Shaivism is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being. The followers of Shaivism are called "Shaivites" or "Saivites", it is one of the largest sects that believe Shiva — worshipped as a creator and destroyer of worlds — is the supreme god over all. The Shaiva have many sub-traditions, ranging from devotional dualistic theism such as Shaiva Siddhanta to yoga-oriented monistic non-theism such as Kashmiri Shaivism, it considers the Agama texts as important sources of theology. The origin of Shaivism may be traced to the conception of Rudra in the Rig Veda. Shaivism has ancient roots, traceable in the Vedic literature of 2nd millennium BCE, but this is in the form of the Vedic deity Rudra; the ancient text Shvetashvatara Upanishad dated to late 1st millennium BCE mentions terms such as Rudra and Maheshwaram, but its interpretation as a theistic or monistic text of Shaivism is disputed. In the early centuries of the common era is the first clear evidence of Pāśupata Shaivism.
Both devotional and monistic Shaivism became popular in the 1st millennium CE becoming the dominant religious tradition of many Hindu kingdoms. It arrived in Southeast Asia shortly thereafter, leading to thousands of Shaiva temples on the islands of Indonesia as well as Cambodia and Vietnam, co-evolving with Buddhism in these regions. In the contemporary era, Shaivism is one of the major aspects of Hinduism. Shaivism theology ranges from Shiva being the creator, destroyer to being the same as the Atman within oneself and every living being, it is related to Shaktism, some Shaiva worship in Shiva and Shakti temples. It is the Hindu tradition that most accepts ascetic life and emphasizes yoga, like other Hindu traditions encourages an individual to discover and be one with Shiva within. Shaivism is one of the largest traditions within Hinduism. Shiva means kind, gracious, or auspicious; as a proper name, it means "The Auspicious One". The word Shiva is used as an adjective in the Rig Veda, as an epithet for several Rigvedic deities, including Rudra.
The term Shiva connotes "liberation, final emancipation" and "the auspicious one", this adjective sense of usage is addressed to many deities in Vedic layers of literature. The term evolved from the Vedic Rudra-Shiva to the noun Shiva in the Epics and the Puranas, as an auspicious deity, the "creator and dissolver"; the Sanskrit word śaiva or Shaiva means "relating to the god Shiva", while the related beliefs, history and sub-traditions constitute Shaivism. The reverence for Shiva is one of the pan-Hindu traditions, found across India, Sri Lanka and Nepal. While Shiva is revered broadly, Hinduism itself is a complex religion and a way of life, with a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, it has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book. Shaivism is a major tradition within Hinduism, with a theology, predominantly related to the Hindu god Shiva. Shaivism has many different sub-traditions with regional differences in philosophy.
Shaivism has a vast literature with different philosophical schools, ranging from nondualism and mixed schools. The origins of Shaivism a matter of debate among scholars; some trace the origins to the Indus Valley civilization, which reached its peak around 2500–2000 BCE. Archeological discoveries show seals. Of these is the Pashupati seal, which early scholars interpreted as someone seated in a meditating yoga pose surrounded by animals, with horns; this "Pashupati" seal has been interpreted by these scholars as a prototype of Shiva. Gavin Flood characterizes these views as "speculative", saying that it is not clear from the seal if the figure has three faces, or is seated in a yoga posture, or that the shape is intended to represent a human figure. Other scholars state that the Indus Valley script remains undeciphered, the interpretation of the Pashupati seal is uncertain. According to Srinivasan, the proposal that it is proto-Shiva may be a case of projecting "later practices into archeological findings".
Asko Parpola states that other archaeological finds such as the early Elamite seals dated to 3000–2750 BCE show similar figures and these have been interpreted as "seated bull" and not a yogi, the bull interpretation is more accurate. The Rigveda has the earliest clear mention of Rudra in its hymns such as 2.33, 1.43 and 1.114. The text includes a Satarudriya, an influential hymn with embedded hundred epithets for Rudra, cited in many medieval era Shaiva texts as well as recited in major Shiva temples of Hindus in contemporary times. Yet, the Vedic literature only present scriptural theology, but does not attest to the existence of Shaivism; the Shvetashvatara Upanishad composed before the Bhagavad Gita about 4th century BCE contains the theistic foundations of Shaivism wrapped in a monistic structure. It contains the key terms and ideas of Shaivism, such as Shiva, Maheswara, Bhakti, Atman and self-knowledge. According to Gavin Flood, "the formation of Śaiva traditions as we understand them begins to occur during the period from 200 BC to 100 AD."
According to Chakravarti, Shiva rose to prominence as he was identified to be the
Nara-Narayana is a Hindu deity pair. Nara-Narayana is the twin-brother avatar of the God Vishnu on earth, working for the preservation of dharma or righteousness. In the concept of Nara-Narayana, the human soul Nara is the eternal companion of the Divine Narayana; the Hindu epic Mahabharata identifies the God Krishna with Narayana and Arjuna - the chief hero of the epic - with Nara. The legend of Nara-Narayana is told in the scripture Bhagavata Purana. Hindus believe; the Nara-Narayana pair is worshipped in temples of the Swaminarayan Faith, as the followers of the sect believe that their founder Swaminarayan Bhagwan resides in the murti of Naranarayan Dev in Kalupur Mandir. The name "Nara-Narayana" can be broken into two Sanskrit terms and Narayana. Nara means human, Narayana refers to the name of the deity. Monier-Williams dictionary says Nara is "the primeval Man or eternal Spirit pervading the universe (always associated with Narayana, "son of the primeval man". In epic poetry, they are the sons of Dharma by Murti or Ahimsa and emanations of Lord Vishnu, Arjuna being identified with Nara, Lord Krishna with Narayana.- Mahabharata and Purana".
Narayana is Vishnu. Nara-Narayana are depicted separately in images; when depicted separately, Nara is portrayed with two hands and wearing deer skin while Narayana is shown on the right in the usual form of Vishnu. Sometimes, both of them are depicted identical to each other, they are depicted four-armed holding a discus, a conch and a lotus, resembling Lord Vishnu. Arjuna and Krishna are referred to as Nara-Narayana in the Mahabharata and are considered part incarnations of Nara and Narayana according to the Bhagavata Purana. In a previous life, the duo were born as the sages Nara and Narayana, who performed great penances at the holy spot of Badrinath. Nara and Narayana were the Fourth Avatar of Lord Vishnu; the twins were the son of Brahma and his wife Murti or Ahimsa. They live at Badrika performing severe austerities and meditation for the welfare of the world; these two inseparable sages took avatars on earth for the welfare of mankind. Legend has it that once Lord Shiva tried to bring the fame of Nara and Narayana before the entire world.
To do that, he hurled his own potent weapon Paashupathastra at the meditating rishis. The power of their meditation was so intense. Lord Shiva stated that this happened since the duo were jnanis of the first order in the state of Nirvikalpa Samadhi; the Bhagavata Purana tells the story of the birth of Urvashi from the sages Nara-Narayana. Once, sages Nara-Narayana were meditating in the holy shrine of Badrinath situated in the Himalayas, their penances and austerities alarmed the gods, so Indra, the King of Devas, sent Kamadeva and apsaras to inspire them with passion and disturb their devotions. The sage Narayana placed it on his thigh. There sprung from it a beautiful nymph whose charms far excelled those of the celestial nymphs, made them return to heaven filled with shame and vexation. Narayana sent this nymph to Indra with them, from her having been produced from the thigh of the sage, she was called Urvashi. Having sent back the nymphs back, the divine sages continued to meditate. According to the Bhagavata purana, "There in Badrikashram the Personality of Godhead, in his incarnation as the sages Nara and Narayana, had been undergoing great penance since time immemorial for the welfare of all living entities."
In Badrinath Temple's sanctorium, to the far right side of the stone image of Badri-Vishala, are the images of Nara and Narayana. The Nara and Narayana peaks tower over Badrinath. According to Bhandarkar, the gods Nara-Narayana must have been popular at the time of the composition of the Mahabharata, since in the opening stanzas of various parvas of the epic, obeisance is made to these two gods. In Vanaparvan, Krishna says to Arjuna,"O invincible one, you are Nara and I am Hari Narayana, we, the sages Nara-Narayana, have come to this world at the proper time.." In the same Parva, chapter 30. In the Swaminarayan sect and Narayana, are called Nara-Narayana Deva, they are believed to reside at Badrikashram and to be the prime controllers of the destiny of all beings, depending on their karma. Nara-Narayana Deva are believed to have manifested at Narayana Ghat on the banks of river Sabarmati at Ahmedabad. Therefore, their images were installed by Swaminarayan at the first Swaminarayan temple, Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Ahmedabad.
Members of this group interpret the events that took place at Badarikashram, the abode of Nara Narayana, that led to the incarnation of Swaminarayan. They believe that Narayana took birth as Swaminarayan due to a curse of sage Durvasa which he accepted at his own will; the curse led to Narayana taking the form of an avatar on Earth to destroy evil and establish ekantik-dharma, religion based on morality, knowledge and devotion. Vishnu Narayana Bhandarkar, Ramkrishna Gopal. Vaisnavism Saivism and Minor Religious Systems. Asian Educational Services. P. 238. ISBN 81-206-0122-X. Vijnanananda, Swami; the Sri Mad Devi Bhagavatam: Books One Through Twelve Part 1. Kessinger Publishing. P. 624. ISBN 0
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, North America, other countries. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th
Alwar, located 150 km south of Delhi and 150 km north of Jaipur, is a city in India's National Capital Region and the administrative headquarters of Alwar District in the state of Rajasthan. Alwar is a hub of tourism with several forts, heritage havelis and nature reserves, including the Bhangarh Fort, the Sariska Tiger Reserve and Siliserh lake. Alwar was a part of one of the sixteen ancient Mahājanapadas; the history of Alwar dates back to 1000 CE. The king of Amer ruled the area in the eleventh century and his territory extended up to the present-day city of Alwar, he founded the city of Alpur in 1106 Vikrami samvat under his own name, which became Alwar. From time to time, a different Rajput sub-clan came to rule Alwar. Examples include the Khanzada Rajputs, the Nikumbh Rajputs, the Badgujjar Rajputs, the Naruka Rajputs who took the control over this area. Bhadanakas clan of Gurjar, The Maratha Empire and Jats of Bharatpur State ruled this region for a short period. A Rajput, Partap Singh, took the Alwar Fort from the Jat Raja of Bharatpur and laid down the foundation for modern day Alwar.
The Hindu King Hemchandra Vikramaditya, born into a Brahmin family in Machari, a village in Alwar, was a Hindu emperor of North India during the 16th century. This was a period when the Afghans were vying for power in the region. Hemu acceded to the throne of Delhi on 7 October 1556 after defeating Akbar's Mughal forces in the Battle of Delhi in the Tughlakabad area in Delhi, became the de facto king, he became the last Hindu emperor of India. Alwar State, a princely state established in 1770, was established by a Kachwaha Rajput named Pratap Singh, earlier a jagirdar of "Dhai Gaon" near Machari, his successor "Bakhtawar Singh Kachwaha" was defeated after launching an armed incursion into neighbouring Jaipur State and being forced to accept the consequent treaty mediated by East India Company prohibiting him from political relations with other states without the consent of the colonial British. According to the "Gazetteer of Ulwar" published by the British raj, Alwar State was subdivided into four regions: Rath region: current Behror and Neemrana, was ruled by Lah Chauhan rajput zamindar who had descended from Prithviraj Chauhan.
Sahesh Mal was a son of Raja Sangat Singh Chauhan. Sangat was the great grandson of Chahir Deo Chauhan, brother of famous rajput king Prithviraj Chauhan. In accordance with the pledge by the raja Sangat Singh Chauhan to his younger queen for marrying her in his old age, her two sons from him were bestowed the Rath area and its headquarter of Mandhan near Neemrana. King Sangat Singh Chauhan's 19 sons from the older queen set out to seek their fortunes. Of the 19 brothers, Harsh Dev Chauhan and Sahesh Mal Chauhan arrived in the Gurgaon district. Lah Chauhan, the ruler of Rath, was a son of raja Sangat Singh Chauhan by the younger Rani whose two sons became inheritors of Raja Sangat Singh’s territory of Rath with its headquarter at Mandhan when other 19 sons from the other wives were required to quit the kingdom as per the promise of Raja Sangat. Wai region: current Bansur and Thana Ghazi, was ruled by Shekhawat rajput zamindars. Narukhand region: current Rajgarh and Laxmangarh, was ruled by Naruka sub-branch of Kachwaha rajputs who were from the same branch as the ruling kings of the Alwar State Mewat region: current Palwal and Nuh districts, had the highest population of the Meo Muslims.
Alwar acceded to the dominion of India following the independence of India in 1947. On 18 March 1948, the state merged with three neighbouring princely states to form the Matsya Union. On 15 May 1949, it was united with neighbouring princely states and the territory of Ajmer to form the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan. Alwar was designated as part of the National Capital Region, resulting in additional development projects including rapid-rail to Delhi and drinking water improvements; the military cantonment of Itarana lies on the outskirts of Alwar. Alwar is the first major city; the city's heritage, apart from being a draw for tourists, has been an attraction for Bollywood film shoots including Shakespeare Wallah, Karan Arjun at Sariska palace and dadigarh fort and Bhangarh, Saajan Chale Sasural at Sariska palace, Talaash: The Hunt Begins... and Trip to Bhangarh. The Mega Alwar trade fair is held at Dusshera ground every year. Alwar is known for its hand-made Papier-mâché; the Fairy Queen, a national treasure of India and the world's oldest working locomotive engine, operates as a tourist luxury train between Delhi and Alwar.
Bala Qila known as Alwar Fort, is a fort 300 meters above the city, founded by the 15th-century Khanzada Rajput ruler Hasan Khan Mewati and built on the foundations of a 10th-century mud fort. Situated on the Aravalli Range, the fort is 5 kilometres long and about 1.5 kilometres wide with turrets, a large gate, a temple, a residential area. The City Palace known as Vinay Vilas Mahal, built in 1793 CE by Raja Bakhtawar Singh, blends the Rajputana and Islamic architectural styles and has marble pavilions on lotus-shaped bases in its courtyard; the palace houses a state museum with a collection of manuscripts, including one depicting Emperor Babur’s life, Ragamala paintings and miniatures, historic swords that once belonged to Muhammad Ghori, Emperor Akbar and Aurangzeb. This palace that once belonged to the Maharaja has now been convert
The Tamil people known as Tamilar, Tamilans or Tamils, are an ethnic group who speak the language Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to Southern India and North-eastern Sri Lanka. Tamils, with a population of around 76 million and with a documented history stretching back over 2,000 years, are one of the largest and oldest extant ethnolinguistic groups in the modern world. Tamils constitute 5.9% of the population in India, 15.3% in Sri Lanka, 6% in Mauritius, 7% in Malaysia and 5% in Singapore. From the 14th century BCE onwards and mercantile activity along the western and eastern coasts of what is today Kerala and Tamil Nadu led to the development of four large Tamil political states, the Cheras, Cholas and Pallavas and a number of smaller states, all of whom were warring amongst themselves for dominance; the Jaffna Kingdom, inhabited by Sri Lankan Tamils, was once one of the strongest kingdoms of Sri Lanka, controlled much of the north of the island. Tamils were noted for their influence on regional trade throughout the Indian Ocean.
Artifacts marking the presence of Roman traders show direct trade was active between Rome and southern India, the Pandyas were recorded as having sent at least two embassies directly to Emperor Augustus in Rome. The Pandyas and Cholas were active in Sri Lanka; the Chola dynasty invaded several areas in Southeast Asia, including the powerful Srivijaya and the Malay city-state of Kedah. Medieval Tamil guilds and trading organizations like the Ayyavole and Manigramam played an important role in Southeast Asian trading networks. Pallava traders and religious leaders travelled to Southeast Asia and played an important role in the cultural Indianisation of the region. Scripts brought by Tamil traders to Southeast Asia, like the Grantha and Pallava scripts, induced the development of many Southeast Asian scripts such as Khmer, Javanese Kawi script and Thai; the Tamil language is one of the oldest extant written languages, with a history dating back to 300 BCE. Tamil literature is dominated by poetry Sangam literature, composed of poems composed between 300 BCE and 300 CE.
The most important Tamil author was the poet and philosopher Thiruvalluvar, who wrote the Tirukkuṛaḷ, a group of treatises on ethics, politics and morality considered the greatest work of Tamil literature. Tamil visual art is dominated by stylised Temple architecture in major centres and the productions of images of deities in stone and bronze. Chola bronzes the Nataraja sculptures of the Chola period, have become notable symbols of Hinduism. Tamil performing arts are divided into classical; the classical form of dance is Bharatanatyam, whereas the popular forms are known as Koothu and performed in village temples and on street corners. Tamil cinema, known as Kollywood, is an important part of the Indian cinema industry, it is the second largest film industry in India, next only to Bollywood. Music too is divided into many popular genres. Although most Tamils are Hindus, many those in the rural areas practice what is considered to be folk Hinduism, venerating a plethora of village deities. A sizeable number are Christians.
A small Jain community survives from the classical period as well. Tamil cuisine is informed by varied vegetarian and non-vegetarian items spiced with locally available spices; the music, the temple architecture and the stylised sculptures favoured by the Tamil people as in their ancient nation are still being learnt and practised. English historian and broadcaster Michael Wood called the Tamils the last surviving classical civilisation on Earth, because the Tamils have preserved substantial elements of their past regarding belief, culture and literature despite the influence of globalization, it is unknown as to whether the term Thamizhar and its equivalents in Prakrit such as Damela, Dameda and Damila was a self designation or a term denoted by outsiders. Epigraphic evidence of an ethnicity termed as such is found in ancient Sri Lanka where a number of inscriptions have come to light datable from the 6th to the 5th century BCE mentioning Damela or Dameda persons; the well-known Hathigumpha inscription of the Kalinga ruler Kharavela refers to a Tmira samghata dated to 150 BCE.
It mentions that the league of Tamil kingdoms had been in existence 113 years before then. In Amaravati in present-day Andhra Pradesh there is an inscription referring to a Dhamila-vaniya datable to the 3rd century CE. Another inscription of about the same time in Nagarjunakonda seems to refer to a Damila. A third inscription in Kanheri Caves refers to a Dhamila-gharini. In the Buddhist Jataka story known as Akiti Jataka there is a mention to Damila-rattha. There were trade relationship between the Roman Pandyan Empire; as recorded by Strabo, Emperor Augustus of Rome received at Antioch an ambassador from a king called Pandyan of Dramira. Hence, it is clear that by at least 300 B. C. the ethnic identity of Tamils was formed as a distinct group. Thamizhar is etymologically related to the language spoken by Tamil people. Southworth suggests that the name comes from tam-miz > tam-iz'self-speak', or'one's own speech'. Zvelebil suggests an etymology of tam-iz, with tam meaning "self" or "one's self", "-iz" having the connotation of "unfolding sound".
Alternatively, he suggests a derivation of tamiz < tam-iz < *tav-iz < *tak-iz, meaning in origin "the proper process". Possible evidence indicating the
Rukmini is the principal wife and queen of the God Krishna, the prince of Dwaraka. Krishna heroically kidnapped her and eloped with her to prevent an unwanted marriage at her request and saved her from evil Shishupala. Rukmini is the most prominent queen of Krishna. Rukmini is considered an avatar of Lakshmi, the Goddess of fortune. According to traditional accounts, princess Rukmini is believed to have been born on Vaishakha 11. Although born of an earthly king, her position as an incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi is described throughout Puranic literature: A hero among the Kurus, the Supreme Lord himself, married King Bhishmaka's daughter, Vaidarbhi Rukmini, a direct expansion of the Goddess of fortune. Dwaraka's citizens were overjoyed to see Krishna, the Lord of all opulence, united with Rukmini, the Goddess of fortune Rama. Lakshmi by Her portion took birth on earth as Rukmini in the family of Bhismaka. Rukminidevi, the Queen Consort of Krishna is the Swarupa-shakti, the essential potency of Krishna and she is the Queen / Mother of the Divine World, Dwaraka/Vaikuntha.
She was born at a royal princess from Vedic Aryan tribe. The daughter of a powerful king Bhishmaka; the Shrutis which are associated with the narrations of the pastimes of the Vraja-gopis with svayam-rupa Bhagavan Shri Krishna, the Parabrahma, have declared this truth. They cannot be separated; as Lakshmi is Vishnu's Shakti so as Rukmini is Krishna's strength. Rukmini was the daughter of the king of Vidarbha. Bhismaka was the vassal of King Jarasandha of Magadha, she fell in love with and longed for Krishna, whose virtue, character and greatness she had heard much of. Rukmini's eldest brother Rukmi though was a friend of evil King Kansa, killed by Krishna and was set against the marriage. Rukmini's parents wanted to marry Rukmini to Krishna but Rukmi, her brother opposed it. Rukmi was an ambitious prince and he did not want to earn the wrath of Emperor Jarasandha, ruthless. Instead, he proposed that she be married to his friend Shishupala, the crown prince of Chedi and a cousin of Krishna. Shishupala was a vassal and close associate of Jarasandha and hence an ally of Rukmi.
Bhishmaka gave in but Rukmini, who had overheard the conversation was horrified and sent for a brahmana, whom she trusted and asked him to deliver a letter to Krishna. She asked Krishna to come to Vidarbha and kidnap her to avoid a battle where her relatives may be killed, she suggested. Rukmini asked. Krishna, having received the message in Dwarka set out for Vidarbha with Balarama, his elder brother. Meanwhile, Shishupala was overjoyed at the news from Rukmi that he could go to Kundina Amravati district and claim Rukmini. Jarasandha, not so trusting, sent all his vassals and allies along because he felt that Krishna would come to snatch Rukmini away. Bhishmaka and Rukmini received the news. Bhishmaka, who secretly approved of Krishna and wished he would take Rukmini away had a furnished mansion set up for him, he made them comfortable. Meanwhile, at the palace, Rukmini got ready for her upcoming marriage, she went to Indrani temple on the day of Jyeshtha star to pray but was disappointed when she did not see Krishna there.
As she stepped out, she saw. They both started to ride off. All of Jarasandha's forces started chasing them. While Balarama occupied most of them and held them back Rukmi had caught up with Krishna and Rukmini, he overtook Krishna near Bhadrod. Krishna and Rukmi dueled with the inevitable result of Krishna's victory; when Krishna was about to kill him, Rukmini fell at the feet of Krishna and begged that her brother's life be spared. Krishna, generous as always, but as punishment, shaved Rukmi's head and let him go free. There was no greater shame for a warrior than a visible sign of defeat. Rukmi was worshipped as Gaudera by villagers, he was known as the God of shame. According to folklore, Krishna came to the village of Madhavpur Ghed after kidnapping Rukmini and got married to her at this place. In the memory of that event, there is a temple built for Madhavrai. A celebration of this event is held at Madhavpur in memory of this marriage every year in a cultural fair. At Dwaraka and Rukmini were welcomed with great pomp and ceremony.
The Tulabharam is an incident in the life of Rukmini, that reveals the extent to which humble devotion is worth more than material wealth. Satyabhama, another queen of Krishna, prides herself about the love Krishna has for her and her grasp over his heart. Rukmini, on the other hand is a devoted wife, humble in her service of her Lord, her devotion is her real inner beauty. On one occasion, sage Narada arrived in Dwaraka and in the course of conversation hinted to Satyabhama that the love that Krishna exhibits towards her is not all that real and in fact it is Rukmini who has real control over his heart. Unable to bear this, Satyabhama challenges Narada to prove it. Narada, with his way with words, tricked her into accepting a Vrata where she has to give Krishna away in charity to Narada and reclaim him by giving the weight of Krishna in wealth. Narada lures her into accepting this vrata by telling her that Krishna's love to her will in
Vishnu is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, the Supreme Being or absolute truth in its Vaishnavism tradition. Vishnu is the "preserver" in the Hindu triad that includes Shiva. In Vaishnavism, Vishnu is identical to the formless metaphysical concept called Brahman, the supreme, the Svayam Bhagavan, who takes various avatars as "the preserver, protector" whenever the world is threatened with evil and destructive forces, his avatars most notably include Rama in the Krishna in the Mahabharata. He is known as Narayana, Vasudeva and Hari, he is one of the five equivalent deities worshipped in Panchayatana puja of the Smarta Tradition of Hinduism. In Hindu iconography, Vishnu is depicted as having a pale or dark blue complexion and having four arms, he holds a padma in his lower left hand, Kaumodaki gada in his lower right hand, Panchajanya shankha in his upper left hand and the Sudarshana Chakra in his upper right hand. A traditional depiction is Vishnu reclining on the coils of the serpent Shesha, accompanied by his consort Lakshmi, as he "dreams the universe into reality".
Yaska, the mid 1st-millennium BCE Vedanga scholar, in his Nirukta, defines Vishnu as viṣṇur viṣvater vā vyaśnoter vā, "one who enters everywhere". He writes, atha yad viṣito bhavati tad viṣnurbhavati, "that, free from fetters and bondages is Vishnu"; the medieval Indian scholar Medhātithi suggested that the word Vishnu has etymological roots in viś, meaning to pervade, thereby connoting that Vishnu is "one, everything and inside everything". Vishnu means "all pervasive". Vishnu is a Vedic deity, but not a prominent one when compared to Indra and others. Just 5 out of 1028 hymns of the Rigveda, a 2nd millennium BCE Hindu text, are dedicated to Vishnu, he finds minor mention in the other hymns. Vishnu is mentioned in the Brahmana layer of text in the Vedas, thereafter his profile rises and over the history of Indian mythology, states Jan Gonda, Vishnu becomes a divinity of the highest rank, one equivalent to the Supreme Being. Though a minor mention and with overlapping attributes in the Vedas, he has important characteristics in various hymns of Rig Veda, such as 1.154.5, 1.56.3 and 10.15.3.
In these hymns, the Vedic mythology asserts that Vishnu resides in that highest home where departed Atman reside, an assertion that may have been the reason for his increasing emphasis and popularity in Hindu soteriology. He is described in the Vedic literature as the one who supports heaven and earth. In the Vedic hymns, Vishnu is invoked alongside other deities Indra, whom he helps in killing the symbol of evil named Vritra, his distinguishing characteristic in Vedas is his association with light. Two Rigvedic hymns in Mandala 7 refer to Vishnu. In section 7.99 of the Rgveda, Vishnu is addressed as the god who separates heaven and earth, a characteristic he shares with Indra. In the Vedic texts, the deity or god referred to as Vishnu is Surya or Savitr, who bears the name Suryanarayana. Again, this link to Surya is a characteristic Vishnu shares with fellow Vedic deities named Mitra and Agni, where in different hymns, they too "bring men together" and cause all living beings to rise up and impel them to go about their daily activities.
In hymn 7.99 of Rigveda, Indra-Vishnu are equivalent and produce the sun, with the verses asserting that this sun is the source of all energy and light for all. In other hymns of the Rigveda, Vishnu is a close friend of Indra. Elsewhere in Rigveda and Upanishadic texts, Vishnu is equivalent to Prajapati, both are described as the protector and preparer of the womb, according to Klaus Klostermaier, this may be the root behind post-Vedic fusion of all the attributes of the Vedic Prajapati unto the avatars of Vishnu. In the Yajurveda, Taittiriya Aranyaka, Narayana sukta, Narayana is mentioned as the supreme being; the first verse of Narayana Suktam mentions the words paramam padam, which mean highest post and may be understood as the supreme abode for all souls. This is known as Param Dhama, Paramapadam or Vaikuntha. Rig Veda 1.22.20 mentions the same paramam padam. In the Atharvaveda, the mythology of a boar who raises goddess earth from the depths of cosmic ocean appears, but without the word Vishnu or his alternate avatar names.
In post-Vedic mythology, this legend becomes one of the basis of many cosmogonic myth called the Varaha legend, with Varaha as an avatar of Vishnu. Several hymns of the Rigveda repeat the mighty deed of Vishnu called the Trivikrama, one of the lasting mythologies in Hinduism since the Vedic times, it is an inspiration for ancient artwork in numerous Hindu temples such as at the Ellora Caves, which depict the Trivikrama legend through the Vamana avatar of Vishnu. Trivikrama refers to "three strides" of Vishnu. Starting as a small insignificant looking being, Vishnu undertakes a herculean task of establishing his reach and form with his first step covers the earth, with second the ether, the third entire heaven; the Vishnu Sukta 1.154 of Rigveda says that the first and second of Vishnu's strides are visible to the mortals and the third is the realm of the immortals. The Trivikrama describing hymns integrate salvific themes, stating Vishnu to symbolize that, freedom and life; the Shatapatha Brahmana elaborates this theme of Vishnu, as his herculean effort and sacrifice to create and gain powers that help others, one who realizes and defeats the evil symbolized by the Asuras after they had usurped the three worlds, thus Vishnu is the savior of the mortals and