peninsula Campaign, including: Seven Pines, Savage's Station, Oak Grove, Garnett's and Golding's Farms, White Oak Swamp and Malvern Hill. Additional significant battles took place in 1864 during the Overland Campaign prior to and during the Siege of Petersburg, which led to the fall of Richmond. Confederate General J. E. B. Stuart was mortally wounded in Henrico County at the Battle of Yellow Tavern on May 12, 1864.
Henrico County is one of only two counties in Virginia that maintains its own roads, with the other being Arlington County. This special status was due to the existence of county highway departments prior to the creation in 1927 of the state agency, now VDOT; the control of the roads system is considered a powerful advantage for community urban planners, who can require developers to contribute to funding needed for road needs serving the planners' and developers' projects. Henrico County is the site of Richmond International Airport, it hosts an Amtrak rail passenger station. It purchases public bus route services from Greater Richmond Transit Company, an FTA-funded public service company, owned by the City of Richmond and neighboring Chesterfield County. After Reconstruction, Henrico County used Convict lease to build roads in 1878; some old roads continue to be in use today, such as Horsepen Rd. Three Chopt Rd. and Quiocassin Rd. I-64 I-95 I-195 I-295 US 1 US 33 US 60 US 250 US 301 US 360 SR 2 SR 5 SR 6 SR 33 SR 73 SR 76 SR 147 SR 150 SR 156 SR 157 SR 161 SR 197 SR 271 SR 356 SR 895 According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 245 square miles, of which 234 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water. Charles City County Chesterfield County Goochland County Hanover County New Kent County Richmond Powhatan
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. A public company can be unlisted. Public companies are formed within the legal systems of particular nations, therefore have national associations and formal designations which are distinct and separate. For example one of the main public company forms in the United States is called a limited liability company, in France is called a "society of limited responsibility", in Britain a public limited company, in Germany a company with limited liability. While the general idea of a public company may be similar, differences are meaningful, are at the core of international law disputes with regard to industry and trade. In the early modern period, the Dutch developed several financial instruments and helped lay the foundations of modern financial system.
The Dutch East India Company became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was the first publicly traded company, because it was the first company to be actually listed on an official stock exchange. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fledged capital market: corporate shareholders; as Edward Stringham notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed." The securities of a publicly traded company are owned by many investors while the shares of a held company are owned by few shareholders. A company with many shareholders is not a publicly traded company. In the United States, in some instances, companies with over 500 shareholders may be required to report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Public companies possess some advantages over held businesses.
Publicly traded companies are able to raise funds and capital through the sale of shares of stock. This is the reason publicly traded corporations are important; the profit on stock is gained in form of capital gain to the holders. The financial media and the public are able to access additional information about the business, since the business is legally bound, motivated, to publicly disseminate information regarding the financial status and future of the company to its many shareholders and the government; because many people have a vested interest in the company's success, the company may be more popular or recognizable than a private company. The initial shareholders of the company are able to share risk by selling shares to the public. If one were to hold a 100% share of the company, he or she would have to pay all of the business's debt; this increases asset liquidity and the company does not need to depend on funding from a bank. For example, in 2013 Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg owned 29.3% of the company's class A shares, which gave him enough voting power to control the business, while allowing Facebook to raise capital from, distribute risk to, the remaining shareholders.
Facebook was a held company prior to its initial public offering in 2012. If some shares are given to managers or other employees, potential conflicts of interest between employees and shareholders will be remitted; as an example, in many tech companies, entry-level software engineers are given stock in the company upon being hired. Therefore, the engineers have a vested interest in the company succeeding financially, are incentivized to work harder and more diligently to ensure that success. Many stock exchanges require that publicly traded companies have their accounts audited by outside auditors, publish the accounts to their shareholders. Besides the cost, this may make useful information available to competitors. Various other annual and quarterly reports are required by law. In the United States, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act imposes additional requirements; the requirement for audited books is not imposed by the exchange known as OTC Pink. The shares may be maliciously held by outside shareholders and the original founders or owners may lose benefits and control.
The principal-agent problem, or the agency problem is a key weakness of public companies. The separation of a company's ownership and control is prevalent in such countries as U. K and U. S. In the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission requires that firms whose stock is traded publicly report their major shareholders each year; the reports identify all institutional shareholders, all company officials who own shares in their firm, any individual or institution owning more than 5% of the firm's stock. For many years, newly created companies were held but held initial
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Juul Labs is an electronic cigarette company which spun off from Pax Labs in 2017. It makes the Juul e-cigarette, which packages nicotine salts from leaf tobacco into one-time use cartridges; the Juul became the most popular e-cigarette in the United States at the end of 2017 and has a market share of 72% as of September 2018. Its widespread use by youth has triggered concern from the public health community and multiple investigations by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration; the Juul electronic cigarette was introduced by PAX Labs on June 1, 2015. In July 2017, Juul Labs was spun out of PAX Labs as an independent company, with Tyler Goldman, former CEO of PAX Labs, named as CEO of Juul after the spin-off, it was announced on December 11, 2017 that Goldman "intends to pursue new entrepreneurial opportunities" and was replaced by Kevin Burns. James Monsees is board member at Juul. Adam Bowen is board member at Juul. Other board members include Nicholas Pritzker, whose family owned chewing tobacco giant Conwood, Riaz Valani, Hoyoung Huh.
As Juul's products became more popular, the company grew from employing 200 people in September 2017 to 400 in May 2018 to over 800 by September 2018. As of July 2018, the Juul e-cigarette is manufactured in Shenzhen, China while the pods are made in the United States. In July 2018, Juul raised $650 million. On December 20, 2018, one of the world's largest cigarette manufacturers, bought 35% of Juul for $12.8 billion. The purchase was "by far the biggest investment in a U. S. venture-backed company." According to Wells Fargo, the deal valued Juul Labs at $38 billion. At the time, Juul had an annual revenue of about $2 billion. CNBC reported. In April 2018, former Massachusetts Attorney General Martha Coakley joined Juul working in the government affairs team to coordinate lobbying on the benefits of the product while advocating against underage usage. Juul Labs was co-founded by Adam Bowen and James Monsees, they first created a company called Ploom while they were product-design grad students at Stanford University, created the Pax vaporizer device for cannabis and loose-leaf tobacco before founding Juul.
As of August 2018, Bowen is Chief Technology Officer of Juul and Monsees is Chief Product Officer. Current company investors include Tiger Global Management, mutual fund firm Fidelity Investments, Tao Capital. In June 2018, Juul raised $1.2 billion in a financing round that valued the company at more than $16 billion. Around the same time TPG Capital declined to invest in Juul due to ethical concerns. Altria acquired a 35% stake in Juul Labs for $12.8 billion on December 20, 2018. According to a Wall Street Journal report, Altria's investment in Juul was pushed by the fact that many smokers were switching to the electronic variant and Marlboro's own e-cigarette product, MarkTen, was not selling well. Juul e-cigarettes use nicotine salts from leaf-based tobacco for its key ingredient, rather than free-base nicotine. Juul received a US patent for its nicotine salt preparation in 2015; the nicotine salts are said to create an experience more like smoking than other e-cigarettes on the market, as Juul attempts to deliver a nicotine peak in five minutes, similar to a traditional cigarette.
Each cartridge contains about the same amount of nicotine as one pack of cigarettes and delivers 200 puffs. The amount of nicotine in each cartridge – 59 mg/ml in the United States, limited to 20 mg/ml in the European Union – is more than the majority of e-cigarettes on the market. In August 2018, Juul introduced pods in 3 percent strengths for its mint and Virginia tobacco flavors; each cartridge contains propylene glycol, glycerin and nicotine salts. Protonated nicotine lacks the harshness of tobacco smoke. According to Tory Spindle of Johns Hopkins University, "Protonated nicotine formulations are problematic because they allow users to inhale much higher nicotine concentrations that they would otherwise be able to." Juul pods come in eight flavors. A Juul starter kit sells for about $50; the Juul e-cigarette is shaped like recharges using a magnetic USB dock. Joel Johnson of co.design described the nicotine intake as "eye-widening" and its aesthetics as "demure". Upon initial release, Ben Radding of Men's Fitness called Juul the "iPhone of E-cigs", but said that it required "getting used to".
The comparison to the iPhone and other Apple products has been made by many other commentators. Pharmacologist James Pauly, a specialist in nicotine, notes that Juul delivers more nicotine than other e-cigarettes, that the salts may reduce the harshness, making it easier for new smokers, such as a teenagers, to consume more nicotine than they are aware of. Juul's products have become immensely popular among teenagers, raising concerns among the public health community that long-term declines in youth nicotine use are being reversed. An October 2018 study of 13,000 Americans found that 9.5% of teenagers aged 15–17 and 11% of young adults aged 18–21 use Juul, that teenagers age 15–17 are 16 times more to be Juul users than 25–34 year olds. Juul use is very popular among middle school and high school students. Teenagers use the verb "Juuling" to describe their use of Juul; the National Drug Trends of 2018 revealed increasing adolescent use of e-cigarettes, including the Juul. Cigarette smoking ra