The Democrats is a political party in Brazil, which is considered the main party within the right-wing spectrum. It was founded in 1985 under the name of Liberal Front Party from a dissidence of the defunct PDS, successor to the ARENA and it changed to its current name in 2007. The original name reflected the support of free market policies. Instead, the party affiliated itself to the federations of Christian democratic. The Democrats identification number is 25 and its colors are green, blue, at the time, Brazil was under the effervescence that put an end to the military regime. On January 10,1984, PDS rejected supporting this proposition, on April 25,1984, the Congress, besieged by Army officials, voted the amendment. It did not reach the quorum for approval, due to the absence of 112 deputies from PDS. After the attempts to have a direct election failed, discussions about the presidential succession turned to the National Congress, which would elect the President indirectly in the following year.
The pro-Diretas Já faction of PDS formed the Liberal Front, and decided to support PMDBs candidate Tancredo Neves against PDSs Paulo Maluf, on January 15,1985, the Neves/Sarney presidential ticket got 480 of the 686 votes available in the Congress. Nine days later, on January 24,1985, the Liberal Front officially disbanded from PDS, with the death of Tancredo Neves on April 21,1985, Sarney took office as President. Due to the electoral law that forbade coalitions, Sarney was forced to join PMDB. PFL, was an ally of his government. His daughter, was a member of PFL until 2006, pFLs Senators, had masterminded the candidacy of businessman and television presenter Silvio Santos, a maneuver which had been hampered by the Supreme Electoral Court. From 1994 to 1998, PFL supported Fernando Henrique Cardoso and thus secured the post of vice-president with Marco Maciel, prior to the 2002 election, an operation led by the Federal Police in Maranhão undermined the presidential candidacy of Roseana Sarney, leading to a rupture with the government.
In the legislative elections, on October 6,2002, the party won 84 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 14 out of 54 seats in the Senate. After this election, which saw the rise of Lula of the PT as President, the party reorganized its alliance with Cardosos PSDB in order to form the official opposition in the National Congress. The party does not usually run presidential candidates, but does run gubernatorial candidates in several states, in the 2006 elections, the party lost several state governorships, but won the governorship of the Federal District. However, this governorship was lost due to a scandal in which Governor José Roberto Arruda was caught on tape receiving bribery from private companies
Annatto is an orange-red condiment and food coloring derived from the seeds of the achiote tree. It is often used to impart a yellow or orange color to foods and its scent is described as slightly peppery with a hint of nutmeg and flavor as slightly nutty and peppery. The color of annatto comes from carotenoid pigments, mainly bixin and norbixin. The condiment is typically prepared by grinding the seeds to a powder or paste, similar effects can be obtained by extracting some of the color and flavor principles from the seeds with hot water, oil, or lard, which are added to the food. In these uses, annatto is an alternative to synthetic food coloring compounds. Annatto is of commercial value in the United States because the Food. The annatto tree B. orellana is believed to originate from Brazil and it was probably not initially used as a food additive, but for other purposes such as ritual and decorative body painting and insect repellent, and for medical purposes. It was used for Mexican manuscript painting in the 16th century and it is called by local names such as achiote, roucou, koesoewe or kusuwe, atsuete, or colorau.
Its use has spread in times to other parts of the world. Ground annatto seeds, often mixed with seeds or spices, are used in form of paste or powder for culinary use, especially in Latin American, Chamorro. Many cuisines traditionally use annatto in recipes of Spanish origin that originally call for saffron, for example, in arroz con pollo, in Venezuela, annatto is used in the preparation of hallacas and other traditional dishes. Annatto seeds are a component of some local sauces and condiments, such as recado rojo in Yucatán, Annatto paste is an important ingredient of cochinita pibil, the spicy pork dish popular in Mexico. It is a key ingredient in the drink tascalate from Chiapas, in the Philippines it is used for the sauce of pancit. Annatto is used currently to impart a yellow or orange color to many industrialized and semi-industrialized foods, in the European Union, it is identified by the E number E160b. Annatto has been a traditional colorant for Gloucester cheese since the 16th century, during the summer, the high levels of carotene in the grass would have given the milk an orange tint which was carried through into the cheese.
This orange hue came to be regarded as an indicator of the best cheese, the custom of adding annatto spread to other parts of the UK, for cheeses such as Chesire and Red Leicester, as well as colored cheddar made in Scotland. Many cheddars are produced in white and red varieties, with the latter being more popular despite the only difference between the two being the presence of annatto as a coloring. That practice has extended to many modern processed cheese products, such as American cheese, the yellow to orange color is produced by the chemical compounds bixin and norbixin, which are classified as carotenoids
Slaves, especially those brought from Africa, provided most of the working force of the Brazilian export economy after a brief period of Indian slavery to cut brazilwood. The boom and bust economic cycles were linked to export products and diamonds were discovered and mined in southern Brazil through the end of the colonial era. Brazilian cities were largely port cities and the administrative capital was moved several times in response to the rise. Unlike Spanish America that fragmented in many republics, Brazil remained as an administrative unit with a monarch. Like Spanish America with European Spanish, Brazil had linguistic integrity of Portuguese, both Spanish America and Brazil were Roman Catholic. The Portuguese identified brazilwood as a red dye and an exploitable product. Its maritime exploration proceeded down the coast of West Africa and they sought the sources of gold and African slaves that were high value goods of the African trade. The Portuguese set up fortified trading factories, whereby permanent, fairly small commercial settlements anchored trade in a region, the initial costs of setting up these commercial posts was borne by private investors, who in turn received hereditary titles and commercial advantages.
From the Portuguese crowns point of view, its realm was expanded with relatively little cost to itself, the most decisive of these treaties was the Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494, that created the Tordesillas Meridian, dividing the world between those two kingdoms. All land discovered or to be discovered east of that meridian was to be the property of Portugal, the Tordesillas Meridian divided South America into two parts, leaving a large chunk of land to be exploited by the Spaniards. The Treaty of Tordesillas was arguably the most decisive event in all Brazilian history, the present extent of Brazils coastline is almost exactly that defined by the treaty of Madrid, which was approved in 1750. On April 22,1500, during the reign of King Manuel I, although it is debated whether previous Portuguese explorers had already been in Brazil, this date is widely and politically accepted as the day of the discovery of Brazil by Europeans. Álvares Cabral was leading a fleet of 13 ships and more than 1000 men following Vasco da Gamas way to India.
The place where Álvares Cabral arrived is now known as Porto Seguro, after the voyage of Álvares Cabral, the Portuguese concentrated their efforts on the lucrative possessions in Africa and India and showed little interest in Brazil. Between 1500 and 1530, relatively few Portuguese expeditions came to the new land to chart the coast, in Europe, this wood was used to produce a valuable dye to give color to luxury textiles. Over time, the Portuguese realized that some European countries, especially France, were sending excursions to the land to extract brazilwood. Worried about foreign incursions and hoping to find riches, the Portuguese crown decided to send large missions to take possession of the land. In 1530, an expedition led by Martim Afonso de Sousa arrived in Brazil to patrol the entire coast, ban the French, at first, Brazil was set up as fifteen private, hereditary captaincies
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the worlds oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earths surface and about 29 percent of its surface area. It separates the Old World from the New World, the Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean, in contrast, the term Atlantic originally referred specifically to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast. The Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of years ago. The term Aethiopian Ocean, derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century, many Irish or British people refer to the United States and Canada as across the pond, and vice versa.
The Black Atlantic refers to the role of ocean in shaping black peoples history. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term The Green Atlantic is used, the term Red Atlantic has been used in reference to the Marxian concept of an Atlantic working class, as well as to the Atlantic experience of indigenous Americans. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies, the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by North and South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea, to the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe, the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean, the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border. In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean, the Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific.
Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23. 5% of the ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23. 3%. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3, the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S, the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2000 m along most of its length, the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the other
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees, and other woody plants. It is a material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers which are strong in tension embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, in a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, and the roots, Wood may refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. In 2005, the stock of forests worldwide was about 434 billion cubic meters. As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy, in 1991 approximately 3.5 billion cubic meters of wood were harvested. Dominant uses were for furniture and building construction, a 2011 discovery in the Canadian province of New Brunswick discovered the earliest known plants to have grown wood, approximately 395 to 400 million years ago.
Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in species by dendrochronology to make inferences about when a wooden object was created. People have used wood for millennia for many purposes, primarily as a fuel or as a material for making houses, weapons, packaging, artworks. Constructions using wood date back ten thousand years, buildings like the European Neolithic long house were made primarily of wood. Recent use of wood has changed by the addition of steel. The year-to-year variation in tree-ring widths and isotopic abundances gives clues to the climate at that time. This process is known as growth, it is the result of cell division in the vascular cambium, a lateral meristem. These cells go on to form thickened secondary cell walls, composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, if the distinctiveness between seasons is annual, these growth rings are referred to as annual rings. Where there is little seasonal difference growth rings are likely to be indistinct or absent, if the bark of the tree has been removed in a particular area, the rings will likely be deformed as the plant overgrows the scar.
It is usually lighter in color than that near the portion of the ring. The outer portion formed in the season is known as the latewood or summerwood. However, there are differences, depending on the kind of wood
It has stout, fibrous stalks that are rich in the sugar sucrose, which accumulates in the stalk internodes. The plant is two to six meters tall, all sugar cane species interbreed and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids. Sugarcane belongs to the grass family Poaceae, an important seed plant family that includes maize, wheat and sorghum. Sucrose and purified in specialized factories, is used as raw material in the food industry or is fermented to produce ethanol. Ethanol is produced on a large scale by the Brazilian sugarcane industry, sugarcane is the worlds largest crop by production quantity. In 2012, The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates it was cultivated on about 26×106 hectares, in more than 90 countries, Brazil was the largest producer of sugar cane in the world. The next five major producers, in decreasing amounts of production, were India, Thailand, the world demand for sugar is the primary driver of sugarcane agriculture. Cane accounts for 80% of sugar produced, most of the rest is made from sugar beets, sugarcane predominantly grows in the tropical and subtropical regions.
Other than sugar, products derived from sugarcane include falernum, rum, cachaça, bagasse, in some regions, people use sugarcane reeds to make pens, mats and thatch. The young, unexpanded inflorescence of tebu telor is eaten raw, steamed, or toasted, the Persians, followed by the Greeks, discovered the famous reeds that produce honey without bees in India between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. They adopted and spread sugarcane agriculture, merchants began to trade in sugar from India, which was considered a luxury and an expensive spice. Sugarcane is a tropical, perennial grass that forms lateral shoots at the base to produce multiple stems, the stems grow into cane stalk, which when mature constitutes around 75% of the entire plant. A mature stalk is composed of 11–16% fiber, 12–16% soluble sugars, 2–3% nonsugars. A sugarcane crop is sensitive to the climate, soil type, fertilizers, disease control, the average yield of cane stalk is 60–70 tonnes per hectare per year. However, this figure can vary between 30 and 180 tonnes per hectare depending on knowledge and crop management approach used in sugarcane cultivation, sugarcane is a cash crop, but it is used as livestock fodder.
Sugarcane is indigenous to tropical South and Southeast Asia, different species likely originated in different locations, with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum in New Guinea. It is theorized that sugarcane was first domesticated as a crop in New Guinea around 6000 BC, New Guinean farmers and other early cultivators of sugarcane chewed the plant for its sweet juice. The exact date of the first cane sugar production is unclear, the earliest evidence of sugar production comes from ancient Sanskrit and Pali texts
Dutch colonization of the Americas
Dutch trading posts and plantations in the Americas precede the much wider known colonization activities of the Dutch in Asia. While the first Dutch fort in Asia was built in 1600, actual colonization, with Dutch settling in the new lands, was not as common as with other European nations. Hudson entered the Upper New York Bay by sailboat, heading up the Hudson River, Block Island and Block Island Sound are befittingly named in his honor. Block quickly ascended and became Manhattans first monopolist, after some early trading expeditions, the first Dutch settlement in the Americas was founded in 1615, Fort Nassau, on Castle Island along the Hudson, near present-day Albany. The settlement served mostly as an outpost for trading in fur with the native Lenape tribespeople, both forts were named in honor of the House of Orange-Nassau. By 1621, the United Provinces had charted a new company, a monopoly in the Americas and West Africa. The WIC sought recognition as founders of the New World – which they ultimately did as founders of a new Province in 1623 and that year, another Fort Nassau was built on the Delaware River near Gloucester City, New Jersey.
The colony expanded to outlying areas at Pavonia, Bronx, on the Connecticut River, Fort Huys de Goede Hoop was completed in 1633 at present day Hartford. By 1636, the English from Newtown settled on the side of the Little River. In the Treaty of Hartford, the border of New Netherland was retracted to western Connecticut and by 1653, settlements at Fort Nassau and the short-lived Fort Beversreede were abandoned and consolidated at Fort Casimir. By 1655 Fort Christina, sitting in what is today Wilmington, had already been renamed Fort Altena, not all inhabitants of New Netherlands, Manahattas first European colonizers, were ethnically Dutch, but in reality came from many European countries. In 1664, an English naval expedition ordered by Prince James, Duke of York and of Albany sailed in the harbor at New Amsterdam, being greatly outnumbered, Director-General Peter Stuyvesant surrendered after negotiating favorable articles of capitulation. The Province took a new name, New York, Fort Orange was renamed Fort Albany.
The region between the lower Hudson and the Delaware was deeded to proprietors and called New Jersey, the loss of New Netherland led to the Second Anglo–Dutch War during 1665–1667. This conflict ended with the Treaty of Breda, which stipulated that the Dutch give up their claim to New Netherlands in exchange for Suriname. From 1673 to 1674, the territories were once again captured by the Dutch in the Third Anglo–Dutch War. In 1674, Dutch navy captain Jurriaen Aernoutsz briefly captured two forts in the French colony of Acadia, which he claimed as Dutch territory the new colony of New Holland. Dutch colonization in the Caribbean started in the 1634 on St. Croix and Tobago, followed in 1631 with settlements on Tortuga, when the Dutch lost Sint Maarten to the Spanish, they settled Curaçao and Sint Eustatius
The Federal Senate is the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil. Created by the first Constitution of the Brazilian Empire in 1824, since the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889 the Federal Senate has resembled the United States Senate. Currently, the Senate comprises 81 seats, three Senators from each of the 26 states and three Senators from the Federal District are elected on a majority basis to serve eight-year terms. Elections are staggered so that two-thirds of the house is up for election at one time. The candidate in each State and the Federal District who achieve the greatest plurality of votes are elected, the current president of the Brazilian Senate is Eunício Oliveira, from the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party of Ceará. He was elected in early 2017 for a two-year term, the Federal Senate of Brazil was established as the Senate of the Empire by the Constitution of 1824, first enacted after the Declaration of Independence. Following independence, in 1822, Emperor Pedro I ordered the convocation of a National Assembly to draft the countrys first Constitution, following several disagreements with the elected deputies, the Emperor dissolved the Assembly.
In 1824, Pedro I implemented the first Constitution which established a Legislative branch with the Chamber of Deputies as the house. The first configuration of the Senate was a body to the Emperor. Membership was for life and it was a place of great prestige, members of the Senate were elected, but they had to be at least 40 years old and have an annual income of 800,000 contos-de-réis, which limited candidates to wealthy citizens. Voters faced an income qualification, voting in an election for the Senate was limited to male citizens with an annual income of at least 200,000 contos-de-réis. Those who qualified for this did not vote directly for Senators, instead, to be a Senate elector required an annual income of 400,000 contos-de-réis. Once elected, these electors would vote for senator. The election itself would not result in a winner automatically, the three candidates receiving the most votes would make up what was called a triple list, from which the Emperor would select one individual that would be considered elected.
The Emperor usually chose the candidate with the most votes, the unelected Princes of the Brazilian Imperial House were senators by right and would assume their seats in the Senate upon reaching age 25. The original Senate had 50 members, representing all of the Empires Provinces, following the adoption of the 1824 Constitution the first session of the Senate took place in May 1826. The Emperor had repeatedly delayed calling the first election, which had led to accusations that he would attempt to establish an absolutist government
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a solid or highly viscous substance of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers. They are often mixtures of compounds, principally terpenes. Many plants, particularly woody plants, produce resin in response to injury, the resin acts as a bandage protecting the plant from invading insects and pathogens. Plants secrete resins and rosins for their protective benefits, the resin produced by most plants is composed mainly of terpenes and derivatives. Some resins contain a proportion of resin acids. The individual components of resin can be separated by fractional distillation, rosins on the other hand are less volatile and consist, inter alia, of diterpenes. Amber is fossil resin from coniferous and other tree species, kauri gum and other resins may be found as subfossil deposits. Subfossil copal can be distinguished from genuine fossil amber because it becomes tacky when a drop of a solvent such as acetone or chloroform is placed on it, african copal and the kauri gum of New Zealand are procured in a semi-fossil condition.
Solidified resin from which the volatile terpene components have been removed by distillation is known as rosin, typical rosin is a transparent or translucent mass, with a vitreous fracture and a faintly yellow or brown colour, non-odorous or having only a slight turpentine odor and taste. Rosin is insoluble in water, mostly soluble in alcohol, essential oils and hot fatty oils, and softens and melts under the influence of heat, rosin consists of a complex mixture of different substances including organic acids named the resin acids. These are closely related to the terpenes, and derive from them through partial oxidation, Resin acids can be dissolved in alkalis to form resin soaps, from which the purified resin acids are regenerated by treatment with acids. Examples of resin acids are abietic acid, C20H30O2, plicatic acid contained in cedar, and pimaric acid, C20H30O2, a constituent of galipot resin. Abietic acid can be extracted from rosin by means of hot alcohol, it crystallizes in leaflets, pimaric acid closely resembles abietic acid into which it passes when distilled in a vacuum, it has been supposed to consist of three isomers.
Rosin is obtained from pines and some plants, mostly conifers. Propolis, consisting largely of resins collected from such as poplars and conifers, is used by honey bees to seal gaps in their hives. Shellac and lacquer are examples of insect-derived resins and Utah resin are petroleum bitumens, not a product secreted by plants, although it was ultimately derived from plants. These were highly prized substances, and required as incense in religious rites. The word resin has been applied in the world to nearly any component of a liquid that will set into a hard lacquer or enamel-like finish
North Region, Brazil
The North Region of Brazil is the largest Region of Brazil, corresponding to 45. 27% of the national territory. It is the least inhabited of the country, and contributes with a percentage in the national GDP. It comprises the states of Acre, Amapá, Pará, Rondônia and its demographic density is the lowest in Brazil considering all the regions of the country, with only 3.8 inhabitants per km2. Most of the population is centered in urban areas, Belém International Airport and Manaus International Airport connect the North Region with many Brazilian cities and operate some international flights. The North is home to the Federal University of Amazonas and Federal University of Pará, the Amazon represents over half of the planets remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world. Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species rich than the wet forests in Africa, as the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity.
More than 1/3 of all species in the live in the Amazon Rainforest. The region is home to about 2.5 million insect species, tens of thousands of plants, and some 2000 birds and mammals species. To date, at least 40,000 plant species,3,000 fish,1,294 birds,427 mammals,428 amphibians, scientists have described between 96,660 and 128,843 invertebrate species in Brazil alone. The diversity of plant species is the highest on earth with some estimating that one square kilometre may contain over 75,000 types of trees and 150,000 species of higher plants. One square kilometre of Amazon rainforest can contain about 90,790 tonnes of living plants and this constitutes the largest collection of living plants and animal species in the world. One in five of all the birds in the live in the rainforests of the Amazon. To date, an estimated 438,000 species of plants of economic, the population of northern Brazil is largely made up of Caboclos, descendants of Indians and Europeans - mostly Portuguese and Spanish.
North of Brazil has received and continues to receive large migration of people from South, in the 20th century, the North received great migration from the Northeast, who were working in the rubber plantations of Amazonas and Acre. Vehicles,1,746,501, Telephones,1,805,000, Portuguese language is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the high school curriculum. There are only a few highways in the North region, the most important ones are the Trans-Amazonian highway, running through Amazonas, Pará, Piauí, Maranhão, Rodovia Belém-Brasília, Federal District, Goiás, Maranhão. Most of the transportation on the region is done by boat or airplane, there are two major airports in the region, Belém International Airport, serving Belém, and Eduardo Gomes International Airport, serving Manaus