Kingdom of Jerusalem
The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade. The kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining possession, was destroyed by the Mamluks, its history is divided into two distinct periods. The sometimes so-called First Kingdom of Jerusalem lasted from 1099 to 1187, when it was entirely overrun by Saladin. After the subsequent Third Crusade, the kingdom was re-established in Acre in 1192, lasted until that city's destruction in 1291, except for a brief two decades in which Frederick II of Hohenstaufen reclaimed Jerusalem back into Christian hands after the Sixth Crusade; this second kingdom is sometimes called the Second Kingdom of Jerusalem or the Kingdom of Acre, after its new capital. Most of the crusaders who settled there were of French origin. At first the kingdom was little more than a loose collection of towns and cities captured during the crusade, but at its height in the mid-12th century, the kingdom encompassed the territory of modern-day Israel and the southern parts of Lebanon.
From the Mediterranean Sea, the kingdom extended in a thin strip of land from Beirut in the north to the Sinai Desert in the south. Three other crusader states founded during and after the First Crusade were located further north: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli. While all three were independent, they were tied to Jerusalem. Beyond these to the north and west lay the states of Armenian Cilicia and the Byzantine Empire, with which Jerusalem had a close relationship in the twelfth century. Further east, various Muslim emirates were located which were allied with the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad; the fragmentation of the Muslim east allowed for the initial success of the crusade, but as the 12th century progressed, the kingdom's Muslim neighbours were united by Nur ad-Din Zangi and Saladin, who vigorously began to recapture lost territory. Jerusalem itself fell to Saladin in 1187, in the 13th century the kingdom was reduced to a few cities along the Mediterranean coast.
In this period, the kingdom was ruled by the Lusignan dynasty of the Kingdom of Cyprus, another crusader state founded during the Third Crusade. Dynastic ties strengthened with Tripoli and Armenia; the kingdom was soon dominated by the Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa, as well as the imperial ambitions of the Holy Roman Emperors. Emperor Frederick II claimed the kingdom by marriage, but his presence sparked a civil war among the kingdom's nobility; the kingdom became little more than a pawn in the politics and warfare of the Ayyubid and Mamluk dynasties in Egypt, as well as the Khwarezmian and Mongol invaders. As a minor kingdom, it received little financial or military support from Europe; the Mamluk sultans Baibars and al-Ashraf Khalil reconquered all the remaining crusader strongholds, culminating in the destruction of Acre in 1291. The kingdom was ethnically and linguistically diverse, although the crusaders themselves and their descendants were an elite Catholic minority, they imported many customs and institutions from their homelands in Western Europe, there were close familial and political connections with the West throughout the kingdom's existence.
The kingdom inherited "oriental" qualities, influenced by the pre-existing customs and populations. The majority of the kingdom's inhabitants were native Christians Greek and Syriac Orthodox, as well as Sunni and Shi'a Muslims; the native Christians and Muslims, who were a marginalized lower class, tended to speak Greek and Arabic, while the crusaders, who came from France, spoke French. There were a small number of Jews and Samaritans. According to the Jewish writer Benjamin of Tudela, who travelled through the kingdom around 1170, there were 1,000 Samaritans in Nablus, 200 in Caesarea and 300 in Ascalon. Since sets a lower bound for the Samaritan population at 1,500, since the contemporary Tolidah, a Samaritan chronicle mentions communities in Gaza and Acre. Benjamin of Tudela estimated the total Jewish population of 14 cities in the kingdom to be 1,200, making the Samaritan population of the time larger than the Jewish for the only time in history; the First Crusade was preached at the Council of Clermont in 1095 by Pope Urban II, with the goal of assisting the Byzantine Empire against the invasions of the Seljuk Turks.
However, the main objective became the control of the Holy Land. The Byzantines were at war with the Seljuks and other Turkish dynasties for control of Anatolia and Syria; the Sunni Seljuks had ruled the Great Seljuk Empire, but this empire had collapsed into several smaller states after the death of Malik-Shah I in 1092. Malik-Shah was succeeded in the Anatolian Sultanate of Rûm by Kilij Arslan I, in Syria by his brother Tutush I, who died in 1095. Tutush's sons Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan and Duqaq inherited Aleppo and Damascus further dividing Syria amongst emirs antagonistic towards each other, as well as Kerbogha, the atabeg of Mosul; this disunity among the Anatolian and Syrian emirs allowed the crusaders to overcome any military opposition they faced on the way to Jerusalem. Egypt and much of Palestine were controlled by the Arab Shi'ite Fatimid Caliphate, which had extended further into Syria before the arrival of the Seljuks. Warfare between
Ashkelon or Ashqelon known as Ascalon, is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, 50 kilometres south of Tel Aviv, 13 kilometres north of the border with the Gaza Strip. The ancient seaport of Ashkelon dates back to the Neolithic Age. In the course of its history, it has been ruled by the Ancient Egyptians, the Canaanites, the Philistines, the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Greeks, the Phoenicians, the Hasmoneans, the Romans, the Persians, the Arabs and the Crusaders, until it was destroyed by the Mamluks in 1270; the Arab village of al-Majdal or al-Majdal Asqalan was established a few kilometres inland from the ancient site by the late 15th century, under Ottoman rule. In 1918, it became part of the British Occupied Enemy Territory Administration and in 1920 became part of Mandatory Palestine. Al-Majdal on the eve of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War had 10,000 Arab inhabitants and in October 1948, the city accommodated thousands more refugees from nearby villages.
Al-Majdal was the forward position of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force based in Gaza. The village was conquered by Israeli forces on 5 November 1948, by which time most of the Arab population had fled, leaving some 2,700 inhabitants, of which 500 were deported by Israeli soldiers in December 1948; the town was named Migdal Gaza, Migdal Gad and Migdal Ashkelon by the new Jewish inhabitants. Most of the remaining Arabs were deported by 1950. In 1953, the nearby neighborhood of Afridar was incorporated and the name "Ashkelon" was readopted to the town. By 1961, Ashkelon was ranked 18th among Israeli urban centers with a population of 24,000. In 2017 the population of Ashkelon was 137,945; the name Ashkelon is western Semitic, might be connected to the triliteral root š-q-l attesting to its importance as a center for mercantile activities. Its name appeared in Phoenician and Punic as ŠQLN and ʾŠQLN. Scallion and shallot are derived from the Latin name for Ashkelon. Ashkelon was the oldest and largest seaport in Canaan, part of the pentapolis of the Philistines, north of Gaza and south of Jaffa.
The Neolithic site of Ashkelon is located on 1.5 km north of Tel Ashkelon. It is dated by Radiocarbon dating to c. 7900 bp, to the poorly known Pre-Pottery Neolithic C phase of the Neolithic. It was excavated in 1954 by French archaeologist Jean Perrot. In 1997–1998, a large scale salvage project was conducted at the site by Yosef Garfinkel on behalf of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and nearly 1,000 square metres were examined. A final excavation report was published in 2008. In the site over a hundred fireplaces and hearths were found and numerous pits, but no solid architecture, except for one wall. Various phases of occupation were found, one atop the other, with sterile layers of sea sand between them; this indicates. The main finds were c. 20,000 flint artifacts. At Neolithic sites flints far outnumber animal bones; the bones belong to non-domesticated animals. When all aspects of this site are taken into account, it appears to have been used by pastoral nomads for meat processing; the nearby sea could supply salt necessary for the conservation of meat.
The city was built on a sandstone outcropping and has a good underground water supply. It was large as an ancient city with as many as 15,000 people living inside the walls. Ashkelon was a thriving Middle Bronze Age city of more than 150 acres, its commanding ramparts, measuring 1.5 miles long, 50 feet high and 150 feet thick, as a ruin they stand two stories high. The thickness of the walls was so great that the mudbrick city gate had a stone-lined, 8 feet wide tunnel-like barrel vault, coated with white plaster, to support the superstructure: it is the oldest such vault found. Roman and Islamic fortifications, faced with stone, followed the same footprint, a vast semicircle protecting Ashkelon on the land side. On the sea it was defended by a high natural bluff. A roadway more than 20 feet in width ascended the rampart from the harbor and entered a gate at the top. In 1991 the ruins of a small ceramic tabernacle was found a finely cast bronze statuette of a bull calf silvered, 4 inches long.
Images of calves and bulls were associated with the worship of the Canaanite gods Baal. Ashkelon is mentioned in the Egyptian Execration Texts of the 11th dynasty as "Asqanu." In the Amarna letters, there are seven letters to and from Ashkelon's king Yidya, the Egyptian pharaoh. One letter from the pharaoh to Yidya was discovered in the early 1900s; the Philistines conquered Canaanite Ashkelon about 1150 BC. Their earliest pottery, types of structures and inscriptions are similar to the early Greek urbanised centre at Mycenae in mainland Greece, adding weight to the hypothesis that the Philistines were one of the populations among the "Sea Peoples" that upset cultures throughout the eastern Mediterranean at that time. Ashkelon became one of the five Philistine cities that were warring with the Israelites and the Kingdom of Judah. According to Herodotus, its temple of Venus was the oldest of its kind, imitated in Cyprus, he mentions that this temple was pillaged by marauding Scythians during the time of their sway over the Medes.
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine foresees it as its seat of power. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times and recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times; the part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as "Urusalim" on ancient Egyptian tablets meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE, in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.
In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters; the Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, Christians 14,000 and 9,000 were not classified by religion. According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities.
These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city was attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times; the holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran; as a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba.
The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the god Shalem". Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived; the name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city sat on two hills; the form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" and "Shalem" the two names were un
Damascus is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic. It is colloquially known in Syria as aš-Šām and titled the "City of Jasmine". In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural center of the Levant and the Arab world; the city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 as of 2009. Located in south-western Syria, Damascus is the center of a large metropolitan area of 2.7 million people. Geographically embedded on the eastern foothills of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range 80 kilometres inland from the eastern shore of the Mediterranean on a plateau 680 metres above sea level, Damascus experiences a semi-arid climate because of the rain shadow effect; the Barada River flows through Damascus. First settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad. Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods.
Today, it is all of the government ministries. As of 2018, Damascus has witnessed repeated conflicts and has been considered by Mercer as one of the most unfavorable places to live; the name of Damascus first appeared in the geographical list of Thutmose III as / T-m-ś-q in the 15th century BC. The etymology of the ancient name "T-m-ś-q" is uncertain, it is attested as Imerišú in Akkadian, T-m-ś-q in Egyptian, Dammaśq in Old Aramaic and Dammeśeq in Biblical Hebrew. A number of Akkadian spellings are found in the Amarna letters, from the 14th century BC: Dimasqa, Dimàsqì, Dimàsqa. Aramaic spellings of the name include an intrusive resh influenced by the root dr, meaning "dwelling". Thus, the English and Latin name of the city is "Damascus", imported from originated from "the Qumranic Darmeśeq, Darmsûq in Syriac", meaning "a well-watered land". In Arabic, the city is called Dimašqu š-Šāmi, although this is shortened to either Dimašq or aš-Šām by the citizens of Damascus, of Syria and other Arab neighbors and Turkey.
Aš-Šām is an Arabic term for "Levant" and for "Syria". Baalshamin or Ba'al Šamem, was a Semitic sky-god in Canaan/Phoenicia and ancient Palmyra. Hence, Sham refers to. Damascus was built in a strategic site on a plateau 680 m above sea level and about 80 km inland from the Mediterranean, sheltered by the Anti-Lebanon mountains, supplied with water by the Barada River, at a crossroads between trade routes: the north-south route connecting Egypt with Asia Minor, the east-west cross-desert route connecting Lebanon with the Euphrates river valley; the Anti-Lebanon mountains mark the border between Lebanon. The range has peaks of over 10,000 ft. and blocks precipitation from the Mediterranean sea, so that the region of Damascus is sometimes subject to droughts. However, in ancient times this was mitigated by the Barada River, which originates from mountain streams fed by melting snow. Damascus is surrounded by the Ghouta, irrigated farmland where many vegetables and fruits have been farmed since ancient times.
Maps of Roman Syria indicate that the Barada river emptied into a lake of some size east of Damascus. Today it is called Bahira Atayba, the hesitant lake, because in years of severe drought it does not exist; the modern city has an area of 105 km2, out of which 77 km2 is urban, while Jabal Qasioun occupies the rest. The old city of Damascus, enclosed by the city walls, lies on the south bank of the river Barada, dry. To the south-east and north-east it is surrounded by suburban areas whose history stretches back to the Middle Ages: Midan in the south-west and Imara in the north and north-west; these neighborhoods arose on roads leading out of the city, near the tombs of religious figures. In the 19th century outlying villages developed on the slopes of Jabal Qasioun, overlooking the city the site of the al-Salihiyah neighborhood centered on the important shrine of medieval Andalusian Sheikh and philosopher Ibn Arabi; these new neighborhoods were settled by Kurdish soldiery and Muslim refugees from the European regions of the Ottoman Empire which had fallen under Christian rule.
Thus they were known as al-Muhajirin. They lay 2–3 km north of the old city. From the late 19th century on, a modern administrative and commercial center began to spring up to the west of the old city, around the Barada, centered on the area known as al-Marjeh or the meadow. Al-Marjeh soon became the name of what was the central square of modern Damascus, with the city hall in it; the courts of justice, post office and railway station stood on higher ground to the south. A Europeanized residential quarter soon began to be built on the road leading between al-Marjeh and al-Salihiyah; the commercial and administrative center of the new city shifted northwards towards this area. In the 20th century, newer suburbs developed north of the Barada, to some extent to the south, invading the Ghouta oasis. In 1956–1957 the new neighborhood of Yarmouk bec
Agnes of Courtenay
Agnes of Courtenay was Queen of Jerusalem as the wife of King Amalric I of Jerusalem. She was the daughter of Joscelin II of Courtenay by his wife Beatrice of Saone, the mother of King Baldwin IV and Queen Sibylla of Jerusalem; the Courtenay family ruled the County of the furthest north of the Crusader states. Joscelin I of Courtenay, an ally of Baldwin II of Jerusalem, was awarded the county in 1118. Joscelin II inherited Edessa and Turbessel in 1131 on the death of his father, tried to defend his extensive borders against his hostile Muslim neighbours. Agnes grew up in Edessa, until the city was captured by Zengi in 1144, her father fled to the fortress of Turbessel for safety. Agnes was an eligible heiress in her own right, her first marriage was to Reynald of Marash, killed at the Battle of Inab in 1149, when she was no more than 15. They had had no children; the following year, 1150, Marash was captured by the Turks, after attempting to regain Edessa, her father Count Joscelin was captured and imprisoned in Aleppo.
On hearing of his capture, the Countess of Edessa, unable to secure Turbessel herself, sold the remnant of their domains to the Byzantine Empire and took her children to Saône, the modern Sahyun Qal'at Salah al-Din in the principality of Antioch. Byzantium lost Turbessel that year. There is no record of Beatrice and young Joscelin in Jerusalem before 1157. Agnes seems to have been betrothed even married, to Hugh of Ibelin, but Hugh was captured in battle. In 1157, Count of Jaffa and Ascalon - the heir presumptive of his brother King Baldwin III, married her, after forcibly abducting her, according to the Lignages d'Outremer. In 1159 Agnes' father died in captivity. Agnes bore Amalric two children, a daughter Sibylla and a son Baldwin IV. Agnes and Amalric made their home in the royal court, where Queen Melisende ruled while Baldwin III was on campaign. Melisende died in Nablus. Baldwin III died childless, in 1162, leaving Amalric as heir; these events placed Agnes's marriage in jeopardy. She was an easy target as she held no political value: Edessa was in enemy hands.
Since her brother had comital rank but no lands, it may have been feared that making her queen would feed his ambitions. It is possible, if Hans Eberhard Mayer is correct in claiming that she had been married, not betrothed, to Hugh of Ibelin, that the objections were on the grounds of bigamy; the Old French Continuation of William of Tyre seems to slight her moral character: "car telle n'est que roine doie iestre di si haute cite comme de Jherusalem". It must be said, that William of Tyre and his continuator are hostile to Agnes and do not reflect the true situation; the Continuation in its present form is a 13th-century text. No-one seems to have objected at the time to her making two further advantageous marriages; the leading members of the Haute Cour refused to endorse Amalric as king unless he annulled his marriage to Agnes. To this he agreed, but it was ruled that their children and Sibylla, would remain legitimate and legal heirs to the throne. Additionally, Agnes would retain her marriage title of Countess, along with a portion of the income of the fiefs of Jaffa and Ascalon.
Once the negotiations were complete, their marriage was annulled on grounds of consanguinity. Though her position was secured, Agnes had no place in her children's lives. Baldwin IV was raised by William of Tyre at court, Sibylla was raised by her great-aunt Ioveta of Bethany at the convent of St. Lazarus. In 1167, Amalric made a lucrative political alliance with Byzantium by marrying princess Maria Comnena, great-niece to emperor Manuel I Comnenus. Agnes had no influence at court in this period. Soon after the annulment, in 1163, she was reunited with Hugh of Ibelin, her previous fiancé or husband. However, he died during a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela c. 1169. In 1170 Agnes married Reginald of Sidon; the marriage lasted for fourteen years, until Agnes' death. A confusing passage in William of Tyre led some writers to claim that his father had it annulled on grounds of consanguinity, but this is thought unlikely by modern historians: Reginald's father was dead by this time, the passage in question is referring back to her marriage to Amalric.
William and official charters continue to refer to her as Reginald's wife. In December 1179, they witnessed a charter together, in which her name precedes his as "Agnes, Countess of Sidon"; as to her rumoured'lovers', seized upon by popular historians and novelists alike, the conferring of political patronage does not imply a personal relationship, it is difficult to see Reginald as a mari complaisaint. Amalric I died in 1174, leaving Baldwin IV - a leper and unmarried - as his heir. Miles of Plancy was first regent for the young king, but was soon supplanted by Raymond III of Tripoli, Amalric's first cousin, he had the support of Agnes's husband Reginald of Sidon and of her former brothers-in-law the Ibelins. Agnes re-established herself at the royal court and built a new relationship with her son, from whom she had parted in his infancy. In years, she would accompany him to meetings of the Haute Cour, went on the military campaigns in which he insisted on taking part when his sight had gone and he was unable to wa
Consanguinity is the property of being from the same kinship as another person. In that aspect, consanguinity is the quality of being descended from the same ancestor as another person; the laws of many jurisdictions set out degrees of consanguinity in relation to prohibited sexual relations and marriage parties. Such rules are used to determine heirs of an estate according to statutes that govern intestate succession, which vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In some places and times, cousin marriage is expected. For most of European history, cousin marriage was quite common, but in modern, Western Europe, it is illegal and practiced at a marginal rate. The degree of relative consanguinity can be illustrated with a consanguinity table in which each level of lineal consanguinity appears as a row, individuals with a collaterally consanguineous relationship share the same row; the Knot System is a numerical notation. Issues of consanguinity arise in several aspects of the law. Laws prohibiting incest govern the degree of kinship within which marriage or sexual intercourse is permitted.
These are universally prohibited within the second degree of consanguinity. Some jurisdictions forbid marriage between first cousins. Marriage with aunts and uncles is legal in several countries. Consanguinity is relevant to inheritance with regard to intestate succession. In general, the law favors inheritance by persons related to the deceased; some jurisdictions ban citizens from service on a jury on the basis of consanguinity with persons involved in the case. In many countries, laws prohibiting nepotism ban employment of, or certain kinds of contracts with, the near relations of public officers or employees. Under Roman civil law, which early canon law of the Catholic Church followed, couples were forbidden to marry if they were within four degrees of consanguinity. In the ninth century the church raised the number of prohibited degrees to seven and changed the method by which they were calculated; the nobility became too interrelated to marry as the pool of non-related prospective spouses became smaller.
They had to either look elsewhere for eligible marriage candidates. In 1215 the Fourth Lateran Council made what they believed was a necessary change to canon law reducing the number of prohibited degrees of consanguinity from seven back to four; the method of calculating prohibited degrees was changed also: Instead of the former practice of counting up to the common ancestor down to the proposed spouse, the new law computed consanguinity by counting back to the common ancestor. In the Roman Catholic Church, unknowingly marrying a consanguineous blood relative was grounds for a declaration of nullity, but during the eleventh and twelfth centuries dispensations were granted with increasing frequency due to the thousands of persons encompassed in the prohibition at seven degrees and the hardships this posed for finding potential spouses. After 1215, the general rule was that while fourth cousins could marry without dispensation the need for dispensations was reduced. In fourteenth century England, for example, papal dispensations for annulments due to consanguinity were few.
The connotations of degree of consanguinity varies by context, though most cultures define a degree of consanguinity within which sexual interrelationships are regarded as incestuous or the "prohibited degree of kinship". Among the Christian Habesha highlanders of Ethiopia and Eritrea, it is a tradition to be able to recount one's paternal ancestors at least seven generations away starting from early childhood, because "those with a common patrilineal ancestor less than seven generations away are considered'brother and sister' and may not marry." The rule is less strict on the mother's side, where the limit is about four generations back, but still determined patrilinearly. This rule does not apply to other ethnic groups; the Quran at 4:22-24 states. "Forbidden to you in marriage are: your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father's sisters, your mother's sisters, your brother's daughters, your sister's daughters." Therefore, the list of forbidden marriage partners, as read in the Qur'an, Surah 4:23, does not include first cousins.
Muhammad himself married his first cousin Zaynab bint Jahsh. Financial incentives to discourage consangineous marriages exist in some countries: mandatory premarital screening for inherited blood disorders exist in the UAE since 2004, Qatar in 2009, where couples with positive results will not receive their marriage grant. In the Manusmriti blood relation marriage is prohibited for 7 generations. Ayurveda states that marriage within the Gotra is a consanguineous marriage which can lead to many gestational and genetic problems in the fetus. So it has become a common practice in the Hindu households during pre-marriage discussions to ask the couples' Gotra. Couples of the same Gotra are advised not to marry; the advisers of this system say that this practice helps in reducing the gestational problems and ensures a healthy progeny. Genetically, consanguinity derives from the reduction in variation due to meiosis that occurs because of the smaller number of near ancestors. Since all humans share between 99.6% and 99.9% of their genome, consanguinity only affects a small part of the sequence.
If two siblings have a child, the child only has two rather than four grandparents. In these circumstances the probability that the child inher
The Crusader states were a number of 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor and the Holy Land, during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area. The name refers to other territorial gains made by medieval Christendom against Muslim and pagan adversaries; the Crusader states in the Levant, collectively known as Outremer, were the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli and the County of Edessa. The people of the Crusader states were referred to as "Latins", a common demonym among the followers of the Latin Church as opposed to indigenous followers of Eastern Christianity. Beginning in the 7th century, Muslim rulers began expanding their territories into Christian Roman/Byzantine lands, conquering Egypt and the Levant, taking over all of North Africa, much of Southwest Asia, most of the Iberian Peninsula; the Eastern Romans, or Byzantines recovered lost territory on numerous occasions but lost all but Anatolia and parts of Thrace and the Balkans.
In the West, the Roman Catholic kingdoms of northern Iberia launched campaigns known as the Reconquista to reconquer the peninsula from the Arabized Berbers known as Moors. The conquered Iberian principalities are not customarily called Crusader states, except for the Kingdom of Valencia, despite fitting the criteria. Malcolm Barber, a British scholar of medieval history, indicates that, in the Crusader state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem the Holy Sepulchre was added to in the 7th century and rebuilt in 1022, "after a previous collapse". "In 691–2 Caliph Abd al Malik had built a great dome over the rock here, a place sacred to all three great religions". In 1071, the Byzantine army was defeated by the Muslim Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert, resulting in the loss of most of Asia Minor; the situation was a serious threat to the future of the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire. The Emperor sent a plea to the Pope in Rome to send military aid to restore the lost territories to Christian rule.
The result was a series of western European military campaigns into the eastern Mediterranean, known as the Crusades. For the Byzantines, the crusaders had no allegiance to the Byzantine Emperor and established their own states in the conquered regions, including the heart of the Byzantine Empire; the first four Crusader states were created in the Levant after the First Crusade: The first Crusader state, the County of Edessa, was founded in 1098 and lasted until 1150. The Principality of Antioch, founded in 1098, lasted until 1268; the Kingdom of Jerusalem, founded in 1099, lasted until 1291. There were many vassals of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the four major lordships being: The Principality of Galilee The County of Jaffa and Ascalon The Lordship of Oultrejordain The Lordship of Sidon The County of Tripoli, founded in 1104, with Tripoli itself conquered in 1109, lasted until 1289. After the First Crusade's capture of Jerusalem and victory at Ascalon the majority of the Crusaders considered their pilgrimage complete and returned to Europe.
Godfrey was left with only 300 knights and 2,000 infantry to defend the territory won in the Eastern Mediterranean. Only Tancred of the crusader princes remained with the aim of establishing his own lordship. At this point the Franks held two great Syrian cities. Jerusalem remained economically sterile despite the advantages of being the centre of administration of church and state and benefitting from streams of pilgrims. Consolidation in the first half of the 12th-century established four Crusader states: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Tripoli; these states were the first examples of "Europe overseas". They are known as outremer, from the French outre-mer. Based in the ports of Acre and Tyre. Separate from the Frankish nobles or burgesses, the communes were autonomous political entities linked to their countries of origin; this gave the inhabitants the ability to monopolise foreign trade and all banking and shipping in the Crusader states.
Every opportunity to extend trade privileges was taken. One such example was the case of the Venetian Doge receiving one third of Tyre, its territories and exemption from all taxes after participating in the successful 1124 siege of the city. However, despite all efforts the two ports were unable to replace Alexandria and Constantinople as the primary centres of commerce in the region. Instead, the communes competed with each other to maintain economic advantage. Power derived from the support of the communards' native cities rather than their number, which never reached more than several hundred. Through this, by the middle of the 13th-century, the rulers of the communes were required to recognise the authority of the crusaders and divided Acre into a number of fortified miniature republics; the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia had its origins before the Crusades, but was granted the status of a kingdom by Pope Innocent III, became westernized by the Lusignan dynasty. During the Third Crusade, the Crusaders founded the Kingdom of Cyprus.
Richard I of England conquered Cyprus on his way to Holy Land. He subsequently sold the island to the Knights Templar who were unab