Amadeus V, Count of Savoy
Amadeus V, surnamed the Great for his wisdom and success as a ruler, was the Count of Savoy from 1285 to 1323. He established Chambéry as his seat, he was the son of Thomas II of Beatrice Fieschi. Amadeus began life in the service of King Edward I of England, as a household knight, serving in the First Welsh War of 1277. During the Second Welsh War of 1282 he was in command of Edward’s forces at Chester that relieved the siege of Rhuddlan Castle, his childless paternal uncle, Count of Savoy, Philip I died in 1285. Meanwhile earlier, in 1282, his elder brother Thomas III of Piedmont, had accidentally died in 1282. Philip’s will charged his niece Eleanor of Provence and her son King Edward I of England with the inheritance of Savoy. Amadeus was awarded the County of Savoy, in order to diminish family rivalry his younger brother Louis was awarded the new Barony of Vaud becoming Louis I of Vaud. Through his marriage to Sybilla, Countess of Bugey and Bresse, he was able to incorporate these Burgundian districts into his states.
Expansion saw his dominions further increased. On 1 October 1285, Amadeus was declared protector of Geneva after negotiations with the Bishop of Geneva; the hereditary title belonged to Amadeus II, Count of Geneva, in conflict with the Bishop. In 1287 Amadeus besieged the castle of Ile in the Rhône near Geneva, captured it after fourteen weeks. In 1295, Amadeus acquired the fortress at Chambéry from its previous owner Hugh of La Rochette, he brought Georges de Aquila, a student of Giotto to his court. Georges decorated the castle with paintings, carved wood, frescoes, he worked there for the Savoyards until he died in 1348. Among his successes was the Treaty of Annemasse which the Count of Geneva and the Dauphin of Viennois accepted subservient roles to him as his vassals; the treaty was the result of military victories over the both of them. In 1301, Amadeus settled his dispute over control of Valais with the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sion, his reign, however saw friction between the County of Savoy and the Duchy of Austria.
He pursued an alliance with the Kingdom of France and received Maulévrier in Normandy as a result of initial good relations. The eventual recovery of Lyon by the Kings of France alerted Amadeus to their expansionistic tendencies towards the regions by the Alps, he sought a powerful ally against potential hostility in the German king Henry VII, married to Margaret of Brabant, the sister-in-law of Amadeus. Amadeus accompanied Henry in his Italian campaign of 1310–1313, which culminated in Henry's coronation as Holy Roman Emperor on 29 June 1312; as a reward for his service, AMadeus received the title of Imperial Count, imperial vicar of Lombardy, the lordships of Asti and Ivrea. Henry elevated Aosta and Chablais to duchies, though they remained a part of the realm of Savoy. In 1315, Amadeus assisted the Knights Hospitaller in the defense of Rhodes against the Turks, he first married Sybille de Baugé, daughter of Guy I Damas de Baugé, Baron of Couzan and Dauphine de Lavieu, had eight children by her: Bonne of Savoy, married twice: 1) John I of Viennois, Dauphin of Viennois, 2) Hugh of Burgundy, Lord of Montbauson, the son of Hugh III, Count of Burgundy.
John of Savoy Beatrice of Savoy Edward of Savoy, succeeded his father, married Blanche of Burgundy, daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy. Eleonor of Savoy, married three times: 1) William of Chalon, Count of Auxerre and Tonnerre, 2) Dreux IV of Mello, 3) John I, Count of Forez, her daughter Marguerite de Mello married John II of Chalon-Arlay. Margaret of Savoy, married John I of Montferrat. Agnes of Savoy, married William III of Geneva, their son was Amadeus III of Geneva. Aymon of Savoy, succeeded his brother Edward as Count of Savoy, married Yolande of Montferrat, the daughter of Theodore I, Marquess of Montferrat. In 1297, he married, Marie of Brabant, a daughter of John I, Duke of Brabant and Margaret of Flanders, her maternal grandparents were his first wife, Matilda of Bethune. They had 4 children: Maria of Savoy, married Hugh, Baron of Faucigny, the son of Humbert I of Viennois. Catherine of Savoy, married Leopold I, Duke of Austria and Styria. Anna of Savoy, married Byzantine Emperor, Andronikos III Palaiologos.
Beatrice of Savoy, married, in 1327, Henry VI, Duke of Carinthia. Cox, Eugene L.. The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030. Jobson, Adrian; the First English Revolution: Simon de Montfort, Henry III and the Barons' War. Bloomsbury Academic. Taylor, A. J.. "A Letter of Lewis of Savoy to Edward I". The English Historical Review. Oxford University Press. Vol. 68, No. 266 Jan. His listing in "Medieval lands" by Charles Cawley; the project "involves extracting and analysing detailed information from primary sources, including contemporary chronicles, cartularies and testaments."
Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents, its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. First settled by Greeks in the second millennium BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. In the ninth century BC, a colony known as Parthenope or Παρθενόπη was established on the Island of Megaride refounded as Neápolis in the sixth century BC; the city was an important part of Magna Graecia, played a major role in the merging of Greek and Roman society and a significant cultural centre under the Romans. It served as the capital of the Duchy of Naples of the Kingdom of Naples and of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.
Between 1925 and 1936, Naples was expanded and upgraded by Benito Mussolini's government but subsequently sustained severe damage from Allied bombing during World War II, which led to extensive post-1945 reconstruction work. Naples has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, helped by the construction of the Centro Direzionale business district and an advanced transportation network, which includes the Alta Velocità high-speed rail link to Rome and Salerno and an expanded subway network. Naples is the third-largest urban economy in Italy, after Rome; the Port of Naples is one of the most important in Europe and home of the Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the NATO body that oversees North Africa, the Sahel and Middle East. Naples' historic city centre is the largest in Europe and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with a wide range of culturally and significant sites nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Naples is known for its natural beauties such as Posillipo, Phlegraean Fields and Vesuvius.
Neapolitan cuisine is synonymous with pizza – which originated in the city – but it includes many lesser-known dishes. The best-known sports team in Naples is the Serie A club S. S. C. Napoli, two-time Italian champions who play at the San Paolo Stadium in the southwest of the city, in the Fuorigrotta quarter. Naples has been inhabited since the Neolithic period; the earliest Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC. Sailors from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC. By the eighth century BC, the settlement had expanded to include Monte Echia. In the sixth century BC the new urban zone of Neápolis was founded on the plain becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia; the city grew due to the influence of the powerful Greek city-state of Syracuse, became an ally of the Roman Republic against Carthage. During the Samnite Wars, the city, now a bustling centre of trade, was captured by the Samnites.
During the Punic Wars, the strong walls surrounding Neápolis repelled the invading forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal. Naples was respected by the Romans as a paragon of Hellenistic culture. During the Roman era, the people of Naples maintained their Greek language and customs, while the city was expanded with elegant Roman villas and public baths. Landmarks such as the Temple of Dioscures were built, many emperors chose to holiday in the city, including Claudius and Tiberius. Virgil, the author of Rome's national epic, the Aeneid, received part of his education in the city, resided in its environs, it was during this period. Januarius, who would become Naples' patron saint, was martyred there in the fourth century AD; the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, was exiled to Naples by the Germanic king Odoacer in the fifth century AD. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Naples was captured by the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, incorporated into the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
However, Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire recaptured Naples in 536, after entering the city via an aqueduct. In 543, during the Gothic Wars, Totila took the city for the Ostrogoths, but the Byzantines seized control of the area following the Battle of Mons Lactarius on the slopes of Vesuvius. Naples was expected to keep in contact with the Exarchate of Ravenna, the centre of Byzantine power on the Italian Peninsula. After the exarchate fell, a Duchy of Naples was created. Although Naples' Greco-Roman culture endured, it switched allegiance from Constantinople to Rome under Duke Stephen II, putting it under papal suzerainty by 763; the years between 818 and 832 were tumultuous in regard to Naples' relations with the Byzantine Emperor, with numerous local pretenders feuding for possession of the ducal throne. Theoctistus was appointed without imperial approval. However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, instead elected Stephen III, a man who minted coins with his own initials, r
Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy
Amadeus VII, known as the Red Count, was Count of Savoy from 1383 to 1391. Amadeus was Count of Savoy and Bonne of Bourbon. Amadeus VII was known for his hospitality, for he would entertain people of all stations and never turned a person from his table without a meal, he married Bonne of Berry, daughter of John, Duke of Berry, the younger brother of Charles V of France. They had three children: Amadeus VIII known as Antipope Felix V, married Mary of Burgundy, daughter of Philip the Bold Bonne married to Louis of Piedmont, the final of the Savoy-Archaea Branch. Upon his death at age 29 from tetanus, controversy arose because of his will. Amadeus VII left the important role of guardian of his son and heir, Amadeus VIII, to his own mother, a sister of the powerful Duke de Bourbon, instead of following the tradition of appointing the child's mother, a daughter of the powerful Duke de Berry, it took three months of negotiations to restore peace in the family. Cox, Eugene L.. The Green Count of Savoy.
Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030. Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim. A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. New York: Knopf. Vaughan, Richard. Philip the Bold: The Formation of the Burgundian State. Boydell Press
Duke of Burgundy
Duke of Burgundy was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks. Under the Ancien Régime, the Duke of Burgundy was the premier lay peer of the kingdom of France. Beginning with Robert II of France, the title was held by the French royal family, it was granted to Robert's younger son, who founded the House of Burgundy. When the senior line of the House of Burgundy became extinct, it was inherited by John II of France through proximity of blood. John granted the duchy as an appanage for Philip the Bold; the Valois Dukes of Burgundy became dangerous rivals to the senior line of the House of Valois. When the male line of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy became extinct, the title was confiscated by Louis XI of France. Today, the title is used by the House of Bourbon as a revived courtesy title; the first margrave duke, of Burgundy was Richard of the House of Ardennes, whose duchy was created from the merging of several regional counties of the kingdom of Provence which had belonged to his brother Boso.
His descendants and their relatives by marriage ruled the duchy until its annexation over a century by the French crown, their suzerain. Richard the Justiciar Rudolph King of France Hugh the Black Gilbert Otto Eudes Henry the Great Otto William In 1004, Burgundy was annexed by the king, of the House of Capet. Otto William continued to rule, his descendants formed another House of Ivrea. Robert Henry Robert, son of Robert II of France, received the Duchy as a peace settlement, having disputed the succession to the throne of France with his brother Henry. John II of France, the second Valois king claimed the Duchy after the death of Philip, the last Capet duke. John passed the duchy to his youngest son Philip as an apanage. In 1477, the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy was annexed by France. In the same year, Mary married Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, giving the Habsburgs control of the remainder of the Burgundian Inheritance. Although the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy itself remained in the hands of France, the Habsburgs remained in control of the title of Duke of Burgundy and the other parts of the Burgundian inheritance, notably the Low Countries and the Free County of Burgundy in the Holy Roman Empire.
They used the term Burgundy to refer to it, until the late 18th century, when the Austrian Netherlands were lost to French Republic. The Habsburgs continued to claim Burgundy proper until the Treaty of Cambrai in 1529, when they surrendered their claim in exchange for French recognition of Imperial sovereignty over Flanders and Artois. Maximilian I Philip IV the Handsome, titular Duke of Burgundy as Philip IV Charles II 1506–1555Philip V 1556–1598 Philip VI 1598–1621 Philip VII 1621–1665 Charles III 1665–1700 Louis, Duke of Burgundy Philip VIII 1700–1713 Charles IV 1713–1740 Maria Theresa 1740–1780 Francis I Joseph 1780–1790 Leopold 1790–1792 Francis II 1792–1795/1835 Ferdinand Franz Joseph Charles V King Juan Carlos I of Spain King Felipe VI of Spain – the title is one of the titles of the Spanish Crown Prince Louis of Bourbon – the title is used by eldest son of the legitimist claimant to the French throne Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou. Duchess of Burgundy Kingdom of Burgundy King of Burgundy Duchy of Burgundy County of Burgundy Count of Burgundy Dukes of Burgundy family tree Arelat Calmette, Joseph.
Doreen Weightman, trans. The Golden Age of Burgundy. New York: W. W. Norton, 1962. Chaumé, Maurice. Les Origines du Duché de Bourgogne. 2v. in 4 parts. Dijon: Jobard, 1925. Michael, Nicholas. Armies of Medieval Burgundy 1364–1477. London: Osprey, 1983. ISBN 0-85045-518-9. Vaughan, Richard. Valois Burgundy. London: Allen Lane, 1975. ISBN 0-7139-0924-2
Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France. Each side drew many allies into the war, it was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, the development of strong national identities in both countries. Tensions between the crowns of France and England can be traced back to the origins of the English royal family itself, French in origin. For this reason, English monarchs had held not only the English Crown, but titles and lands within France, the possession of which made them vassals to the kings of France; the status of the English King's French fiefs was a major source of conflict between the two monarchies throughout the Middle Ages.
French monarchs systematically sought to check the growth of English power, stripping away lands as the opportunity arose whenever England was at war with Scotland, an ally of France. Over the centuries, English holdings in France had varied in size, at some points dwarfing the French royal domain. In 1316, a principle was established denying women succession to the French throne. In 1328, Charles IV of France died without brothers, his closest male relative was his nephew Edward III of England, whose mother, Isabella of France, was sister of the deceased King. Isabella claimed the throne of France for her son, but the French rejected it, maintaining that Isabella could not transmit a right she did not possess. Furthermore, political sentiment favoured a Frenchman for the crown rather than a foreign prince; the throne passed instead to Philip, Count of Valois, a patrilineal cousin of Charles IV, who would become Philip VI of France, the first king of the House of Valois. The English had not expected their claim to meet with success, did not press the matter when it was denied.
However, disagreements between Philip and Edward induced the former to confiscate the latter's lands in France, in turn prompted Edward III to reassert his claim to the French throne. Several overwhelming English victories in the war—especially at Crécy, Agincourt—raised the prospects of an ultimate English triumph, convinced the English to continue pouring money and manpower into the war over many decades. However, the greater resources of the French monarchy prevented the English kings from completing the conquest of France. Starting in 1429, decisive French victories at Orléans, Patay and Castillon concluded the war in favour of the House of Valois, with England permanently losing most of its possessions on the continent. Historians divide the war into three phases separated by truces: the Edwardian War, the Caroline War, the Lancastrian War. Local conflicts in neighbouring areas, which were contemporarily related to the war, including the War of the Breton Succession, the Castilian Civil War, the War of the Two Peters in Aragon, the 1383–85 crisis in Portugal, were availed by the parties to advance their agendas.
Historians adopted the term "Hundred Years' War" as a historiographical periodisation to encompass all of these events, thus constructing the longest military conflict in European history. The war owes its historical significance to multiple factors. By its end, feudal armies had been replaced by professional troops, aristocratic dominance had yielded to a democratisation of the manpower and weapons of armies. Although a dynastic conflict, the war gave impetus to ideas of French and English nationalism; the wider introduction of weapons and tactics supplanted the feudal armies where heavy cavalry had dominated, artillery became important. The war precipitated the creation of the first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire, thus helping to change their role in warfare. With respect to the belligerents, in France, civil wars, deadly epidemics and bandit free-companies of mercenaries reduced the population drastically. In England, political forces over time came to oppose the costly venture.
The dissatisfaction of English nobles, resulting from the loss of their continental landholdings, as well as the general shock at losing a war in which investment had been so great, became factors leading to the Wars of the Roses. The root causes of the conflict can be found in the demographic and political crises of 14th century Europe; the outbreak of war was motivated by a gradual rise in tension between the kings of France and England about Gascony and Scotland. The dynastic question, which arose due to an interruption of the direct male line of the Capetians, was the official pretext; the question of female succession to the French throne was raised after the death of Louis X in 1316. Louis X left only a daughter, his posthumous son John I lived only a few days. Furthermore, the paternity of his daughter was in question, as her mother, Margaret of Burgundy, had been exposed as an adulterer in the Tour de Nesle affair. Philip, Count of Poitiers, brother of Louis X, positioned himself to take the crown, advancing the stance that women should be ineligible to succeed to the French throne.
Through his political sagacity he won over his adversaries and succeeded to the French throne as Philip V. By the same law that he procured, his daughters were denied the succession, whi
Bonne of Berry
Bonne of Berry was the daughter of John, Duke of Berry, Joanna of Armagnac. Through her father, she was a granddaughter of John II of France, her first marriage was to Count of Savoy. Their marriage contract is dated 7 May 1372 and they married on 18 January 1377, but she wouldn't arrive in Savoy until 1381, they had the following children: Duke of Savoy. Bonne of Savoy. Joan of Savoy. After Amadeus' death in 1391, a regency dispute over their son Amadeus VIII ensued after her husband passed over Bonne in favor of his mother Bonne of Bourbon; this conflict would only be resolved by an agreement, signed on 8 May 1393. Her second marriage was to Bernard VII of Armagnac, their marriage contract is dated on 2 December 1393. They had the following children: Bonne of Armagnac. John IV of Armagnac. Bernard of Armagnac, Count of Pardiac. Anne of Armagnac. Joan of Armagnac. Beatrice of Armagnac. Samaran, Charles. "De quelques manuscrits ayant appartenu à Jean d'Armagnac". Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes Année.
Volume 66 Number 1. Schnerb, Bertrand. "Un Seigneur Auvergnat a la Cour de Bourgogne: Renaud II, Vicomte de Murat". Annuaire-Bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de France nuaire-Bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de France. Vaughan, Richard. Philip the Bold: The Formation of the Burgundian State. Boydell Press
Thonon-les-Bains is a town in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department. Thonon is part of a transborder agglomeration known as Grand Genève; the town is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva. Thonon-les-Bains was the historic capital of a province of the old Duchy of Savoy; the Chablais Savoyard is the portion of Chablais in France. Chablais Valaisan and Chablais Vaudois are those portions of Chablais in the adjacent Switzerland cantons Valais and Vaud; the town was the capital of the Dukedom of Chablais. Transport is assured by BUT; the lines are: Line A: Destination Grangette / Destination Multiplex Line B: Destination Z. I VONGY / Destination Place des arts Line C: Destination Collège Théodore Monod / Place des arts Line D: Destination Collège theodore Monod or Espace Leman / Place des arts Line L: Destination Amphion Village / Place des arts Line P: Destination Marin / Place des arts Line M: Destination La Chavanne / Place des arts Line N: Destination Parking des chateaux / Place des artsMap of the network: http://www.leman-but.fr/ftp/FR_plan/Plan%202012%202013.pdf Line H and J are used in Evian-Les-Bains, not Thonon-Les-Bains.
Château de Ripaille Arboretum de Ripaille Château de Sonnaz Saint-Hippolyte church, rebuilt in Savoy Baroque-style during the 17th century Funiculaire de Thonon-les-Bains Thonon-les-Bains is twinned with: Eberbach, Germany Mercer Island, United States Čačak, Serbia Communes of the Haute-Savoie department INSEE Official website Office of Tourism