Bhakti means "attachment, fondness for, faith, devotion, purity". It was used in Hinduism, referring to devotion and love for a personal god or a representational god by a devotee. In ancient texts such as the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, the term means participation and love for any endeavor, while in the Bhagavad Gita, it connotes one of the possible paths of spirituality and towards moksha, as in bhakti marga. Bhakti in Indian religions is "emotional devotionalism" to a personal god or to spiritual ideas; the term refers to a movement, pioneered by Alvars and Nayanars, that developed around the gods Vishnu, Brahma and Devi in the second half of the 1st millennium CE. It grew in India after the 12th century in the various Hindu traditions in response to the arrival of Islam in India. Bhakti ideas have inspired many popular saint-poets in India; the Bhagavata Purana, for example, is a Krishna-related text associated with the Bhakti movement in Hinduism. Bhakti is found in other religions practiced in India, it has influenced interactions between Christianity and Hinduism in the modern era.
Nirguni bhakti is found in Sikhism, as well as Hinduism. Outside India, emotional devotion is found in some Southeast Asian and East Asian Buddhist traditions, it is sometimes referred to as Bhatti; the Sanskrit word bhakti is derived from the verb root bhaj-, which means "to divide, to share, to partake, to participate, to belong to". The word means "attachment, devotion to, fondness for, faith or love, piety to something as a spiritual, religious principle or means of salvation"; the meaning of the term Bhakti is different from Kama. Kama connotes emotional connection, sometimes with erotic love. Bhakti, in contrast, is spiritual, a love and devotion to religious concepts or principles, that engages both emotion and intellection. Karen Pechelis states that the word Bhakti should not be understood as uncritical emotion, but as committed engagement, she adds that, in the concept of bhakti in Hinduism, the engagement involves a simultaneous tension between emotion and intellection, "emotion to reaffirm the social context and temporal freedom, intellection to ground the experience in a thoughtful, conscious approach".
One who practices bhakti is called a bhakta. The term bhakti, in Vedic Sanskrit literature, has a general meaning of "mutual attachment, fondness for, devotion to" such as in human relationships, most between beloved-lover, friend-friend, king-subject, parent-child, it may refer to devotion towards a spiritual teacher as guru-bhakti, or to a personal god, or for spirituality without form. According to the Sri Lankan Buddhist scholar Sanath Nanayakkara, there is no single term in English that adequately translates or represents the concept of bhakti in Indian religions. Terms such as "devotion, devotional faith" represent certain aspects of bhakti, but it means much more; the concept includes a sense of deep affection, but not wish because "wish is selfish, affection is unselfish". Some scholars, states Nanayakkara, associate it with saddha which means "faith, trust or confidence". However, bhakti can connote a path to spiritual wisdom; the term Bhakti refers to one of several alternate spiritual paths to moksha in Hinduism, it is referred to as bhakti marga or bhakti yoga.
The other paths are Karma marga, Rāja marga. The term bhakti has been translated as "devotion" in Orientalist literature; the colonial era authors variously described Bhakti as a form of mysticism or "primitive" religious devotion of lay people with monotheistic parallels. However, modern scholars state "devotion" is a incomplete translation of bhakti. Many contemporary scholars have questioned this terminology, most now trace the term bhakti as one of the several spiritual perspectives that emerged from reflections on the Vedic context and Hindu way of life. Bhakti in Indian religions is not a ritualistic devotion to a god or to religion, but participation in a path that includes behavior, ethics and spirituality, it involves, among other things, refining one's state of mind, knowing god, participating in god, internalizing god. Instead of "devotion", the term "participation" is appearing in scholarly literature as a gloss for the term bhakti. David Lorenzen states that bhakti is an important term in Hinduism.
They both share numerous concepts and core spiritual ideas, but bhakti of nirguni is significant in Sikhism. In Hinduism, diverse ideas continue, where both saguni and nirguni bhakti or alternate paths to spirituality are among the options left to the choice of a Hindu; the last of three epilogue verses of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, dated to be from 1st millennium BCE, uses the word Bhakti as follows, This verse is one of the earliest use of the word Bhakti in ancient Indian literature, has been translated as "the love of God". Scholars have debated whether this phrase is authentic or insertion into the Upanishad, whether the terms "Bhakti" and "Deva" meant the same in this ancient text as they do in the modern era. Max Muller states that the word Bhakti appears only once in this Upanishad, that too in one last verse of the epilogue, could have been a addition and may not be theistic as the word was us
A Love Like Ours is the twenty-eighth album by Barbra Streisand. It was released in North America on September 21, 1999, Europe on September 20, 1999, it is her 23rd Top 10 album in the US. This was Streisand's first commercial release since her marriage to actor James Brolin. Much of the material was inspired by this event; as such, the disc booklet contains images of Brolin. The album did not achieve the success of Streisand's two previous albums, debuting at No. 6 in the US with sales of 145,000 copies in the first week. It was certified Gold and Platinum; the album sold nearly 3 million copies worldwide. "We Must Be Loving Right" was recorded by George Strait on his 1993 album Easy Come, Easy Go. Both Strait's original and Streisand's cover were produced by Tony Brown. "If You Ever Leave Me", a duet with country star Vince Gill was released to country radio. It stayed there for 6 weeks. In the UK the single peaked at No. 26. "I've Dreamed of You" was released and peaked at No. 22 on the Billboard Hot Single Sales chart and No. 12 on the Hot Canadian Digital Singles chart.
"I've Dreamed of You" – 4:46 "Isn't It a Pity?" – 5:22 "The Island" – 4:37 "Love Like Ours" – 3:59 "If You Ever Leave Me" – 4:38 "We Must Be Loving Right" – 3:37 "If I Never Met You" – 3:38 "It Must Be You" – 3:29 "Just One Lifetime" – 4:18 "If I Didn't Love You" – 4:18 "Wait" – 4:10 "The Music That Makes Me Dance" – 4:35 Adapted from the album's liner notes. Walter Afanasieff – keyboards, programming Robbie Buchanan – synthesizer Jon Clarke – recorder Jim Cox, Michael Lang – piano Paulinho da Costa – percussion George Doering, Dean Parks – guitar Bruce Dukov – violin Stuart Duncan – fiddle David Foster, Richard Marx – keyboards Paul Franklin – steel guitar Vince Gill, Donald Kirkpatrick – acoustic guitar, electric guitar Reggie Hamilton, Lee Sklar, Nathan East – bass guitar Pete Hume, Felipe Elgueta, Greg Bieck, Steve Skinner – programming Ralph Humphrey, John Robinson – drums John Jorgenson, Michael Landau, Kamil Rustam – electric guitar Kenny G – tenor saxophone Tommy Morgan – harmonica Randy Waldman – piano, synthesizerOrchestra on "The Island" arranged and conducted by Jorge Calandrelli.
Strings on "We Must Be Loving Right" arranged by William Ross. Production Walter Afanasieff – track 3 Tony Brown – track 6 David Foster – track 10 David Foster and Richard Marx – track 5 Arif Mardin – tracks 8, 9 Barbra Streisand – tracks 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 12
In mathematics, more in numerical analysis, Householder's methods are a class of root-finding algorithms that are used for functions of one real variable with continuous derivatives up to some order d + 1. Each of these methods is characterized by the number d, known as the order of the method; the algorithm is iterative and has a rate of convergence of d + 1. These methods are named after the American mathematician Alston Scott Householder. Householder's method is a numerical algorithm for solving the nonlinear equation f = 0. In this case, the function f has to be a function of one real variable; the method consists of a sequence of iterations x n + 1 = x n + d beginning with an initial guess x0. If f is a d + 1 times continuously differentiable function and a is a zero of f but not of its derivative in a neighborhood of a, the iterates xn satisfy: | x n + 1 − a | ≤ K ⋅ | x n − a | d + 1, for some K > 0. This means that the iterates converge to the zero if the initial guess is sufficiently close, that the convergence has order d + 1.
Despite their order of convergence, these methods are not used because the gain in precision is not commensurate with the rise in effort for large d. The Ostrowski index expresses the error reduction in the number of function evaluations instead of the iteration count. For polynomials, the evaluation of the first d derivatives of f at xn using the Horner method has an effort of d + 1 polynomial evaluations. Since n evaluations over n iterations give an error exponent of n, the exponent for one function evaluation is d + 1 d + 1, numerically 1.4142, 1.4422, 1.4142, 1.3797 for d = 1, 2, 3, 4, falling after that. For general functions the derivative evaluation using the Taylor arithmetic of automatic differentiation requires the equivalent of /2 function evaluations. One function evaluation thus reduces the error by an exponent of 2 3 ≈ 1.2599 for Newton's method, 3 6 ≈ 1.2009 for Halley's method and falling towards 1 or linear convergence for the higher order methods. An approximate idea of Householder's method derives from the geometric series.
Let the real-valued, continuously differentiable function f have a simple zero at x = a, a root f = 0 of multiplicity one, equivalent to f ′ ≠ 0. 1/f has a singularity at a a simple pole, close to a the behavior of 1/f is dominated by 1/. One gets 1 f = 1 f − f = x − a f − f ⋅ − 1 a ≈ − 1 a f ′ ⋅ ∑ k = 0 ∞ k. Here f ′ ≠ 0; the coefficient of degree d has the value C a − d. Thus, one can now reconstruct the zero a by dividing the coefficient of degree d − 1 by the coefficient of degree d. Since this geometric series is an approximation to the Taylor expansion of 1/f, one can get estimates of the zero of f – now without prior knowledge of the location of this zero – by dividing the corresponding coefficients of the Taylor expansion of 1/f or, more 1/f. From that one gets, for any integer d, if the corresponding derivatives exist, a ≈ b + ( 1
Royal Motor Car Company was a Brass Era manufacturer of automobiles in Cleveland, Ohio, in business from 1904 to 1911. It was the result of a reorganization of the Hoffman Company; the 1904 Royal 16-H. P. Tourist was a touring car model. Equipped with a tonneau, it could seat five passengers and sold for US$2300; the vertically mounted water-cooled straight-twin, situated at the front of the car, produced 16 hp. A three-speed sliding transmission was fitted; the pressed steel-framed car weighed 1700 lb. A modern cellular radiator was used, the car rivaled the offerings of cross-town rival, Peerless. In November 1907, the Royal Motor Company went into receivership. On December 2, 1908, a court judge authorized the sale of the company's assets to a new corporation named the Royal Tourist Car Company headed by Bostonian, George J. Dunham. List of defunct United States automobile manufacturers Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly
Old North Tower is the oldest building on the University of Central Oklahoma campus in Edmond and the oldest building of higher education in the state of Oklahoma. Built in 1892, it was the first permanent building on the Territorial Normal School campus; the construction of Old North, designed by J. G. Haskell began in the summer of 1892, classes began in January 1893. Early in Old North's history the building was deemed unsafe. In 1911, the structure instead was renovated; the most major milestone for Old North was when the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. The university closed Old North in 2001 because of structural and safety issues. Old North was left dormant; the $11 million of renovations include the addition of an east wing, an amphitheater, additional maintenance space, elevators to make the building ADA compliant. The building was the centerpiece of UCO's Always Central campaign to raise $40 million. In 2017, the building reopened. University of Central Oklahoma facilities profile
Coogee Oval is a sporting ground, located in Coogee, in Sydney's Eastern Suburbs. It is home of the Randwick Rugby Union Club in winter, Randwick Petersham Cricket Club in summer. One side of the ground is seated with terracing and a television tower behind it, with a grandstand/dressing rooms in the corner. In winter, temporary stands and temporary corporate facilities boost the capacity to around 5,000, it is standing room only come game day, with some of the better seats on the balconies of the blocks of flats overlooking the ground. The oval is situated directly across the road from both Coogee Randwick Rugby Club; the ground record crowd of 9246 was set on 22 June 1988 when Randwick lost 25-9 to the touring All Blacks. The soil within the oval itself has been found to more nutrient- and mineral-dense than any other oval tested globally; this is reputed to offer performance benefits to under-performing New South Wales Rugby League representative footballers